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  1. Human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) are the remnants of ancient retroviral infections integrated into the human genome. Although most HERVs are silenced or rendered inactive by various regulatory mechanisms,...

    Authors: Boying Liang, Tengyue Yan, Huilin Wei, Die Zhang, Lanxiang Li, Zengjing Liu, Wen Li, Yuluan Zhang, Nili Jiang, Qiuxia Meng, Guiyang Jiang, Yanling Hu and Jing Leng
    Citation: Retrovirology 2024 21:4
  2. Endogenous retroviruses (ERV) are indicators of vertebrate evolutionary history and play important roles as homeostatic regulators. ERV long terminal repeat (LTR) elements may act as cis-activating promoters o...

    Authors: Elliott S. Chiu, Coby A. McDonald, Roderick B. Gagne, Henry Dunkleberger, Matthew Moxcey and Sue VandeWoude
    Citation: Retrovirology 2024 21:3
  3. Chemokines are cytokines whose primary role is cellular activation and stimulation of leukocyte migration. They perform their various functions by interacting with G protein-coupled cell surface receptors (GPC...

    Authors: Natacha Faivre, Christel Verollet and Fabrice Dumas
    Citation: Retrovirology 2024 21:2
  4. The murine leukemia virus (MLV) has been a powerful model of pathogenesis for the discovery of genes involved in cancer. Its splice donor (SD’)-associated retroelement (SDARE) is important for infectivity and ...

    Authors: Charbel Akkawi, Jerome Feuillard, Felipe Leon Diaz, Khalid Belkhir, Nelly Godefroy, Jean-Marie Peloponese, Marylene Mougel and Sebastien Laine
    Citation: Retrovirology 2023 20:16
  5. Using pigs as organ donors has advanced xenotransplantation to the point that it is almost ready for clinical use. However, there is still a zoonotic risk associated with xenotransplantation, and the potential...

    Authors: Merle Flecks, Nicole Fischer, Jacomina Krijnse Locker, Ralf R. Tönjes and Antonia W. Godehardt
    Citation: Retrovirology 2023 20:14
  6. A biologically relevant non-human primate (NHP) model of HIV persistence in the central nervous system (CNS) is necessary. Most current NHP/SIV models of HIV infection fail to recapitulate viral persistence in...

    Authors: Rachel M. Podgorski, Jake A. Robinson, Mandy D. Smith, Suvadip Mallick, Huaqing Zhao, Ronald S. Veazey, Dennis L. Kolson, Katharine J. Bar and Tricia H. Burdo
    Citation: Retrovirology 2023 20:13
  7. Authors: María José Lista, AnneCaroline Jousset, Mingpan Cheng, Violaine SaintAndré, Elouan Perrot, Melissa Rodrigues, Carmelo Di Primo, Danielle Gadelle, Elenia Toccafondi, Emmanuel Segeral, Clarisse BerliozTorrent, Stéphane Emiliani, JeanLouis Mergny and Marc Lavigne
    Citation: Retrovirology 2023 20:12

    The original article was published in Retrovirology 2023 20:10

  8. Bovine Leukemia Virus (BLV) is the etiological agent of enzootic bovine leukosis, a disease characterized by the neoplastic proliferation of B cells in cattle. While most European countries have introduced eff...

    Authors: Estelle Plant, Maxime Bellefroid and Carine Van Lint
    Citation: Retrovirology 2023 20:11
  9. Once integrated in the genome of infected cells, HIV-1 provirus is transcribed by the cellular transcription machinery. This process is regulated by both viral and cellular factors, which are necessary for an ...

    Authors: María José Lista, Anne-Caroline Jousset, Mingpan Cheng, Violaine Saint-André, Elouan Perrot, Melissa Rodrigues, Carmelo Di Primo, Danielle Gadelle, Elenia Toccafondi, Emmanuel Segeral, Clarisse Berlioz-Torrent, Stéphane Emiliani, Jean-Louis Mergny and Marc Lavigne
    Citation: Retrovirology 2023 20:10

    The Correction to this article has been published in Retrovirology 2023 20:12

  10. Neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) protect against HIV-1 acquisition in animal models and show promise in treatment of infection. They act by binding to the viral envelope glycoprotein (Env), thereby blocking its ...

    Authors: Philippe Colin, Rajesh P. Ringe, Anila Yasmeen, Gabriel Ozorowski, Thomas J. Ketas, Wen-Hsin Lee, Andrew B. Ward, John P. Moore and P. J. Klasse
    Citation: Retrovirology 2023 20:9
  11. Several mechanisms including reduced CCR5 expression, protective HLA, viral restriction factors, broadly neutralizing antibodies, and more efficient T-cell responses, have been reported to account for HIV cont...

    Authors: Brian Nyiro, Sharon Bright Amanya, Alice Bayiyana, Francis Wasswa, Eva Nabulime, Alex Kayongo, Immaculate Nankya, Gerald Mboowa, David Patrick Kateete and Obondo James Sande
    Citation: Retrovirology 2023 20:8
  12. With suppressive antiretroviral therapy, HIV infection is well-managed in most patients. However, eradication and cure are still beyond reach due to latent viral reservoirs in CD4 + T cells, particularly in ly...

    Authors: Jessica Eddy, Fisher Pham, Rachel Chee, Esther Park, Nathan Dapprich, Stacy L. DeRuiter and Anding Shen
    Citation: Retrovirology 2023 20:7
  13. SAMHD1 is a deoxynucleotide triphosphohydrolase that restricts replication of HIV-1 in differentiated leucocytes. HIV-1 is not restricted in cycling cells and it has been proposed that this is due to phosphory...

    Authors: Ming-Han C. Tsai, Sarah J. Caswell, Elizabeth R. Morris, Melanie C. Mann, Simon Pennell, Geoff Kelly, Harriet C. T. Groom, Ian A. Taylor and Kate N. Bishop
    Citation: Retrovirology 2023 20:5
  14. Nef performs multiple cellular activities that enhance HIV-1 pathogenesis. The role of Nef-mediated down-regulation of the host restriction factor SERINC5 in HIV-1 pathogenesis is not well-defined. We aimed to...

    Authors: Delon Naicker, Nelson Sonela, Steven W. Jin, Takalani Mulaudzi, Doty Ojwach, Tarylee Reddy, Mark A. Brockman, Zabrina L. Brumme, Thumbi Ndung’u and Jaclyn K. Mann
    Citation: Retrovirology 2023 20:3
  15. HIV-associated neurological disorders (HAND) affect up to 50% of people living with HIV (PLWH), even in the era of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). HIV-DNA can be detected in the cerebral spinal flui...

    Authors: Angela Wahl and Lena Al-Harthi
    Citation: Retrovirology 2023 20:1
  16. Lentiviruses (genus Lentivirus) are complex retroviruses that infect a broad range of mammals, including humans. Unlike many other retrovirus genera, lentiviruses have only rarely been incorporated into the mamma...

    Authors: Roziah Kambol, Anna Gatseva and Robert J. Gifford
    Citation: Retrovirology 2022 19:30
  17. Friend virus (FV) is a complex of the Friend murine leukemia virus (F-MuLV) and the replication-defective, pathogenic spleen focus forming virus (SFFV). In the past, we used a fluorescently labeled F-MuLV to a...

    Authors: Philip Podschwadt, Anna Malyshkina, Sonja Windmann, Tanja Werner, Wiebke Hansen and Wibke Bayer
    Citation: Retrovirology 2022 19:29
  18. We present 109 near full-length HIV genomes amplified from blood serum samples obtained during early 1986 from across Uganda, which to our knowledge is the earliest and largest population sample from the initi...

    Authors: Heather E. Grant, Sunando Roy, Rachel Williams, Helena Tutill, Bridget Ferns, Patricia A. Cane, J. Wilson Carswell, Deogratius Ssemwanga, Pontiano Kaleebu, Judith Breuer and Andrew J. Leigh Brown
    Citation: Retrovirology 2022 19:28
  19. While HIV-1 is primarily an infection of CD4 + T cells, there is an emerging interest towards understanding how infection of other cell types can contribute to HIV-associated comorbidities. For HIV-1 to cross ...

    Authors: Oandy Naranjo, Silvia Torices, Paul R. Clifford, Manav T. Daftari, Olivia M. Osborne, Nikolai Fattakhov and Michal Toborek
    Citation: Retrovirology 2022 19:27
  20. Putative pathogenic effects mediated by human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) in neurological and psychiatric disorders in humans have been extensively described. HERVs may alter the development of the brain b...

    Authors: Chiara Cipriani, Martina Giudice, Vita Petrone, Marialaura Fanelli, Antonella Minutolo, Martino T. Miele, Nicola Toschi, Christian Maracchioni, Martina Siracusano, Arianna Benvenuto, Antonella Coniglio, Paolo Curatolo, Luigi Mazzone, Grelli Sandro, Enrico Garaci, Paola Sinibaldi-Vallebona…
    Citation: Retrovirology 2022 19:26
  21. Viroporins are virally encoded ion channels involved in virus assembly and release. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and influenza A virus encode for viroporins. The human coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 enc...

    Authors: Wyatt Henke, Hope Waisner, Sachith Polpitiya Arachchige, Maria Kalamvoki and Edward Stephens
    Citation: Retrovirology 2022 19:25
  22. Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) infects cattle, integrates into host DNA as a provirus, and induces malignant B-cell lymphoma. Previous studies have addressed the impact of proviral integration of BLV on BLV-induc...

    Authors: Susumu Saito, Kazuyoshi Hosomichi, Meripet Polat Yamanaka, Tetsuya Mizutani, Shin-nosuke Takeshima and Yoko Aida
    Citation: Retrovirology 2022 19:24
  23. TASOR, a component of the HUSH repressor epigenetic complex, and SAMHD1, a cellular triphosphohydrolase (dNTPase), are both anti-HIV proteins antagonized by HIV-2/SIVsmm Viral protein X. As a result, the same ...

    Authors: Virginie Vauthier, Angélique Lasserre, Marina Morel, Margaux Versapuech, Clarisse Berlioz-Torrent, Alessia Zamborlini, Florence Margottin-Goguet and Roy Matkovic
    Citation: Retrovirology 2022 19:23
  24. Integrase strand transfer inhibitors (INSTIs) have improved the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). There are currently four approved for use in treatment-naïve individuals living with HIV; these ...

    Authors: Alexa Vyain Zhao, Rustin D. Crutchley, Rakesh Chowdary Guduru, Kathy Ton, Tammie Lam and Amy Cheng Min
    Citation: Retrovirology 2022 19:22
  25. Although CD4+ memory T cells are considered the primary latent reservoir for HIV-1, replication competent HIV has been detected in tissue macrophages in both animal and human studies. During in vitro HIV infectio...

    Authors: Junru Cui, Mesfin Meshesha, Natela Churgulia, Christian Merlo, Edward Fuchs, Jennifer Breakey, Joyce Jones and James T. Stivers
    Citation: Retrovirology 2022 19:21
  26. Avian leukosis virus (ALV) is an infectious retrovirus, that mainly causes various forms of tumours, immunosuppression, a decreased egg production rate and slow weight gain in poultry. ALV consists of 11 subgr...

    Authors: Jian Chen, Jinqun Li, Xinyi Dong, Ming Liao and Weisheng Cao
    Citation: Retrovirology 2022 19:19
  27. The generation of over 69 spliced HIV-1 mRNAs from one primary transcript by alternative RNA splicing emphasizes the central role that RNA processing plays in HIV-1 replication. Control is mediated in part thr...

    Authors: Subha Dahal, Kiera Clayton, Terek Been, Raphaële Fernet-Brochu, Alonso Villasmil Ocando, Ahalya Balachandran, Mikaël Poirier, Rebecca Kaddis Maldonado, Lulzim Shkreta, Kayluz Frias Boligan, Furkan Guvenc, Fariha Rahman, Donald Branch, Brendan Bell, Benoit Chabot, Scott D. Gray-Owen…
    Citation: Retrovirology 2022 19:18
  28. Nonhuman primates (NHPs) are well-established basic and translational research models for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections and pathophysiology, hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) transplantation, and a...

    Authors: Jenna Kropp Schmidt, Matthew R. Reynolds, Thaddeus G. Golos and Igor I. Slukvin
    Citation: Retrovirology 2022 19:17
  29. Mammalian cells mount a variety of defense mechanisms against invading viruses to prevent or reduce infection. One such defense is the transcriptional silencing of incoming viral DNA, including the silencing o...

    Authors: Franziska K. Geis, Demetra P. Kelenis and Stephen P. Goff
    Citation: Retrovirology 2022 19:16
  30. Innate immunity and type 1 interferon (IFN) defenses are critical for early control of HIV infection within CD4 + T cells. Despite these defenses, some acutely infected cells silence viral transcription to bec...

    Authors: Rebecca M. Olson, Germán Gornalusse, Leanne S. Whitmore, Dan Newhouse, Jennifer Tisoncik-Go, Elise Smith, Christina Ochsenbauer, Florian Hladik and Michael Gale Jr
    Citation: Retrovirology 2022 19:15
  31. Despite antiretroviral treatment efficacy, it does not lead to the complete eradication of HIV infection. Consequently, reactivation of the virus from latently infected cell reservoirs is a major challenge tow...

    Authors: Lendel Correia da Costa, Larissa Maciel Bomfim, Uilla Victoria Torres Dittz, Camila de Almeida Velozo, Rodrigo Delvecchio da Cunha and Amilcar Tanuri
    Citation: Retrovirology 2022 19:12
  32. Human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) result from ancestral infections caused by exogenous retroviruses that became incorporated into the germline DNA and evolutionarily fixed in the human genome. HERVs can be...

    Authors: Lei Jia, Mengying Liu, Caiqin Yang, Hanping Li, Yongjian Liu, Jingwan Han, Xiuli Zhai, Xiaolin Wang, Tianyi Li, Jingyun Li, Bohan Zhang, Changyuan Yu and Lin Li
    Citation: Retrovirology 2022 19:11
  33. Marijuana’s putative anti-inflammatory properties may benefit HIV-associated comorbidities. How recreational marijuana use affects gene expression in peripheral blood cells (PBC) among youth with HIV-1 (YWH) i...

    Authors: Li Yin, Ashok R. Dinasarapu, Samiksha A. Borkar, Kai-Fen Chang, Kristina De Paris, Julie J. Kim-Chang, John W. Sleasman and Maureen M. Goodenow
    Citation: Retrovirology 2022 19:10
  34. P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1/CD162) has been studied extensively for its role in mediating leukocyte rolling through interactions with its cognate receptor, P-selectin. Recently, PSGL-1 was identif...

    Authors: Jonathan Burnie, Arvin Tejnarine Persaud, Laxshaginee Thaya, Qingbo Liu, Huiyi Miao, Stephen Grabinsky, Vanessa Norouzi, Paolo Lusso, Vera A. Tang and Christina Guzzo
    Citation: Retrovirology 2022 19:9
  35. The potential risk and association of bovine leukemia virus (BLV) with human remains controversial as it has been reported to be both positive and negative in human breast cancer and blood samples. Therefore, ...

    Authors: Meripet Polat Yamanaka, Susumu Saito, Yukiko Hara, Ryosuke Matsuura, Shin-nosuke Takeshima, Kazuyoshi Hosomichi, Yasunobu Matsumoto, Rika A. Furuta, Masami Takei and Yoko Aida
    Citation: Retrovirology 2022 19:7
  36. Long-Term Non-Progressors (LTNPs) are untreated Human Immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infected individuals able to control disease progression for prolonged periods. However, the LTNPs status is temporar...

    Authors: Ana Moyano, Oscar Blanch-Lombarte, Laura Tarancon-Diez, Nuria Pedreño-Lopez, Miguel Arenas, Tamara Alvaro, Concepción Casado, Isabel Olivares, Mar Vera, Carmen Rodriguez, Jorge del Romero, Cecilio López-Galíndez, Ezequiel Ruiz-Mateos, Julia G. Prado and María Pernas
    Citation: Retrovirology 2022 19:6
  37. The recent discovery of the role of m6A methylation in the regulation of HIV-1 replication unveiled a novel layer of regulation for HIV gene expression. This epitranscriptomic modification of HIV-1 RNAs is under ...

    Authors: Sarah N’Da Konan, Emmanuel Ségéral, Fabienne Bejjani, Maryam Bendoumou, Mélissa Ait Said, Sarah Gallois-Montbrun and Stéphane Emiliani
    Citation: Retrovirology 2022 19:4
  38. Bone marrow stromal antigen 2 (BST-2) also known as Tetherin (CD317/HM1.24), is a host restriction factor that blocks the release of HIV-1 virions from infected cells. Previous studies reported that BST-2 gene...

    Authors: Hlelolwenkosi Mlimi, Kewreshini K. Naidoo, Jenniffer Mabuka, Thumbi Ndung’u and Paradise Madlala
    Citation: Retrovirology 2022 19:3

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