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  1. Content type: Research

    HIV-1 transcription activator protein Tat is phosphorylated in vitro by CDK2 and DNA-PK on Ser-16 residue and by PKR on Tat Ser-46 residue. Here we analyzed Tat phosphorylation in cultured cells and its functi...

    Authors: Andrey Ivanov, Xionghao Lin, Tatiana Ammosova, Andrey V. Ilatovskiy, Namita Kumari, Hatajai Lassiter, Nowah Afangbedji, Xiaomei Niu, Michael G. Petukhov and Sergei Nekhai

    Citation: Retrovirology 2018 15:39

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  2. Content type: Research

    Hosts are able to restrict viral replication to contain virus spread before adaptive immunity is fully initiated. Many viruses have acquired genes directly counteracting intrinsic restriction mechanisms. This ...

    Authors: Carmen Ledesma-Feliciano, Sarah Hagen, Ryan Troyer, Xin Zheng, Esther Musselman, Dragana Slavkovic Lukic, Ann-Mareen Franke, Daniel Maeda, Jörg Zielonka, Carsten Münk, Guochao Wei, Sue VandeWoude and Martin Löchelt

    Citation: Retrovirology 2018 15:38

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  3. Content type: Research

    Different classes of latency reversing agents (LRAs) are being evaluated to measure their effects in reactivating HIV replication from latently infected cells. A limited number of studies have demonstrated add...

    Authors: Georges Khoury, Talia M. Mota, Shuang Li, Carolin Tumpach, Michelle Y. Lee, Jonathan Jacobson, Leigh Harty, Jenny L. Anderson, Sharon R. Lewin and Damian F. J. Purcell

    Citation: Retrovirology 2018 15:36

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  4. Content type: Short report

    Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) is an aggressive malignancy secondary to chronic human T-cell lymphotropic virus 1 infection, triggered by the virally encoded oncoprotein Tax. The transforming activity an...

    Authors: Rita Hleihel, Behzad Khoshnood, Ingrid Dacklin, Hayssam Omran, Carine Mouawad, Zeina Dassouki, Marwan El-Sabban, Margret Shirinian, Caroline Grabbe and Ali Bazarbachi

    Citation: Retrovirology 2018 15:33

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  5. Content type: Research

    The apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing enzyme catalytic polypeptide-like 3 (APOBEC3; A3) gene family appears only in mammalian genomes. Some A3 proteins can be incorporated into progeny virions and inhibit lentivir...

    Authors: Yoriyuki Konno, Shumpei Nagaoka, Izumi Kimura, Keisuke Yamamoto, Yumiko Kagawa, Ryuichi Kumata, Hirofumi Aso, Mahoko Takahashi Ueda, So Nakagawa, Tomoko Kobayashi, Yoshio Koyanagi and Kei Sato

    Citation: Retrovirology 2018 15:31

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  6. Content type: Review

    Among the different markers of HIV persistence in infected cells, total HIV DNA is to date the most widely used. It allows an overall quantification of all viral forms of HIV DNA in infected cells, each playin...

    Authors: Christine Rouzioux and Véronique Avettand-Fenoël

    Citation: Retrovirology 2018 15:30

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  7. Content type: Research

    The native pre-fusion structure of gp120/gp41 complex of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 was recently revealed. In the model, the helices of gp41 (α6, α7, α8, and α9) form a four-helix collar underneath trime...

    Authors: Dehua Liu, Hongyun Wang, Mizuki Yamamoto, Jiping Song, Rui Zhang, Qingling Du, Yasushi Kawaguchi, Jun-ichiro Inoue and Zene Matsuda

    Citation: Retrovirology 2018 15:27

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  8. Content type: Research

    The InterFeron Induced TransMembrane (IFITM) proteins are interferon stimulated genes that restrict many viruses, including HIV-1. SAMHD1 is another restriction factor blocking replication of HIV-1 and other v...

    Authors: Ferdinand Roesch, Molly OhAinle and Michael Emerman

    Citation: Retrovirology 2018 15:26

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  9. Content type: Research

    NSC260594, a quinolinium derivative from the NCI diversity set II compound library, was previously identified in a target-based assay as an inhibitor of the interaction between the HIV-1 (ψ) stem-loop 3 (SL3) ...

    Authors: Carin K. Ingemarsdotter, Jingwei Zeng, Ziqi Long, Andrew M.L. Lever and Julia C. Kenyon

    Citation: Retrovirology 2018 15:25

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  10. Content type: Research

    The initial envelope (Env)-specific antibody response in acutely HIV-1-infected individuals and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected rhesus monkeys (RMs) is dominated by non-neutralizing antibodies tar...

    Authors: Quang N. Nguyen, David R. Martinez, Jonathon E. Himes, R. Whitney Edwards, Qifeng Han, Amit Kumar, Riley Mangan, Nathan I. Nicely, Guanhua Xie, Nathan Vandergrift, Xiaoying Shen, Justin Pollara and Sallie R. Permar

    Citation: Retrovirology 2018 15:24

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  11. Content type: Review

    Antiretroviral therapy cannot cure HIV-1 infection due to the persistence of a small number of latently infected cells harboring replication-competent proviruses. Measuring persistent HIV-1 is challenging, as ...

    Authors: Zheng Wang, Francesco R. Simonetti, Robert F. Siliciano and Gregory M. Laird

    Citation: Retrovirology 2018 15:21

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  12. Content type: Review

    Retroviruses can cause severe diseases such as cancer and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. A unique feature in the life cycle of retroviruses is that their RNA genome is reverse transcribed into double-stra...

    Authors: Xu Zhang, Xiancai Ma, Shuliang Jing, Hui Zhang and Yijun Zhang

    Citation: Retrovirology 2018 15:20

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  13. Content type: Research

    Simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIVs) of chimpanzees and gorillas from Central Africa crossed the species barrier at least four times giving rise to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) groups M, N, O ...

    Authors: Mirela D’arc, Carolina Furtado, Juliana D. Siqueira, Héctor N. Seuánez, Ahidjo Ayouba, Martine Peeters and Marcelo A. Soares

    Citation: Retrovirology 2018 15:19

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  14. Content type: Research

    Damage to the central nervous system during HIV infection can lead to variable neurobehavioral dysfunction termed HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). There is no clear consensus regarding the neuro...

    Authors: Stephanie J. Bissel, Kate Gurnsey, Hank P. Jedema, Nicholas F. Smith, Guoji Wang, Charles W. Bradberry and Clayton A. Wiley

    Citation: Retrovirology 2018 15:17

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  15. Content type: Review

    Although antiretroviral therapy is able to suppress HIV replication in infected patients, the virus persists and rebounds when treatment is stopped. In order to find a cure that can eradicate the latent reserv...

    Authors: Sofie Rutsaert, Kobus Bosman, Wim Trypsteen, Monique Nijhuis and Linos Vandekerckhove

    Citation: Retrovirology 2018 15:16

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  16. Content type: Review

    Characterizing HIV genetic diversity and evolution during antiretroviral therapy (ART) provides insights into the mechanisms that maintain the viral reservoir during ART. This review describes common methods u...

    Authors: Gert van Zyl, Michael J. Bale and Mary F. Kearney

    Citation: Retrovirology 2018 15:14

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  17. Content type: Review

    Cell-associated (CA) HIV RNA has received much attention in recent years as a surrogate measure of the efficiency of HIV latency reversion and because it may provide an estimate of the viral reservoir size. Th...

    Authors: Alexander O. Pasternak and Ben Berkhout

    Citation: Retrovirology 2018 15:13

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  18. Content type: Review

    The multiple roles of both viral and cellular RNAs have become increasingly apparent in recent years, and techniques to model them have become significantly more powerful, enabling faster and more accurate vis...

    Authors: Dhivya Jayaraman and Julia Claire Kenyon

    Citation: Retrovirology 2018 15:11

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  19. Content type: Short report

    The retrovirus murine leukemia virus (MuLV) has an 8.3 kb RNA genome with a simple 5′-gag-pol-env-3′ architecture. Translation of the pol gene is dependent upon readthrough of the gag UAG stop codon; whereas the

    Authors: Nerea Irigoyen, Adam M. Dinan, Ian Brierley and Andrew E. Firth

    Citation: Retrovirology 2018 15:10

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  20. Content type: Research

    The factors determining differential HIV disease outcome among individuals expressing protective HLA alleles such as HLA-B*27:05 and HLA-B*57:01 remain unknown. We here analyse two HIV-infected subjects expre...

    Authors: Jacqui Brener, Astrid Gall, Jacob Hurst, Rebecca Batorsky, Nora Lavandier, Fabian Chen, Anne Edwards, Chrissy Bolton, Reena Dsouza, Todd Allen, Oliver G. Pybus, Paul Kellam, Philippa C. Matthews and Philip J. R. Goulder

    Citation: Retrovirology 2018 15:7

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  21. Content type: Research

    The HIV-1 accessory proteins Nef and Vpu alter cell surface levels of multiple host proteins to modify the immune response and increase viral persistence. Nef and Vpu can downregulate cell surface levels of th...

    Authors: Emily N. Pawlak, Brennan S. Dirk, Rajesh Abraham Jacob, Aaron L. Johnson and Jimmy D. Dikeakos

    Citation: Retrovirology 2018 15:6

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  22. Content type: Research

    Combination antiretroviral therapy efficiently suppresses HIV replication in infected patients, transforming HIV/AIDS into a chronic disease. Viral resistance does develop however, especially under suboptimal ...

    Authors: Jonas Demeulemeester, Jolien Blokken, Stéphanie De Houwer, Lieve Dirix, Hugo Klaassen, Arnaud Marchand, Patrick Chaltin, Frauke Christ and Zeger Debyser

    Citation: Retrovirology 2018 15:5

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  23. Content type: Review

    The development of increasingly safe and effective antiretroviral treatments for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) over the past several decades has led to vastly improved patient survival when treatment is a...

    Authors: Claire Deleage, Chi N. Chan, Kathleen Busman-Sahay and Jacob D. Estes

    Citation: Retrovirology 2018 15:4

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  24. Content type: Research

    Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is a deltaretrovirus infecting bovine B cells and causing enzootic bovine leucosis. The SU or surface subunit, gp51, of its envelope glycoprotein is involved in receptor recognition...

    Authors: Aneta Pluta, Lorraine M. Albritton, Marzena Rola-Łuszczak and Jacek Kuźmak

    Citation: Retrovirology 2018 15:2

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  25. Content type: Research

    Emergence of resistance against integrase inhibitor raltegravir in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) patients is generally associated with selection of one of three signature mutations: Y143C/R, Q148...

    Authors: Axel Fun, Thomas Leitner, Linos Vandekerckhove, Martin Däumer, Alexander Thielen, Bernd Buchholz, Andy I. M. Hoepelman, Elizabeth H. Gisolf, Pauline J. Schipper, Annemarie M. J. Wensing and Monique Nijhuis

    Citation: Retrovirology 2018 15:1

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  26. Content type: Review

    A robust measure of the size of the latent HIV reservoir is essential to quantifying the effect of interventions designed to deplete the pool of reactivatable, replication competent proviruses. In addition to ...

    Authors: Nicholas J. Norton, Axel Fun, Mikaila Bandara, Mark R. Wills, Hoi Ping Mok and Andrew M. L. Lever

    Citation: Retrovirology 2017 14:58

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  27. Content type: Research

    MOV10 protein has ATP-dependent 5′–3′ RNA helicase activity and belongs to the UPF1p superfamily. It can inhibit human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) replication at multiple stages and interact with apo...

    Authors: Cancan Chen, Xiaocao Ma, Qifei Hu, Xinghua Li, Feng Huang, Junsong Zhang, Ting Pan, Jinyu Xia, Chao Liu and Hui Zhang

    Citation: Retrovirology 2017 14:56

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  28. Content type: Research

    Foamy viruses (FV) are ancient complex retroviruses that differ from orthoretroviruses such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and murine leukemia virus (MLV) and comprise a distinct subfamily of retrovirus...

    Authors: Delia M. Pinto-Santini, Carolyn R. Stenbak and Maxine L. Linial

    Citation: Retrovirology 2017 14:55

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  29. Content type: Research

    Stable insertion of the retroviral DNA genome into host chromatin requires the functional association between the intasome (integrase·viral DNA complex) and the nucleosome. The data from the literature suggest...

    Authors: Mohamed S. Benleulmi, Julien Matysiak, Xavier Robert, Csaba Miskey, Eric Mauro, Delphine Lapaillerie, Paul Lesbats, Stéphane Chaignepain, Daniel R. Henriquez, Christina Calmels, Oyindamola Oladosu, Eloïse Thierry, Oscar Leon, Marc Lavigne, Marie-Line Andreola, Olivier Delelis…

    Citation: Retrovirology 2017 14:54

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  30. Content type: Research

    The CRISPR/Cas9 system has been widely used for genome editing in mammalian cells. CXCR4 is a co-receptor for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) entry, and loss of CXCR4 function can protect cells from C...

    Authors: Qiankun Wang, Shuliang Chen, Qiaoqiao Xiao, Zhepeng Liu, Shuai Liu, Panpan Hou, Li Zhou, Wei Hou, Wenzhe Ho, Chunmei Li, Li Wu and Deyin Guo

    Citation: Retrovirology 2017 14:51

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  31. Content type: Research

    The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) structural protein Gag is necessary and sufficient to form viral particles. In addition to encoding the amino acid sequence for Gag, the underlying RNA sequence ...

    Authors: Irati Antzin-Anduetza, Charlotte Mahiet, Luke A. Granger, Charlotte Odendall and Chad M. Swanson

    Citation: Retrovirology 2017 14:49

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