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  1. Content type: Review

    Characterizing HIV genetic diversity and evolution during antiretroviral therapy (ART) provides insights into the mechanisms that maintain the viral reservoir during ART. This review describes common methods u...

    Authors: Gert van Zyl, Michael J. Bale and Mary F. Kearney

    Citation: Retrovirology 2018 15:14

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  2. Content type: Review

    Cell-associated (CA) HIV RNA has received much attention in recent years as a surrogate measure of the efficiency of HIV latency reversion and because it may provide an estimate of the viral reservoir size. Th...

    Authors: Alexander O. Pasternak and Ben Berkhout

    Citation: Retrovirology 2018 15:13

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  3. Content type: Review

    The multiple roles of both viral and cellular RNAs have become increasingly apparent in recent years, and techniques to model them have become significantly more powerful, enabling faster and more accurate vis...

    Authors: Dhivya Jayaraman and Julia Claire Kenyon

    Citation: Retrovirology 2018 15:11

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  4. Content type: Short report

    The retrovirus murine leukemia virus (MuLV) has an 8.3 kb RNA genome with a simple 5′-gag-pol-env-3′ architecture. Translation of the pol gene is dependent upon readthrough of the gag UAG stop codon; whereas the

    Authors: Nerea Irigoyen, Adam M. Dinan, Ian Brierley and Andrew E. Firth

    Citation: Retrovirology 2018 15:10

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  5. Content type: Research

    The factors determining differential HIV disease outcome among individuals expressing protective HLA alleles such as HLA-B*27:05 and HLA-B*57:01 remain unknown. We here analyse two HIV-infected subjects expre...

    Authors: Jacqui Brener, Astrid Gall, Jacob Hurst, Rebecca Batorsky, Nora Lavandier, Fabian Chen, Anne Edwards, Chrissy Bolton, Reena Dsouza, Todd Allen, Oliver G. Pybus, Paul Kellam, Philippa C. Matthews and Philip J. R. Goulder

    Citation: Retrovirology 2018 15:7

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  6. Content type: Research

    Combination antiretroviral therapy efficiently suppresses HIV replication in infected patients, transforming HIV/AIDS into a chronic disease. Viral resistance does develop however, especially under suboptimal ...

    Authors: Jonas Demeulemeester, Jolien Blokken, Stéphanie De Houwer, Lieve Dirix, Hugo Klaassen, Arnaud Marchand, Patrick Chaltin, Frauke Christ and Zeger Debyser

    Citation: Retrovirology 2018 15:5

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  7. Content type: Research

    The HIV-1 accessory proteins Nef and Vpu alter cell surface levels of multiple host proteins to modify the immune response and increase viral persistence. Nef and Vpu can downregulate cell surface levels of th...

    Authors: Emily N. Pawlak, Brennan S. Dirk, Rajesh Abraham Jacob, Aaron L. Johnson and Jimmy D. Dikeakos

    Citation: Retrovirology 2018 15:6

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  8. Content type: Review

    The development of increasingly safe and effective antiretroviral treatments for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) over the past several decades has led to vastly improved patient survival when treatment is a...

    Authors: Claire Deleage, Chi N. Chan, Kathleen Busman-Sahay and Jacob D. Estes

    Citation: Retrovirology 2018 15:4

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  9. Content type: Research

    Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is a deltaretrovirus infecting bovine B cells and causing enzootic bovine leucosis. The SU or surface subunit, gp51, of its envelope glycoprotein is involved in receptor recognition...

    Authors: Aneta Pluta, Lorraine M. Albritton, Marzena Rola-Łuszczak and Jacek Kuźmak

    Citation: Retrovirology 2018 15:2

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  10. Content type: Research

    Emergence of resistance against integrase inhibitor raltegravir in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) patients is generally associated with selection of one of three signature mutations: Y143C/R, Q148...

    Authors: Axel Fun, Thomas Leitner, Linos Vandekerckhove, Martin Däumer, Alexander Thielen, Bernd Buchholz, Andy I. M. Hoepelman, Elizabeth H. Gisolf, Pauline J. Schipper, Annemarie M. J. Wensing and Monique Nijhuis

    Citation: Retrovirology 2018 15:1

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  11. Content type: Review

    A robust measure of the size of the latent HIV reservoir is essential to quantifying the effect of interventions designed to deplete the pool of reactivatable, replication competent proviruses. In addition to ...

    Authors: Nicholas J. Norton, Axel Fun, Mikaila Bandara, Mark R. Wills, Hoi Ping Mok and Andrew M. L. Lever

    Citation: Retrovirology 2017 14:58

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  12. Content type: Research

    MOV10 protein has ATP-dependent 5′–3′ RNA helicase activity and belongs to the UPF1p superfamily. It can inhibit human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) replication at multiple stages and interact with apo...

    Authors: Cancan Chen, Xiaocao Ma, Qifei Hu, Xinghua Li, Feng Huang, Junsong Zhang, Ting Pan, Jinyu Xia, Chao Liu and Hui Zhang

    Citation: Retrovirology 2017 14:56

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  13. Content type: Research

    Foamy viruses (FV) are ancient complex retroviruses that differ from orthoretroviruses such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and murine leukemia virus (MLV) and comprise a distinct subfamily of retrovirus...

    Authors: Delia M. Pinto-Santini, Carolyn R. Stenbak and Maxine L. Linial

    Citation: Retrovirology 2017 14:55

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  14. Content type: Research

    Stable insertion of the retroviral DNA genome into host chromatin requires the functional association between the intasome (integrase·viral DNA complex) and the nucleosome. The data from the literature suggest...

    Authors: Mohamed S. Benleulmi, Julien Matysiak, Xavier Robert, Csaba Miskey, Eric Mauro, Delphine Lapaillerie, Paul Lesbats, Stéphane Chaignepain, Daniel R. Henriquez, Christina Calmels, Oyindamola Oladosu, Eloïse Thierry, Oscar Leon, Marc Lavigne, Marie-Line Andreola, Olivier Delelis…

    Citation: Retrovirology 2017 14:54

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  15. Content type: Research

    The CRISPR/Cas9 system has been widely used for genome editing in mammalian cells. CXCR4 is a co-receptor for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) entry, and loss of CXCR4 function can protect cells from C...

    Authors: Qiankun Wang, Shuliang Chen, Qiaoqiao Xiao, Zhepeng Liu, Shuai Liu, Panpan Hou, Li Zhou, Wei Hou, Wenzhe Ho, Chunmei Li, Li Wu and Deyin Guo

    Citation: Retrovirology 2017 14:51

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  16. Content type: Research

    HIV-1 Integrase (IN) interacts with the cellular co-factor LEDGF/p75 and tethers the HIV preintegration complex to the host genome enabling integration. Recently a new class of IN inhibitors was described, th...

    Authors: Céline Amadori, Yme Ubeles van der Velden, Damien Bonnard, Igor Orlov, Nikki van Bel, Erwann Le Rouzic, Laia Miralles, Julie Brias, Francis Chevreuil, Daniele Spehner, Sophie Chasset, Benoit Ledoussal, Luzia Mayr, François Moreau, Felipe García, José Gatell…

    Citation: Retrovirology 2017 14:50

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  17. Content type: Research

    The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) structural protein Gag is necessary and sufficient to form viral particles. In addition to encoding the amino acid sequence for Gag, the underlying RNA sequence ...

    Authors: Irati Antzin-Anduetza, Charlotte Mahiet, Luke A. Granger, Charlotte Odendall and Chad M. Swanson

    Citation: Retrovirology 2017 14:49

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  18. Content type: Correction

    The authors wish to apologize for an error within the scale bar of the microarray heatmap in Additional File 5 of the supplementary information. Two values were incorrectly displayed on the scale bar (11 inste...

    Authors: Franziska K. Geis, Melanie Galla, Dirk Hoffmann, Johannes Kuehle, Daniela Zychlinski, Tobias Maetzig, Juliane W. Schott, Adrian Schwarzer, Christine Goffinet, Stephen P. Goff and Axel Schambach

    Citation: Retrovirology 2017 14:48

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    The original article was published in Retrovirology 2017 14:34

  19. Content type: Research

    In patients with HIV/AIDS receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART), HIV-1 persistence in brain tissue is a vital and unanswered question. HIV-1 infects and replicates in resident microglia and trafficking macrop...

    Authors: Eugene L. Asahchop, Oussama Meziane, Manmeet K. Mamik, Wing F. Chan, William G. Branton, Lothar Resch, M. John Gill, Elie Haddad, Jean V. Guimond, Mark A. Wainberg, Glen B. Baker, Eric A. Cohen and Christopher Power

    Citation: Retrovirology 2017 14:47

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  20. Content type: Short report

    Mutations rapidly accumulate in the HIV-1 genome after infection. Some of those mutations are selected by host immune responses and often cause viral fitness losses. This study is to investigate whether strong...

    Authors: Donglai Liu, Chu Wang, Bhavna Hora, Tao Zuo, Nilu Goonetilleke, Michael K. P. Liu, Mark Berrong, Guido Ferrari, Andrew J. McMichael, Tanmoy Bhattacharya, Alan S. Perelson and Feng Gao

    Citation: Retrovirology 2017 14:46

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  21. Content type: Research

    Like all viruses, HIV-1 relies on host systems to replicate. The human purinome consists of approximately two thousand proteins that bind and use purines such as ATP, NADH, and NADPH. By virtue of their purin...

    Authors: Manjusha M. Kulkarni, Annette N. Ratcliff, Menakshi Bhat, Yazan Alwarawrah, Philip Hughes, Jesus Arcos, David Loiselle, Jordi B. Torrelles, Nicholas T. Funderburg, Timothy A. Haystead and Jesse J. Kwiek

    Citation: Retrovirology 2017 14:45

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  22. Content type: Research

    The CD4-induced (CD4i) epitopes in gp120 includes the co-receptor binding site, which are formed and exposed after interaction with CD4. Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) to the CD4i epitopes exhibit limited neutra...

    Authors: Kazuki Tanaka, Takeo Kuwata, Muntasir Alam, Gilad Kaplan, Shokichi Takahama, Kristel Paola Ramirez Valdez, Anna Roitburd-Berman, Jonathan M. Gershoni and Shuzo Matsushita

    Citation: Retrovirology 2017 14:44

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  23. Content type: Research

    The HIV-1 RNA genome has a biased nucleotide composition with a surplus of As. Several hypotheses have been put forward to explain this striking phenomenon, but the A-count of the HIV-1 genome has thus far not...

    Authors: Bep Klaver, Yme van der Velden, Formijn van Hemert, Antoinette C. van der Kuyl and Ben Berkhout

    Citation: Retrovirology 2017 14:43

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  24. Content type: Research

    Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) can suppress T cell responses in several different diseases. Previously these suppressive cells were observed to expand in HIV patients and in a mouse retrovirus model,...

    Authors: Malgorzata Drabczyk-Pluta, Tanja Werner, Daniel Hoffmann, Qibin Leng, Lieping Chen, Ulf Dittmer and Gennadiy Zelinskyy

    Citation: Retrovirology 2017 14:42

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  25. Content type: Research

    Rev-like proteins are post-transcriptional regulatory proteins found in several retrovirus genera, including lentiviruses, betaretroviruses, and deltaretroviruses. These essential proteins mediate the nuclear ...

    Authors: Chijioke N. Umunnakwe, Karin S. Dorman, Drena Dobbs and Susan Carpenter

    Citation: Retrovirology 2017 14:40

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  26. Content type: Research

    Human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) comprise approximately 8% of the human genome and while the majority are transcriptionally silent, the most recently integrated HERV, HERV-K (HML-2), remains active. Durin...

    Authors: Miguel de Mulder, Devi SenGupta, Steven G. Deeks, Jeffrey N. Martin, Christopher D. Pilcher, Frederick M. Hecht, Jonah B. Sacha, Douglas F. Nixon and Henri-Alexandre Michaud

    Citation: Retrovirology 2017 14:41

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  27. Content type: Research

    Insertion of retroviral genome DNA occurs in the chromatin of the host cell. This step is modulated by chromatin structure as nucleosomes compaction was shown to prevent HIV-1 integration and chromatin remodel...

    Authors: Julien Matysiak, Paul Lesbats, Eric Mauro, Delphine Lapaillerie, Jean-William Dupuy, Angelica P. Lopez, Mohamed Salah Benleulmi, Christina Calmels, Marie-Line Andreola, Marc Ruff, Manuel Llano, Olivier Delelis, Marc Lavigne and Vincent Parissi

    Citation: Retrovirology 2017 14:39

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  28. Content type: Review

    Integrase strand transfer inhibitors (INSTIs) are the newest class of antiretroviral drugs to be approved for treatment and act by inhibiting the essential HIV protein integrase from inserting the viral DNA ge...

    Authors: Kaitlin Anstett, Bluma Brenner, Thibault Mesplede and Mark A. Wainberg

    Citation: Retrovirology 2017 14:36

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  29. Content type: Short report

    Simian immunodeficiency virus of chimpanzees (SIVcpz), the progenitor of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), is associated with increased mortality and AIDS-like immunopathology in wild-living chimpan...

    Authors: Hannah J. Barbian, Raven Jackson-Jewett, Corrine S. Brown, Frederic Bibollet-Ruche, Gerald H. Learn, Timothy Decker, Edward F. Kreider, Yingying Li, Thomas N. Denny, Paul M. Sharp, George M. Shaw, Jeffrey Lifson, Edward P. Acosta, Michael S. Saag, Katharine J. Bar and Beatrice H. Hahn

    Citation: Retrovirology 2017 14:35

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  30. Content type: Research

    Retroviral vectors are derived from wild-type retroviruses, can be used to study retrovirus-host interactions and are effective tools in gene and cell therapy. However, numerous cell types are resistant or les...

    Authors: Franziska K. Geis, Melanie Galla, Dirk Hoffmann, Johannes Kuehle, Daniela Zychlinski, Tobias Maetzig, Juliane W. Schott, Adrian Schwarzer, Christine Goffinet, Stephen P. Goff and Axel Schambach

    Citation: Retrovirology 2017 14:34

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    The Correction to this article has been published in Retrovirology 2017 14:48

  31. Content type: Research

    Parent-offspring (PO) regression is a central tool to determine the heritability of phenotypic traits; i.e., the relative extent to which those traits are controlled by genetic factors. The applicability of PO...

    Authors: Nadine Bachmann, Teja Turk, Claus Kadelka, Alex Marzel, Mohaned Shilaih, Jürg Böni, Vincent Aubert, Thomas Klimkait, Gabriel E. Leventhal, Huldrych F. Günthard and Roger Kouyos

    Citation: Retrovirology 2017 14:33

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  32. Content type: Review

    Apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme catalytic polypeptide-like 3 (APOBEC3) proteins are mammalian-specific cellular deaminases and have a robust ability to restrain lentivirus replication. To antagonize APOBE...

    Authors: Yusuke Nakano, Hirofumi Aso, Andrew Soper, Eri Yamada, Miyu Moriwaki, Guillermo Juarez-Fernandez, Yoshio Koyanagi and Kei Sato

    Citation: Retrovirology 2017 14:31

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  33. Content type: Editorial

    Authors: Monsef Benkirane, Ben Berkhout, Persephone Borrow, Ariberto Fassati, Masahiro Fujii, J. Victor Garcia, Paul Gorry, Andrew Lever, Johnson Mak, Monique Nijhuis, Klaus Strebel, Francois Venter and Robin Weiss

    Citation: Retrovirology 2017 14:30

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  34. Content type: Research

    Ongoing intra-host HIV-1 evolution has been shown in individuals that naturally suppress the viremia to low levels (HIV controllers) by the analysis of the RNA in plasma compartment. Detection of evolution at ...

    Authors: Suwellen S. D. de Azevedo, Diogo Gama Caetano, Fernanda H. Côrtes, Sylvia L. M. Teixeira, Karina dos Santos Silva, Brenda Hoagland, Beatriz Grinsztejn, Valdilea G. Veloso, Mariza G. Morgado and Gonzalo Bello

    Citation: Retrovirology 2017 14:29

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  35. Content type: Short report

    Retroviral envelope (Env) proteins are known to exhibit immunosuppressive properties, which become apparent not only in retroviral infections, but also in gene-based immunizations using retroviral immunogens, ...

    Authors: Nadine Bongard, Dennis Lapuente, Sonja Windmann, Ulf Dittmer, Matthias Tenbusch and Wibke Bayer

    Citation: Retrovirology 2017 14:28

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  36. Content type: Research

    Human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs), the remnants of ancient retroviral infections, constitute approximately 8% of human genomic DNA. Since HERV-K Gag expression is induced by HIV-1 Tat in T cells, induced H...

    Authors: Kazuaki Monde, Hiromi Terasawa, Yusuke Nakano, Ferri Soheilian, Kunio Nagashima, Yosuke Maeda and Akira Ono

    Citation: Retrovirology 2017 14:27

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  37. Content type: Research

    Although human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) infection is a prerequisite for the development of HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP), specific provirus mutations in HAM/TS...

    Authors: Satoshi Nozuma, Eiji Matsuura, Daisuke Kodama, Yuichi Tashiro, Toshio Matsuzaki, Ryuji Kubota, Shuji Izumo and Hiroshi Takashima

    Citation: Retrovirology 2017 14:26

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  38. Content type: Short report

    APOBEC3/Rfv3 restricts acute Friend retrovirus (FV) infection and promotes virus-specific neutralizing antibody (NAb) responses. Classical Rfv3 studies utilized FV stocks containing lactate-dehydrogenase eleva...

    Authors: Bradley S. Barrett, Michael S. Harper, Sean T. Jones, Kejun Guo, Karl J. Heilman, Ross M. Kedl, Kim J. Hasenkrug and Mario L. Santiago

    Citation: Retrovirology 2017 14:25

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  39. Content type: Short report

    Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is the causative agent of enzootic bovine leukosis, a malignant B cell lymphoma that has spread worldwide and causes serious problems for the cattle industry. The BLV proviral load,...

    Authors: Shin-nosuke Takeshima, Shinji Sasaki, Polat Meripet, Yoshikazu Sugimoto and Yoko Aida

    Citation: Retrovirology 2017 14:24

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