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  1. Long-Term Non-Progressors (LTNPs) are untreated Human Immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infected individuals able to control disease progression for prolonged periods. However, the LTNPs status is temporar...

    Authors: Ana Moyano, Oscar Blanch-Lombarte, Laura Tarancon-Diez, Nuria Pedreño-Lopez, Miguel Arenas, Tamara Alvaro, Concepción Casado, Isabel Olivares, Mar Vera, Carmen Rodriguez, Jorge del Romero, Cecilio López-Galíndez, Ezequiel Ruiz-Mateos, Julia G. Prado and María Pernas
    Citation: Retrovirology 2022 19:6
  2. The recent discovery of the role of m6A methylation in the regulation of HIV-1 replication unveiled a novel layer of regulation for HIV gene expression. This epitranscriptomic modification of HIV-1 RNAs is under ...

    Authors: Sarah N’Da Konan, Emmanuel Ségéral, Fabienne Bejjani, Maryam Bendoumou, Mélissa Ait Said, Sarah Gallois-Montbrun and Stéphane Emiliani
    Citation: Retrovirology 2022 19:4
  3. Bone marrow stromal antigen 2 (BST-2) also known as Tetherin (CD317/HM1.24), is a host restriction factor that blocks the release of HIV-1 virions from infected cells. Previous studies reported that BST-2 gene...

    Authors: Hlelolwenkosi Mlimi, Kewreshini K. Naidoo, Jenniffer Mabuka, Thumbi Ndung’u and Paradise Madlala
    Citation: Retrovirology 2022 19:3
  4. The NF-κB family of transcription factors and associated signalling pathways are abundant and ubiquitous in human immune responses. Activation of NF-κB transcription factors by viral pathogen-associated molecu...

    Authors: Douglas L. Fink, James Cai, Matthew V. X. Whelan, Christopher Monit, Carlos Maluquer de Motes, Greg J. Towers and Rebecca P. Sumner
    Citation: Retrovirology 2022 19:2
  5. Our understanding of the peripheral human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) reservoir is strongly biased towards subtype B HIV-1 strains, with only limited information available from patients infected with...

    Authors: Samira Joussef-Piña, Immaculate Nankya, Sophie Nalukwago, Joy Baseke, Sandra Rwambuya, Dane Winner, Fred Kyeyune, Keith Chervenak, Bonnie Thiel, Robert Asaad, Curtis Dobrowolski, Benjamin Luttge, Blair Lawley, Cissy M. Kityo, W. Henry Boom, Jonathan Karn…
    Citation: Retrovirology 2022 19:1
  6. The capsid core of HIV-1 is a large macromolecular assembly that surrounds the viral genome and is an essential component of the infectious virus. In addition to its multiple roles throughout the viral life cy...

    Authors: William M. McFadden, Alexa A. Snyder, Karen A. Kirby, Philip R. Tedbury, Monika Raj, Zhengqiang Wang and Stefan G. Sarafianos
    Citation: Retrovirology 2021 18:41
  7. The majority of emerging infectious diseases in humans are of animal origin, and many of them are caused by neuropathogenic viruses. Many cases of neurological disease and encephalitis in livestock remain etio...

    Authors: Melanie M. Hierweger, Michel C. Koch, Ronja V. Kauer, Zoltán Bagó, Anna Oevermann, Giuseppe Bertoni and Torsten Seuberlich
    Citation: Retrovirology 2021 18:40

    The Correction to this article has been published in Retrovirology 2022 19:5

  8. Prototype foamy virus (PFV) is nonpathogenic complex retroviruses that express a transcriptional transactivator Tas, which is essential for the activity of viral long terminal repeat (LTR) promoter and interna...

    Authors: Peipei Yuan, Jun Yan, Shuang Wang, Yang Guo, Xueyan Xi, Song Han, Jun Yin, Biwen Peng, Xiaohua He, Jochen Bodem and Wanhong Liu
    Citation: Retrovirology 2021 18:38
  9. During HIV-1 maturation, Gag and Gag-Pol polyproteins are proteolytically cleaved and the capsid protein polymerizes to form the honeycomb capsid lattice. HIV-1 integrase (IN) binds the viral genomic RNA (gRNA...

    Authors: Shuohui Liu, Pratibha C. Koneru, Wen Li, Chathuri Pathirage, Alan N. Engelman, Mamuka Kvaratskhelia and Karin Musier-Forsyth
    Citation: Retrovirology 2021 18:37
  10. Retroviruses utilize multiple unique RNA elements to control RNA processing and translation. However, it is unclear what functional RNA elements are present in endogenous retroviruses (ERVs). Gene co-option fr...

    Authors: Koichi Kitao, So Nakagawa and Takayuki Miyazawa
    Citation: Retrovirology 2021 18:36
  11. The critical role of antibody Fc-mediated effector functions in immune defense has been widely reported in various viral infections. These effector functions confer cellular responses through engagement with i...

    Authors: Hao D. Cheng, Karen G. Dowell, Chris Bailey-Kellogg, Brittany A. Goods, J. Christopher Love, Guido Ferrari, Galit Alter, Johannes Gach, Donald N. Forthal, George K. Lewis, Kelli Greene, Hongmei Gao, David C. Montefiori and Margaret E. Ackerman
    Citation: Retrovirology 2021 18:35
  12. Zhang et al. (Proc Natl Acad Sci 118:e2105968118, 2021) recently reported that SARS-CoV-2 RNA can be retrotranscribed and integrated into the DNA of human cells by the L1 retrotransposon machinery. This phenom...

    Authors: Nicole Grandi, Enzo Tramontano and Ben Berkhout
    Citation: Retrovirology 2021 18:34
  13. Autophagy plays an important role as a cellular defense mechanism against intracellular pathogens, like viruses. Specifically, autophagy orchestrates the recruitment of specialized cargo, including viral compo...

    Authors: Sergio Castro-Gonzalez, Yuexuan Chen, Jared Benjamin, Yuhang Shi and Ruth Serra-Moreno
    Citation: Retrovirology 2021 18:33
  14. We previously developed drug-like peptide triazoles (PTs) that target HIV-1 Envelope (Env) gp120, potently inhibit viral entry, and irreversibly inactivate virions. Here, we investigated potential mechanisms o...

    Authors: Shiyu Zhang, Andrew P. Holmes, Alexej Dick, Adel A. Rashad, Lucía Enríquez Rodríguez, Gabriela A. Canziani, Michael J. Root and Irwin M. Chaiken
    Citation: Retrovirology 2021 18:31
  15. The genome of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is encapsulated in a core consisting of viral capsid proteins (CA). After viral entry, the HIV-1 core dissociates and releases the viral genome into th...

    Authors: Naoki Kishimoto, Ryosuke Okano, Ayano Akita, Satoshi Miura, Ayaka Irie, Nobutoki Takamune and Shogo Misumi
    Citation: Retrovirology 2021 18:30
  16. The viral capsid plays a key role in HIV-1 reverse transcription. Recent studies have demonstrated that the small molecule IP6 dramatically enhances reverse transcription in vitro by stabilizing the viral caps...

    Authors: Christopher Aiken and Itay Rousso
    Citation: Retrovirology 2021 18:29
  17. We observe the emergence of several promoter-variant viral strains in India during recent years. The variant viral promoters contain additional copies of transcription factor binding sites present in the viral...

    Authors: Haider Ali, Disha Bhange, Kavita Mehta, Yuvrajsinh Gohil, Harshit Kumar Prajapati, Siddappa N. Byrareddy, Shilpa Buch and Udaykumar Ranga
    Citation: Retrovirology 2021 18:27
  18. Extracellular Vesicles (EV) recently have been implicated in the pathogenesis of HIV-1 syndromes, including neuroinflammation and HIV-1 associated neurological disorder (HAND). Cocaine, an illicit stimulant dr...

    Authors: Manojkumar Narayanan, Rutuja Kulkarni, Shuxian Jiang, Fatah Kashanchi and Anil Prasad
    Citation: Retrovirology 2021 18:26
  19. The HIV co-receptors, CCR5 and CXCR4, are necessary for HIV entry into target cells, interacting with the HIV envelope protein, gp120, to initiate several signaling cascades thought to be important to the entr...

    Authors: E. A. Nickoloff-Bybel, L. Festa, O. Meucci and P. J. Gaskill
    Citation: Retrovirology 2021 18:24
  20. Recent data suggest the importance of non-neutralizing antibodies (nnAbs) in the development of vaccines against HIV-1 because two types of nnAbs that recognize the coreceptor binding site (CoRBS) and the C1C2...

    Authors: Hasan Md Zahid, Takeo Kuwata, Shokichi Takahama, Yu Kaku, Shashwata Biswas, Kaho Matsumoto, Hirokazu Tamamura and Shuzo Matsushita
    Citation: Retrovirology 2021 18:23
  21. CRF55_01B is a newly identified HIV-1 circulating recombinant form originated from MSM in China. However, its impact on the disease progression and transmission risk has not been investigated. This study aimed...

    Authors: Lan Wei, Hao Li, Xing Lv, Chenli Zheng, Guilian Li, Zhengrong Yang, Lin Chen, Xiaoxu Han, Huachun Zou, Yanxiao Gao, Jinquan Cheng, Hui Wang and Jin Zhao
    Citation: Retrovirology 2021 18:22
  22. HIV-1 persists in infected individuals despite years of antiretroviral therapy (ART), due to the formation of a stable and long-lived latent viral reservoir. Early ART can reduce the latent reservoir and is as...

    Authors: Sherazaan D. Ismail, Joshua Pankrac, Emmanuel Ndashimye, Jessica L. Prodger, Melissa-Rose Abrahams, Jamie F. S. Mann, Andrew D. Redd and Eric J. Arts
    Citation: Retrovirology 2021 18:21
  23. Retroviruses exist as exogenous infectious agents and as endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) integrated into host chromosomes. Such endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) are grouped into three classes roughly correspondin...

    Authors: Venkat R. K. Yedavalli, Akash Patil, Janay Parrish and Christine A. Kozak
    Citation: Retrovirology 2021 18:20
  24. HIV remains one of the most important health issues worldwide, with almost 40 million people living with HIV. Although patients develop antibodies against the virus, its high mutation rate allows evasion of im...

    Authors: Catherine M. Moore, Melanie Grandits, Clemens Grünwald-Gruber, Friedrich Altmann, Maria Kotouckova, Audrey Y.-H. Teh and Julian K.-C. Ma
    Citation: Retrovirology 2021 18:17
  25. The characterisation of the HIV-1 reservoir, which consists of replication-competent integrated proviruses that persist on antiretroviral therapy (ART), is made difficult by the rarity of intact proviruses rel...

    Authors: Imogen A. Wright, Michael J. Bale, Wei Shao, Wei-Shau Hu, John M. Coffin, Gert U. Van Zyl and Mary F. Kearney
    Citation: Retrovirology 2021 18:16
  26. Human Syncytin-1 is a placentally-expressed cell surface glycoprotein of retroviral origin. After interaction with ASCT2, its cellular receptor, Syncytin-1 triggers cell–cell fusion and formation of a multinuc...

    Authors: Kryštof Štafl, Martin Trávníček, Dana Kučerová, Ľubomíra Pecnová, Veronika Krchlíková, Eliška Gáliková, Volodymyr Stepanets, Jiří Hejnar and Kateřina Trejbalová
    Citation: Retrovirology 2021 18:15
  27. Humanized mice have become an important workhorse model for HIV research. Advances that enabled development of a human immune system in immune deficient mouse strains have aided new basic research in HIV patho...

    Authors: Janice J. Endsley, Matthew B. Huante, Kubra F. Naqvi, Benjamin B. Gelman and Mark A. Endsley
    Citation: Retrovirology 2021 18:14
  28. Humanized mice model human disease and as such are used commonly for research studies of infectious, degenerative and cancer disorders. Recent models also reflect hematopoiesis, natural immunity, neurobiology,...

    Authors: Prasanta K. Dash, Santhi Gorantla, Larisa Poluektova, Mahmudul Hasan, Emiko Waight, Chen Zhang, Milica Markovic, Benson Edagwa, Jatin Machhi, Katherine E. Olson, Xinglong Wang, R. Lee Mosley, Bhavesh Kevadiya and Howard E. Gendelman
    Citation: Retrovirology 2021 18:13
  29. The potential use of the broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (bnAbs) towards prophylaxis and treatment to HIV-1 is currently being explored. While a number of promising bnAbs have been discovered and a ...

    Authors: Ranajoy Mullick, Jyoti Sutar, Nitin Hingankar, Suprit Deshpande, Madhuri Thakar, Seema Sahay, Rajesh P. Ringe, Sampurna Mukhopadhyay, Ajit Patil, Shubhangi Bichare, Kailapuri G. Murugavel, Aylur K. Srikrishnan, Rajat Goyal, Devin Sok and Jayanta Bhattacharya
    Citation: Retrovirology 2021 18:12
  30. The HIV-1 epidemic in sub-Saharan Africa is heterogeneous with diverse unevenly distributed subtypes and regional differences in prevalence. Subtype-specific differences in disease progression rate and transmi...

    Authors: Omotayo Farinre, Kamini Gounder, Tarylee Reddy, Marcel Tongo, Jonathan Hare, Beth Chaplin, Jill Gilmour, Phyllis Kanki, Jaclyn K. Mann and Thumbi Ndung’u
    Citation: Retrovirology 2021 18:11
  31. Maturation inhibitors (MIs) potently block HIV-1 maturation by inhibiting the cleavage of the capsid protein and spacer peptide 1 (CA-SP1). Bevirimat (BVM), a highly efficacious first-in-class MI against HIV-1...

    Authors: Dibya Ghimire, Yuvraj KC, Uddhav Timilsina, Kriti Goel, T. J. Nitz, Carl T. Wild and Ritu Gaur
    Citation: Retrovirology 2021 18:9
  32. To determine if individuals, from HIV-1 serodiscordant couple cohorts from Rwanda and Zambia, who become HIV-positive have a distinct inflammatory biomarker profile compared to individuals who remain HIV-negat...

    Authors: Samantha McInally, Kristin Wall, Tianwei Yu, Rabindra Tirouvanziam, William Kilembe, Jill Gilmour, Susan A. Allen and Eric Hunter
    Citation: Retrovirology 2021 18:8
  33. The Human T-cell Lymphotropic Virus Type-1 (HTLV-1) is a blood-borne pathogen and etiological agent of Adult T-cell Leukemia/Lymphoma (ATLL) and HTLV-1 Associated Myelopathy/Tropical Spastic Paraparesis (HAM/T...

    Authors: Daniel O. Pinto, Sarah Al Sharif, Gifty Mensah, Maria Cowen, Pooja Khatkar, James Erickson, Heather Branscome, Thomas Lattanze, Catherine DeMarino, Farhang Alem, Ruben Magni, Weidong Zhou, Sandrine Alais, Hélène Dutartre, Nazira El-Hage, Renaud Mahieux…
    Citation: Retrovirology 2021 18:6
  34. An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via the original article.

    Authors: Lloyd Einsiedel, Fabian Chiong, Hubertus Jersmann and Graham P. Taylor
    Citation: Retrovirology 2021 18:5

    The original article was published in Retrovirology 2021 18:1

  35. So far, the prevalence of human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV) type 1 and 2 in some highly populated countries such as China is still unknown. In this study, a multi-center nationwide serological survey was desig...

    Authors: Le Chang, Shanhai Ou, Zhengang Shan, Faming Zhu, Huimin Ji, Xia Rong, Fei Guo, Xinyi Jiang, Huizhen Sun, Ying Yan and Lunan Wang
    Citation: Retrovirology 2021 18:2
  36. The lung is one of several organs that can be affected by HTLV-1 mediated inflammation. Pulmonary inflammation associated with HTLV-1 infection involves the interstitium, airways and alveoli, resulting in seve...

    Authors: Lloyd Einsiedel, Fabian Chiong, Hubertus Jersmann and Graham P. Taylor
    Citation: Retrovirology 2021 18:1

    The Correction to this article has been published in Retrovirology 2021 18:5

  37. A reservoir of replication-competent but latent virus is the main obstacle to a cure for HIV-1 infection. Much of this reservoir resides in memory CD4 T cells. We hypothesized that these cells can be reactivat...

    Authors: Thomas Vollbrecht, Aaron O. Angerstein, Bryson Menke, Nikesh M. Kumar, Michelli Faria de Oliveira, Douglas D. Richman and John C. Guatelli
    Citation: Retrovirology 2020 17:36
  38. HIV associated neurocognitive disorders cause significant morbidity and mortality despite the advent of highly active antiretroviral therapy. A deeper understanding of fundamental mechanisms underlying HIV inf...

    Authors: Mohammad A. Rai, Jason Hammonds, Mario Pujato, Christopher Mayhew, Krishna Roskin and Paul Spearman
    Citation: Retrovirology 2020 17:35
  39. Koalas are infected with the koala retrovirus (KoRV) that exists as exogenous or endogenous viruses. KoRV is genetically diverse with co-infection with up to ten envelope subtypes (A-J) possible; KoRV-A is the...

    Authors: HaoQiang Zheng, Yi Pan, Shaohua Tang, Geoffrey W. Pye, Cynthia K. Stadler, Larry Vogelnest, Kimberly Vinette Herrin, Bruce A. Rideout and William M. Switzer
    Citation: Retrovirology 2020 17:34

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