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  1. During HIV-1 maturation, Gag and Gag-Pol polyproteins are proteolytically cleaved and the capsid protein polymerizes to form the honeycomb capsid lattice. HIV-1 integrase (IN) binds the viral genomic RNA (gRNA...

    Authors: Shuohui Liu, Pratibha C. Koneru, Wen Li, Chathuri Pathirage, Alan N. Engelman, Mamuka Kvaratskhelia and Karin Musier-Forsyth
    Citation: Retrovirology 2021 18:37
  2. Retroviruses utilize multiple unique RNA elements to control RNA processing and translation. However, it is unclear what functional RNA elements are present in endogenous retroviruses (ERVs). Gene co-option fr...

    Authors: Koichi Kitao, So Nakagawa and Takayuki Miyazawa
    Citation: Retrovirology 2021 18:36
  3. The critical role of antibody Fc-mediated effector functions in immune defense has been widely reported in various viral infections. These effector functions confer cellular responses through engagement with i...

    Authors: Hao D. Cheng, Karen G. Dowell, Chris Bailey-Kellogg, Brittany A. Goods, J. Christopher Love, Guido Ferrari, Galit Alter, Johannes Gach, Donald N. Forthal, George K. Lewis, Kelli Greene, Hongmei Gao, David C. Montefiori and Margaret E. Ackerman
    Citation: Retrovirology 2021 18:35
  4. Zhang et al. (Proc Natl Acad Sci 118:e2105968118, 2021) recently reported that SARS-CoV-2 RNA can be retrotranscribed and integrated into the DNA of human cells by the L1 retrotransposon machinery. This phenom...

    Authors: Nicole Grandi, Enzo Tramontano and Ben Berkhout
    Citation: Retrovirology 2021 18:34
  5. Autophagy plays an important role as a cellular defense mechanism against intracellular pathogens, like viruses. Specifically, autophagy orchestrates the recruitment of specialized cargo, including viral compo...

    Authors: Sergio Castro-Gonzalez, Yuexuan Chen, Jared Benjamin, Yuhang Shi and Ruth Serra-Moreno
    Citation: Retrovirology 2021 18:33
  6. We previously developed drug-like peptide triazoles (PTs) that target HIV-1 Envelope (Env) gp120, potently inhibit viral entry, and irreversibly inactivate virions. Here, we investigated potential mechanisms o...

    Authors: Shiyu Zhang, Andrew P. Holmes, Alexej Dick, Adel A. Rashad, Lucía Enríquez Rodríguez, Gabriela A. Canziani, Michael J. Root and Irwin M. Chaiken
    Citation: Retrovirology 2021 18:31
  7. The genome of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is encapsulated in a core consisting of viral capsid proteins (CA). After viral entry, the HIV-1 core dissociates and releases the viral genome into th...

    Authors: Naoki Kishimoto, Ryosuke Okano, Ayano Akita, Satoshi Miura, Ayaka Irie, Nobutoki Takamune and Shogo Misumi
    Citation: Retrovirology 2021 18:30
  8. The viral capsid plays a key role in HIV-1 reverse transcription. Recent studies have demonstrated that the small molecule IP6 dramatically enhances reverse transcription in vitro by stabilizing the viral caps...

    Authors: Christopher Aiken and Itay Rousso
    Citation: Retrovirology 2021 18:29
  9. We observe the emergence of several promoter-variant viral strains in India during recent years. The variant viral promoters contain additional copies of transcription factor binding sites present in the viral...

    Authors: Haider Ali, Disha Bhange, Kavita Mehta, Yuvrajsinh Gohil, Harshit Kumar Prajapati, Siddappa N. Byrareddy, Shilpa Buch and Udaykumar Ranga
    Citation: Retrovirology 2021 18:27
  10. Extracellular Vesicles (EV) recently have been implicated in the pathogenesis of HIV-1 syndromes, including neuroinflammation and HIV-1 associated neurological disorder (HAND). Cocaine, an illicit stimulant dr...

    Authors: Manojkumar Narayanan, Rutuja Kulkarni, Shuxian Jiang, Fatah Kashanchi and Anil Prasad
    Citation: Retrovirology 2021 18:26
  11. The HIV co-receptors, CCR5 and CXCR4, are necessary for HIV entry into target cells, interacting with the HIV envelope protein, gp120, to initiate several signaling cascades thought to be important to the entr...

    Authors: E. A. Nickoloff-Bybel, L. Festa, O. Meucci and P. J. Gaskill
    Citation: Retrovirology 2021 18:24
  12. Recent data suggest the importance of non-neutralizing antibodies (nnAbs) in the development of vaccines against HIV-1 because two types of nnAbs that recognize the coreceptor binding site (CoRBS) and the C1C2...

    Authors: Hasan Md Zahid, Takeo Kuwata, Shokichi Takahama, Yu Kaku, Shashwata Biswas, Kaho Matsumoto, Hirokazu Tamamura and Shuzo Matsushita
    Citation: Retrovirology 2021 18:23
  13. CRF55_01B is a newly identified HIV-1 circulating recombinant form originated from MSM in China. However, its impact on the disease progression and transmission risk has not been investigated. This study aimed...

    Authors: Lan Wei, Hao Li, Xing Lv, Chenli Zheng, Guilian Li, Zhengrong Yang, Lin Chen, Xiaoxu Han, Huachun Zou, Yanxiao Gao, Jinquan Cheng, Hui Wang and Jin Zhao
    Citation: Retrovirology 2021 18:22
  14. HIV-1 persists in infected individuals despite years of antiretroviral therapy (ART), due to the formation of a stable and long-lived latent viral reservoir. Early ART can reduce the latent reservoir and is as...

    Authors: Sherazaan D. Ismail, Joshua Pankrac, Emmanuel Ndashimye, Jessica L. Prodger, Melissa-Rose Abrahams, Jamie F. S. Mann, Andrew D. Redd and Eric J. Arts
    Citation: Retrovirology 2021 18:21
  15. Retroviruses exist as exogenous infectious agents and as endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) integrated into host chromosomes. Such endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) are grouped into three classes roughly correspondin...

    Authors: Venkat R. K. Yedavalli, Akash Patil, Janay Parrish and Christine A. Kozak
    Citation: Retrovirology 2021 18:20
  16. HIV remains one of the most important health issues worldwide, with almost 40 million people living with HIV. Although patients develop antibodies against the virus, its high mutation rate allows evasion of im...

    Authors: Catherine M. Moore, Melanie Grandits, Clemens Grünwald-Gruber, Friedrich Altmann, Maria Kotouckova, Audrey Y.-H. Teh and Julian K.-C. Ma
    Citation: Retrovirology 2021 18:17
  17. The characterisation of the HIV-1 reservoir, which consists of replication-competent integrated proviruses that persist on antiretroviral therapy (ART), is made difficult by the rarity of intact proviruses rel...

    Authors: Imogen A. Wright, Michael J. Bale, Wei Shao, Wei-Shau Hu, John M. Coffin, Gert U. Van Zyl and Mary F. Kearney
    Citation: Retrovirology 2021 18:16
  18. Human Syncytin-1 is a placentally-expressed cell surface glycoprotein of retroviral origin. After interaction with ASCT2, its cellular receptor, Syncytin-1 triggers cell–cell fusion and formation of a multinuc...

    Authors: Kryštof Štafl, Martin Trávníček, Dana Kučerová, Ľubomíra Pecnová, Veronika Krchlíková, Eliška Gáliková, Volodymyr Stepanets, Jiří Hejnar and Kateřina Trejbalová
    Citation: Retrovirology 2021 18:15
  19. Humanized mice have become an important workhorse model for HIV research. Advances that enabled development of a human immune system in immune deficient mouse strains have aided new basic research in HIV patho...

    Authors: Janice J. Endsley, Matthew B. Huante, Kubra F. Naqvi, Benjamin B. Gelman and Mark A. Endsley
    Citation: Retrovirology 2021 18:14
  20. Humanized mice model human disease and as such are used commonly for research studies of infectious, degenerative and cancer disorders. Recent models also reflect hematopoiesis, natural immunity, neurobiology,...

    Authors: Prasanta K. Dash, Santhi Gorantla, Larisa Poluektova, Mahmudul Hasan, Emiko Waight, Chen Zhang, Milica Markovic, Benson Edagwa, Jatin Machhi, Katherine E. Olson, Xinglong Wang, R. Lee Mosley, Bhavesh Kevadiya and Howard E. Gendelman
    Citation: Retrovirology 2021 18:13
  21. The potential use of the broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (bnAbs) towards prophylaxis and treatment to HIV-1 is currently being explored. While a number of promising bnAbs have been discovered and a ...

    Authors: Ranajoy Mullick, Jyoti Sutar, Nitin Hingankar, Suprit Deshpande, Madhuri Thakar, Seema Sahay, Rajesh P. Ringe, Sampurna Mukhopadhyay, Ajit Patil, Shubhangi Bichare, Kailapuri G. Murugavel, Aylur K. Srikrishnan, Rajat Goyal, Devin Sok and Jayanta Bhattacharya
    Citation: Retrovirology 2021 18:12
  22. The HIV-1 epidemic in sub-Saharan Africa is heterogeneous with diverse unevenly distributed subtypes and regional differences in prevalence. Subtype-specific differences in disease progression rate and transmi...

    Authors: Omotayo Farinre, Kamini Gounder, Tarylee Reddy, Marcel Tongo, Jonathan Hare, Beth Chaplin, Jill Gilmour, Phyllis Kanki, Jaclyn K. Mann and Thumbi Ndung’u
    Citation: Retrovirology 2021 18:11
  23. Maturation inhibitors (MIs) potently block HIV-1 maturation by inhibiting the cleavage of the capsid protein and spacer peptide 1 (CA-SP1). Bevirimat (BVM), a highly efficacious first-in-class MI against HIV-1...

    Authors: Dibya Ghimire, Yuvraj KC, Uddhav Timilsina, Kriti Goel, T. J. Nitz, Carl T. Wild and Ritu Gaur
    Citation: Retrovirology 2021 18:9
  24. To determine if individuals, from HIV-1 serodiscordant couple cohorts from Rwanda and Zambia, who become HIV-positive have a distinct inflammatory biomarker profile compared to individuals who remain HIV-negat...

    Authors: Samantha McInally, Kristin Wall, Tianwei Yu, Rabindra Tirouvanziam, William Kilembe, Jill Gilmour, Susan A. Allen and Eric Hunter
    Citation: Retrovirology 2021 18:8
  25. The Human T-cell Lymphotropic Virus Type-1 (HTLV-1) is a blood-borne pathogen and etiological agent of Adult T-cell Leukemia/Lymphoma (ATLL) and HTLV-1 Associated Myelopathy/Tropical Spastic Paraparesis (HAM/T...

    Authors: Daniel O. Pinto, Sarah Al Sharif, Gifty Mensah, Maria Cowen, Pooja Khatkar, James Erickson, Heather Branscome, Thomas Lattanze, Catherine DeMarino, Farhang Alem, Ruben Magni, Weidong Zhou, Sandrine Alais, Hélène Dutartre, Nazira El-Hage, Renaud Mahieux…
    Citation: Retrovirology 2021 18:6
  26. An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via the original article.

    Authors: Lloyd Einsiedel, Fabian Chiong, Hubertus Jersmann and Graham P. Taylor
    Citation: Retrovirology 2021 18:5

    The original article was published in Retrovirology 2021 18:1

  27. So far, the prevalence of human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV) type 1 and 2 in some highly populated countries such as China is still unknown. In this study, a multi-center nationwide serological survey was desig...

    Authors: Le Chang, Shanhai Ou, Zhengang Shan, Faming Zhu, Huimin Ji, Xia Rong, Fei Guo, Xinyi Jiang, Huizhen Sun, Ying Yan and Lunan Wang
    Citation: Retrovirology 2021 18:2
  28. The lung is one of several organs that can be affected by HTLV-1 mediated inflammation. Pulmonary inflammation associated with HTLV-1 infection involves the interstitium, airways and alveoli, resulting in seve...

    Authors: Lloyd Einsiedel, Fabian Chiong, Hubertus Jersmann and Graham P. Taylor
    Citation: Retrovirology 2021 18:1

    The Correction to this article has been published in Retrovirology 2021 18:5

  29. A reservoir of replication-competent but latent virus is the main obstacle to a cure for HIV-1 infection. Much of this reservoir resides in memory CD4 T cells. We hypothesized that these cells can be reactivat...

    Authors: Thomas Vollbrecht, Aaron O. Angerstein, Bryson Menke, Nikesh M. Kumar, Michelli Faria de Oliveira, Douglas D. Richman and John C. Guatelli
    Citation: Retrovirology 2020 17:36
  30. HIV associated neurocognitive disorders cause significant morbidity and mortality despite the advent of highly active antiretroviral therapy. A deeper understanding of fundamental mechanisms underlying HIV inf...

    Authors: Mohammad A. Rai, Jason Hammonds, Mario Pujato, Christopher Mayhew, Krishna Roskin and Paul Spearman
    Citation: Retrovirology 2020 17:35
  31. Koalas are infected with the koala retrovirus (KoRV) that exists as exogenous or endogenous viruses. KoRV is genetically diverse with co-infection with up to ten envelope subtypes (A-J) possible; KoRV-A is the...

    Authors: HaoQiang Zheng, Yi Pan, Shaohua Tang, Geoffrey W. Pye, Cynthia K. Stadler, Larry Vogelnest, Kimberly Vinette Herrin, Bruce A. Rideout and William M. Switzer
    Citation: Retrovirology 2020 17:34
  32. The development of pretreatment drug resistance (PDR) is becoming an obstacle to the success of antiretroviral therapy (ART). Besides, data from developing settings including Ethiopia is still limited. Therefo...

    Authors: Mulugeta Kiros, Dawit Hailu Alemayehu, Eleni Geberekidan, Adane Mihret, Melanie Maier, Woldaregay Erku Abegaz and Andargachew Mulu
    Citation: Retrovirology 2020 17:33
  33. As HIV has fueled a global resurgence of tuberculosis over the last several decades, there is a growing awareness that HIV-mediated impairments in both innate and adaptive immunity contribute to the heightened...

    Authors: Sara C. Auld and Bashar S. Staitieh
    Citation: Retrovirology 2020 17:32
  34. A protein exhibiting more than one biochemical function is termed a moonlighting protein. Glycolytic enzymes are typical moonlighting proteins, and these enzymes control the infection of various viruses. Previ...

    Authors: Naoki Kishimoto, Kengo Yamamoto, Nozomi Iga, Chie Kirihara, Towa Abe, Nobutoki Takamune and Shogo Misumi
    Citation: Retrovirology 2020 17:31
  35. Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) infects primarily CD4+ T-lymphocytes and evoques severe diseases, predominantly Adult T-Cell Leukemia/ Lymphoma (ATL/L) and HTLV-1-associated Myelopathy/ Tropical Spast...

    Authors: Sebastian Millen, Lina Meretuk, Tim Göttlicher, Sarah Schmitt, Bernhard Fleckenstein and Andrea K. Thoma-Kress
    Citation: Retrovirology 2020 17:30
  36. Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is the etiological agent of HTLV associated myelopathy/ Tropical Spastic Paraparesis (HAM/TSP) and Adult T cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL), in around 2–5% of the i...

    Authors: Paula Benencio, Sindy A. Fraile Gonzalez, Nicolás Ducasa, Kimberly Page, Carolina A. Berini and Mirna M. Biglione
    Citation: Retrovirology 2020 17:29
  37. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) can mitigate the morbidity and mortality caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Successful development of ART can be accelerated by accurate structural and biochemical d...

    Authors: Grant Eilers, Kushol Gupta, Audrey Allen, Jeffrey Zhou, Young Hwang, Michael B. Cory, Frederic D. Bushman and Gregory Van Duyne
    Citation: Retrovirology 2020 17:28
  38. Adult T-cell leukemia lymphoma (ATLL) is a chemotherapy-resistant malignancy with a median survival of less than one year that will afflict between one hundred thousand and one million individuals worldwide wh...

    Authors: Daniel A. Rauch, Sydney L. Olson, John C. Harding, Hemalatha Sundaramoorthi, Youngsoo Kim, Tianyuan Zhou, A. Robert MacLeod, Grant Challen and Lee Ratner
    Citation: Retrovirology 2020 17:27
  39. The reliable diagnosis of human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) infection is important, particularly as it can be vertically transmitted by breast feeding mothers to their infants. However, current diagn...

    Authors: Kazu Okuma, Madoka Kuramitsu, Toshihiro Niwa, Tomokuni Taniguchi, Yumiko Masaki, Gohzoh Ueda, Chieko Matsumoto, Rieko Sobata, Yasuko Sagara, Hitomi Nakamura, Masahiro Satake, Kiyonori Miura, Naoki Fuchi, Hideaki Masuzaki, Akihiko Okayama, Kazumi Umeki…
    Citation: Retrovirology 2020 17:26
  40. Alternative splicing is a key step in Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1 (HIV-1) replication that is tightly regulated both temporally and spatially. More than 50 different transcripts can be generated from a...

    Authors: Nam Nguyen Quang, Sophie Goudey, Emmanuel Ségéral, Ammara Mohammad, Sophie Lemoine, Corinne Blugeon, Margaux Versapuech, Jean-Christophe Paillart, Clarisse Berlioz-Torrent, Stéphane Emiliani and Sarah Gallois-Montbrun
    Citation: Retrovirology 2020 17:25
  41. HIV-1 infects a wide range of CD4+ T cells with different phenotypic properties and differing expression levels of entry coreceptors. We sought to determine the viral tropism of subtype C (C-HIV) Envelope (Env) c...

    Authors: Matthew J. Gartner, Paul R. Gorry, Carolin Tumpach, Jingling Zhou, Ashanti Dantanarayana, J. Judy Chang, Thomas A. Angelovich, Paula Ellenberg, Annemarie E. Laumaea, Molati Nonyane, Penny L. Moore, Sharon R. Lewin, Melissa J. Churchill, Jacqueline K. Flynn and Michael Roche
    Citation: Retrovirology 2020 17:24

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