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  1. Content type: Research

    The native pre-fusion structure of gp120/gp41 complex of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 was recently revealed. In the model, the helices of gp41 (α6, α7, α8, and α9) form a four-helix collar underneath trime...

    Authors: Dehua Liu, Hongyun Wang, Mizuki Yamamoto, Jiping Song, Rui Zhang, Qingling Du, Yasushi Kawaguchi, Jun-ichiro Inoue and Zene Matsuda

    Citation: Retrovirology 2018 15:27

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  2. Content type: Research

    The InterFeron Induced TransMembrane (IFITM) proteins are interferon stimulated genes that restrict many viruses, including HIV-1. SAMHD1 is another restriction factor blocking replication of HIV-1 and other v...

    Authors: Ferdinand Roesch, Molly OhAinle and Michael Emerman

    Citation: Retrovirology 2018 15:26

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  3. Content type: Research

    NSC260594, a quinolinium derivative from the NCI diversity set II compound library, was previously identified in a target-based assay as an inhibitor of the interaction between the HIV-1 (ψ) stem-loop 3 (SL3) ...

    Authors: Carin K. Ingemarsdotter, Jingwei Zeng, Ziqi Long, Andrew M.L. Lever and Julia C. Kenyon

    Citation: Retrovirology 2018 15:25

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  4. Content type: Research

    The initial envelope (Env)-specific antibody response in acutely HIV-1-infected individuals and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected rhesus monkeys (RMs) is dominated by non-neutralizing antibodies tar...

    Authors: Quang N. Nguyen, David R. Martinez, Jonathon E. Himes, R. Whitney Edwards, Qifeng Han, Amit Kumar, Riley Mangan, Nathan I. Nicely, Guanhua Xie, Nathan Vandergrift, Xiaoying Shen, Justin Pollara and Sallie R. Permar

    Citation: Retrovirology 2018 15:24

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  5. Content type: Review

    Antiretroviral therapy cannot cure HIV-1 infection due to the persistence of a small number of latently infected cells harboring replication-competent proviruses. Measuring persistent HIV-1 is challenging, as ...

    Authors: Zheng Wang, Francesco R. Simonetti, Robert F. Siliciano and Gregory M. Laird

    Citation: Retrovirology 2018 15:21

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  6. Content type: Review

    Retroviruses can cause severe diseases such as cancer and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. A unique feature in the life cycle of retroviruses is that their RNA genome is reverse transcribed into double-stra...

    Authors: Xu Zhang, Xiancai Ma, Shuliang Jing, Hui Zhang and Yijun Zhang

    Citation: Retrovirology 2018 15:20

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  7. Content type: Research

    Simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIVs) of chimpanzees and gorillas from Central Africa crossed the species barrier at least four times giving rise to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) groups M, N, O ...

    Authors: Mirela D’arc, Carolina Furtado, Juliana D. Siqueira, Héctor N. Seuánez, Ahidjo Ayouba, Martine Peeters and Marcelo A. Soares

    Citation: Retrovirology 2018 15:19

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  8. Content type: Research

    Damage to the central nervous system during HIV infection can lead to variable neurobehavioral dysfunction termed HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). There is no clear consensus regarding the neuro...

    Authors: Stephanie J. Bissel, Kate Gurnsey, Hank P. Jedema, Nicholas F. Smith, Guoji Wang, Charles W. Bradberry and Clayton A. Wiley

    Citation: Retrovirology 2018 15:17

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  9. Content type: Review

    Characterizing HIV genetic diversity and evolution during antiretroviral therapy (ART) provides insights into the mechanisms that maintain the viral reservoir during ART. This review describes common methods u...

    Authors: Gert van Zyl, Michael J. Bale and Mary F. Kearney

    Citation: Retrovirology 2018 15:14

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  10. Content type: Review

    Although antiretroviral therapy is able to suppress HIV replication in infected patients, the virus persists and rebounds when treatment is stopped. In order to find a cure that can eradicate the latent reserv...

    Authors: Sofie Rutsaert, Kobus Bosman, Wim Trypsteen, Monique Nijhuis and Linos Vandekerckhove

    Citation: Retrovirology 2018 15:16

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  11. Content type: Review

    Cell-associated (CA) HIV RNA has received much attention in recent years as a surrogate measure of the efficiency of HIV latency reversion and because it may provide an estimate of the viral reservoir size. Th...

    Authors: Alexander O. Pasternak and Ben Berkhout

    Citation: Retrovirology 2018 15:13

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  12. Content type: Review

    The multiple roles of both viral and cellular RNAs have become increasingly apparent in recent years, and techniques to model them have become significantly more powerful, enabling faster and more accurate vis...

    Authors: Dhivya Jayaraman and Julia Claire Kenyon

    Citation: Retrovirology 2018 15:11

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  13. Content type: Short report

    The retrovirus murine leukemia virus (MuLV) has an 8.3 kb RNA genome with a simple 5′-gag-pol-env-3′ architecture. Translation of the pol gene is dependent upon readthrough of the gag UAG stop codon; whereas the

    Authors: Nerea Irigoyen, Adam M. Dinan, Ian Brierley and Andrew E. Firth

    Citation: Retrovirology 2018 15:10

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  14. Content type: Research

    The factors determining differential HIV disease outcome among individuals expressing protective HLA alleles such as HLA-B*27:05 and HLA-B*57:01 remain unknown. We here analyse two HIV-infected subjects expre...

    Authors: Jacqui Brener, Astrid Gall, Jacob Hurst, Rebecca Batorsky, Nora Lavandier, Fabian Chen, Anne Edwards, Chrissy Bolton, Reena Dsouza, Todd Allen, Oliver G. Pybus, Paul Kellam, Philippa C. Matthews and Philip J. R. Goulder

    Citation: Retrovirology 2018 15:7

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  15. Content type: Research

    Combination antiretroviral therapy efficiently suppresses HIV replication in infected patients, transforming HIV/AIDS into a chronic disease. Viral resistance does develop however, especially under suboptimal ...

    Authors: Jonas Demeulemeester, Jolien Blokken, Stéphanie De Houwer, Lieve Dirix, Hugo Klaassen, Arnaud Marchand, Patrick Chaltin, Frauke Christ and Zeger Debyser

    Citation: Retrovirology 2018 15:5

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  16. Content type: Research

    The HIV-1 accessory proteins Nef and Vpu alter cell surface levels of multiple host proteins to modify the immune response and increase viral persistence. Nef and Vpu can downregulate cell surface levels of th...

    Authors: Emily N. Pawlak, Brennan S. Dirk, Rajesh Abraham Jacob, Aaron L. Johnson and Jimmy D. Dikeakos

    Citation: Retrovirology 2018 15:6

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  17. Content type: Review

    The development of increasingly safe and effective antiretroviral treatments for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) over the past several decades has led to vastly improved patient survival when treatment is a...

    Authors: Claire Deleage, Chi N. Chan, Kathleen Busman-Sahay and Jacob D. Estes

    Citation: Retrovirology 2018 15:4

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  18. Content type: Research

    Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is a deltaretrovirus infecting bovine B cells and causing enzootic bovine leucosis. The SU or surface subunit, gp51, of its envelope glycoprotein is involved in receptor recognition...

    Authors: Aneta Pluta, Lorraine M. Albritton, Marzena Rola-Łuszczak and Jacek Kuźmak

    Citation: Retrovirology 2018 15:2

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  19. Content type: Research

    Emergence of resistance against integrase inhibitor raltegravir in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) patients is generally associated with selection of one of three signature mutations: Y143C/R, Q148...

    Authors: Axel Fun, Thomas Leitner, Linos Vandekerckhove, Martin Däumer, Alexander Thielen, Bernd Buchholz, Andy I. M. Hoepelman, Elizabeth H. Gisolf, Pauline J. Schipper, Annemarie M. J. Wensing and Monique Nijhuis

    Citation: Retrovirology 2018 15:1

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  20. Content type: Review

    A robust measure of the size of the latent HIV reservoir is essential to quantifying the effect of interventions designed to deplete the pool of reactivatable, replication competent proviruses. In addition to ...

    Authors: Nicholas J. Norton, Axel Fun, Mikaila Bandara, Mark R. Wills, Hoi Ping Mok and Andrew M. L. Lever

    Citation: Retrovirology 2017 14:58

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  21. Content type: Research

    MOV10 protein has ATP-dependent 5′–3′ RNA helicase activity and belongs to the UPF1p superfamily. It can inhibit human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) replication at multiple stages and interact with apo...

    Authors: Cancan Chen, Xiaocao Ma, Qifei Hu, Xinghua Li, Feng Huang, Junsong Zhang, Ting Pan, Jinyu Xia, Chao Liu and Hui Zhang

    Citation: Retrovirology 2017 14:56

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  22. Content type: Research

    Foamy viruses (FV) are ancient complex retroviruses that differ from orthoretroviruses such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and murine leukemia virus (MLV) and comprise a distinct subfamily of retrovirus...

    Authors: Delia M. Pinto-Santini, Carolyn R. Stenbak and Maxine L. Linial

    Citation: Retrovirology 2017 14:55

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  23. Content type: Research

    Stable insertion of the retroviral DNA genome into host chromatin requires the functional association between the intasome (integrase·viral DNA complex) and the nucleosome. The data from the literature suggest...

    Authors: Mohamed S. Benleulmi, Julien Matysiak, Xavier Robert, Csaba Miskey, Eric Mauro, Delphine Lapaillerie, Paul Lesbats, Stéphane Chaignepain, Daniel R. Henriquez, Christina Calmels, Oyindamola Oladosu, Eloïse Thierry, Oscar Leon, Marc Lavigne, Marie-Line Andreola, Olivier Delelis…

    Citation: Retrovirology 2017 14:54

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  24. Content type: Research

    The CRISPR/Cas9 system has been widely used for genome editing in mammalian cells. CXCR4 is a co-receptor for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) entry, and loss of CXCR4 function can protect cells from C...

    Authors: Qiankun Wang, Shuliang Chen, Qiaoqiao Xiao, Zhepeng Liu, Shuai Liu, Panpan Hou, Li Zhou, Wei Hou, Wenzhe Ho, Chunmei Li, Li Wu and Deyin Guo

    Citation: Retrovirology 2017 14:51

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  25. Content type: Research

    HIV-1 Integrase (IN) interacts with the cellular co-factor LEDGF/p75 and tethers the HIV preintegration complex to the host genome enabling integration. Recently a new class of IN inhibitors was described, th...

    Authors: Céline Amadori, Yme Ubeles van der Velden, Damien Bonnard, Igor Orlov, Nikki van Bel, Erwann Le Rouzic, Laia Miralles, Julie Brias, Francis Chevreuil, Daniele Spehner, Sophie Chasset, Benoit Ledoussal, Luzia Mayr, François Moreau, Felipe García, José Gatell…

    Citation: Retrovirology 2017 14:50

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  26. Content type: Research

    The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) structural protein Gag is necessary and sufficient to form viral particles. In addition to encoding the amino acid sequence for Gag, the underlying RNA sequence ...

    Authors: Irati Antzin-Anduetza, Charlotte Mahiet, Luke A. Granger, Charlotte Odendall and Chad M. Swanson

    Citation: Retrovirology 2017 14:49

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  27. Content type: Correction

    The authors wish to apologize for an error within the scale bar of the microarray heatmap in Additional File 5 of the supplementary information. Two values were incorrectly displayed on the scale bar (11 inste...

    Authors: Franziska K. Geis, Melanie Galla, Dirk Hoffmann, Johannes Kuehle, Daniela Zychlinski, Tobias Maetzig, Juliane W. Schott, Adrian Schwarzer, Christine Goffinet, Stephen P. Goff and Axel Schambach

    Citation: Retrovirology 2017 14:48

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    The original article was published in Retrovirology 2017 14:34

  28. Content type: Research

    In patients with HIV/AIDS receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART), HIV-1 persistence in brain tissue is a vital and unanswered question. HIV-1 infects and replicates in resident microglia and trafficking macrop...

    Authors: Eugene L. Asahchop, Oussama Meziane, Manmeet K. Mamik, Wing F. Chan, William G. Branton, Lothar Resch, M. John Gill, Elie Haddad, Jean V. Guimond, Mark A. Wainberg, Glen B. Baker, Eric A. Cohen and Christopher Power

    Citation: Retrovirology 2017 14:47

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  29. Content type: Short report

    Mutations rapidly accumulate in the HIV-1 genome after infection. Some of those mutations are selected by host immune responses and often cause viral fitness losses. This study is to investigate whether strong...

    Authors: Donglai Liu, Chu Wang, Bhavna Hora, Tao Zuo, Nilu Goonetilleke, Michael K. P. Liu, Mark Berrong, Guido Ferrari, Andrew J. McMichael, Tanmoy Bhattacharya, Alan S. Perelson and Feng Gao

    Citation: Retrovirology 2017 14:46

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  30. Content type: Research

    Like all viruses, HIV-1 relies on host systems to replicate. The human purinome consists of approximately two thousand proteins that bind and use purines such as ATP, NADH, and NADPH. By virtue of their purin...

    Authors: Manjusha M. Kulkarni, Annette N. Ratcliff, Menakshi Bhat, Yazan Alwarawrah, Philip Hughes, Jesus Arcos, David Loiselle, Jordi B. Torrelles, Nicholas T. Funderburg, Timothy A. Haystead and Jesse J. Kwiek

    Citation: Retrovirology 2017 14:45

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  31. Content type: Research

    The CD4-induced (CD4i) epitopes in gp120 includes the co-receptor binding site, which are formed and exposed after interaction with CD4. Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) to the CD4i epitopes exhibit limited neutra...

    Authors: Kazuki Tanaka, Takeo Kuwata, Muntasir Alam, Gilad Kaplan, Shokichi Takahama, Kristel Paola Ramirez Valdez, Anna Roitburd-Berman, Jonathan M. Gershoni and Shuzo Matsushita

    Citation: Retrovirology 2017 14:44

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  32. Content type: Research

    The HIV-1 RNA genome has a biased nucleotide composition with a surplus of As. Several hypotheses have been put forward to explain this striking phenomenon, but the A-count of the HIV-1 genome has thus far not...

    Authors: Bep Klaver, Yme van der Velden, Formijn van Hemert, Antoinette C. van der Kuyl and Ben Berkhout

    Citation: Retrovirology 2017 14:43

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  33. Content type: Research

    Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) can suppress T cell responses in several different diseases. Previously these suppressive cells were observed to expand in HIV patients and in a mouse retrovirus model,...

    Authors: Malgorzata Drabczyk-Pluta, Tanja Werner, Daniel Hoffmann, Qibin Leng, Lieping Chen, Ulf Dittmer and Gennadiy Zelinskyy

    Citation: Retrovirology 2017 14:42

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  34. Content type: Research

    Rev-like proteins are post-transcriptional regulatory proteins found in several retrovirus genera, including lentiviruses, betaretroviruses, and deltaretroviruses. These essential proteins mediate the nuclear ...

    Authors: Chijioke N. Umunnakwe, Karin S. Dorman, Drena Dobbs and Susan Carpenter

    Citation: Retrovirology 2017 14:40

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  35. Content type: Research

    Human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) comprise approximately 8% of the human genome and while the majority are transcriptionally silent, the most recently integrated HERV, HERV-K (HML-2), remains active. Durin...

    Authors: Miguel de Mulder, Devi SenGupta, Steven G. Deeks, Jeffrey N. Martin, Christopher D. Pilcher, Frederick M. Hecht, Jonah B. Sacha, Douglas F. Nixon and Henri-Alexandre Michaud

    Citation: Retrovirology 2017 14:41

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  36. Content type: Research

    Insertion of retroviral genome DNA occurs in the chromatin of the host cell. This step is modulated by chromatin structure as nucleosomes compaction was shown to prevent HIV-1 integration and chromatin remodel...

    Authors: Julien Matysiak, Paul Lesbats, Eric Mauro, Delphine Lapaillerie, Jean-William Dupuy, Angelica P. Lopez, Mohamed Salah Benleulmi, Christina Calmels, Marie-Line Andreola, Marc Ruff, Manuel Llano, Olivier Delelis, Marc Lavigne and Vincent Parissi

    Citation: Retrovirology 2017 14:39

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  37. Content type: Review

    Integrase strand transfer inhibitors (INSTIs) are the newest class of antiretroviral drugs to be approved for treatment and act by inhibiting the essential HIV protein integrase from inserting the viral DNA ge...

    Authors: Kaitlin Anstett, Bluma Brenner, Thibault Mesplede and Mark A. Wainberg

    Citation: Retrovirology 2017 14:36

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