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  1. Correction

    Correction to: Potent and reversible lentiviral vector restriction in murine induced pluripotent stem cells

    The authors wish to apologize for an error within the scale bar of the microarray heatmap in Additional File 5 of the supplementary information. Two values were incorrectly displayed on the scale bar (11 inste...

    Franziska K. Geis, Melanie Galla, Dirk Hoffmann, Johannes Kuehle, Daniela Zychlinski, Tobias Maetzig, Juliane W. Schott, Adrian Schwarzer, Christine Goffinet, Stephen P. Goff and Axel Schambach

    Retrovirology 2017 14:48

    Published on: 18 October 2017

    The original article was published in Retrovirology 2017 14:34

  2. Research

    Reduced antiretroviral drug efficacy and concentration in HIV-infected microglia contributes to viral persistence in brain

    In patients with HIV/AIDS receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART), HIV-1 persistence in brain tissue is a vital and unanswered question. HIV-1 infects and replicates in resident microglia and trafficking macrop...

    Eugene L. Asahchop, Oussama Meziane, Manmeet K. Mamik, Wing F. Chan, William G. Branton, Lothar Resch, M. John Gill, Elie Haddad, Jean V. Guimond, Mark A. Wainberg, Glen B. Baker, Eric A. Cohen and Christopher Power

    Retrovirology 2017 14:47

    Published on: 16 October 2017

  3. Short report

    A strongly selected mutation in the HIV-1 genome is independent of T cell responses and neutralizing antibodies

    Mutations rapidly accumulate in the HIV-1 genome after infection. Some of those mutations are selected by host immune responses and often cause viral fitness losses. This study is to investigate whether strong...

    Donglai Liu, Chu Wang, Bhavna Hora, Tao Zuo, Nilu Goonetilleke, Michael K. P. Liu, Mark Berrong, Guido Ferrari, Andrew J. McMichael, Tanmoy Bhattacharya, Alan S. Perelson and Feng Gao

    Retrovirology 2017 14:46

    Published on: 10 October 2017

  4. Research

    Cellular fatty acid synthase is required for late stages of HIV-1 replication

    Like all viruses, HIV-1 relies on host systems to replicate. The human purinome consists of approximately two thousand proteins that bind and use purines such as ATP, NADH, and NADPH. By virtue of their purin...

    Manjusha M. Kulkarni, Annette N. Ratcliff, Menakshi Bhat, Yazan Alwarawrah, Philip Hughes, Jesus Arcos, David Loiselle, Jordi B. Torrelles, Nicholas T. Funderburg, Timothy A. Haystead and Jesse J. Kwiek

    Retrovirology 2017 14:45

    Published on: 29 September 2017

  5. Research

    Unique binding modes for the broad neutralizing activity of single-chain variable fragments (scFv) targeting CD4-induced epitopes

    The CD4-induced (CD4i) epitopes in gp120 includes the co-receptor binding site, which are formed and exposed after interaction with CD4. Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) to the CD4i epitopes exhibit limited neutra...

    Kazuki Tanaka, Takeo Kuwata, Muntasir Alam, Gilad Kaplan, Shokichi Takahama, Kristel Paola Ramirez Valdez, Anna Roitburd-Berman, Jonathan M. Gershoni and Shuzo Matsushita

    Retrovirology 2017 14:44

    Published on: 22 September 2017

  6. Research

    HIV-1 tolerates changes in A-count in a small segment of the pol gene

    The HIV-1 RNA genome has a biased nucleotide composition with a surplus of As. Several hypotheses have been put forward to explain this striking phenomenon, but the A-count of the HIV-1 genome has thus far not...

    Bep Klaver, Yme van der Velden, Formijn van Hemert, Antoinette C. van der Kuyl and Ben Berkhout

    Retrovirology 2017 14:43

    Published on: 5 September 2017

  7. Research

    Granulocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cells suppress virus-specific CD8+ T cell responses during acute Friend retrovirus infection

    Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) can suppress T cell responses in several different diseases. Previously these suppressive cells were observed to expand in HIV patients and in a mouse retrovirus model,...

    Malgorzata Drabczyk-Pluta, Tanja Werner, Daniel Hoffmann, Qibin Leng, Lieping Chen, Ulf Dittmer and Gennadiy Zelinskyy

    Retrovirology 2017 14:42

    Published on: 23 August 2017

  8. Research

    Anti-HERV-K (HML-2) capsid antibody responses in HIV elite controllers

    Human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) comprise approximately 8% of the human genome and while the majority are transcriptionally silent, the most recently integrated HERV, HERV-K (HML-2), remains active. Durin...

    Miguel de Mulder, Devi SenGupta, Steven G. Deeks, Jeffrey N. Martin, Christopher D. Pilcher, Frederick M. Hecht, Jonah B. Sacha, Douglas F. Nixon and Henri-Alexandre Michaud

    Retrovirology 2017 14:41

    Published on: 22 August 2017

  9. Research

    Modulation of chromatin structure by the FACT histone chaperone complex regulates HIV-1 integration

    Insertion of retroviral genome DNA occurs in the chromatin of the host cell. This step is modulated by chromatin structure as nucleosomes compaction was shown to prevent HIV-1 integration and chromatin remodel...

    Julien Matysiak, Paul Lesbats, Eric Mauro, Delphine Lapaillerie, Jean-William Dupuy, Angelica P. Lopez, Mohamed Salah Benleulmi, Christina Calmels, Marie-Line Andreola, Marc Ruff, Manuel Llano, Olivier Delelis, Marc Lavigne and Vincent Parissi

    Retrovirology 2017 14:39

    Published on: 28 July 2017

  10. Obituary

    Tribute to Mark Wainberg

    Eric J. Arts, Anne Gatignol, Andrew J. Mouland, Chen Liang, Matthias Götte and Hugo Soudeyns

    Retrovirology 2017 14:38

    Published on: 28 June 2017

  11. Review

    HIV drug resistance against strand transfer integrase inhibitors

    Integrase strand transfer inhibitors (INSTIs) are the newest class of antiretroviral drugs to be approved for treatment and act by inhibiting the essential HIV protein integrase from inserting the viral DNA ge...

    Kaitlin Anstett, Bluma Brenner, Thibault Mesplede and Mark A. Wainberg

    Retrovirology 2017 14:36

    Published on: 5 June 2017

  12. Short report

    Effective treatment of SIVcpz-induced immunodeficiency in a captive western chimpanzee

    Simian immunodeficiency virus of chimpanzees (SIVcpz), the progenitor of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), is associated with increased mortality and AIDS-like immunopathology in wild-living chimpan...

    Hannah J. Barbian, Raven Jackson-Jewett, Corrine S. Brown, Frederic Bibollet-Ruche, Gerald H. Learn, Timothy Decker, Edward F. Kreider, Yingying Li, Thomas N. Denny, Paul M. Sharp, George M. Shaw, Jeffrey Lifson, Edward P. Acosta, Michael S. Saag, Katharine J. Bar and Beatrice H. Hahn

    Retrovirology 2017 14:35

    Published on: 2 June 2017

  13. Research

    Potent and reversible lentiviral vector restriction in murine induced pluripotent stem cells

    Retroviral vectors are derived from wild-type retroviruses, can be used to study retrovirus-host interactions and are effective tools in gene and cell therapy. However, numerous cell types are resistant or les...

    Franziska K. Geis, Melanie Galla, Dirk Hoffmann, Johannes Kuehle, Daniela Zychlinski, Tobias Maetzig, Juliane W. Schott, Adrian Schwarzer, Christine Goffinet, Stephen P. Goff and Axel Schambach

    Retrovirology 2017 14:34

    Published on: 31 May 2017

    The Correction to this article has been published in Retrovirology 2017 14:48

  14. Research

    Parent-offspring regression to estimate the heritability of an HIV-1 trait in a realistic setup

    Parent-offspring (PO) regression is a central tool to determine the heritability of phenotypic traits; i.e., the relative extent to which those traits are controlled by genetic factors. The applicability of PO...

    Nadine Bachmann, Teja Turk, Claus Kadelka, Alex Marzel, Mohaned Shilaih, Jürg Böni, Vincent Aubert, Thomas Klimkait, Gabriel E. Leventhal, Huldrych F. Günthard and Roger Kouyos

    Retrovirology 2017 14:33

    Published on: 23 May 2017

  15. Review

    A conflict of interest: the evolutionary arms race between mammalian APOBEC3 and lentiviral Vif

    Apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme catalytic polypeptide-like 3 (APOBEC3) proteins are mammalian-specific cellular deaminases and have a robust ability to restrain lentivirus replication. To antagonize APOBE...

    Yusuke Nakano, Hirofumi Aso, Andrew Soper, Eri Yamada, Miyu Moriwaki, Guillermo Juarez-Fernandez, Yoshio Koyanagi and Kei Sato

    Retrovirology 2017 14:31

    Published on: 8 May 2017

  16. Editorial

    Professor Mark Wainberg

    Monsef Benkirane, Ben Berkhout, Persephone Borrow, Ariberto Fassati, Masahiro Fujii, J. Victor Garcia, Paul Gorry, Andrew Lever, Johnson Mak, Monique Nijhuis, Klaus Strebel, Francois Venter and Robin Weiss

    Retrovirology 2017 14:30

    Published on: 5 May 2017

  17. Research

    Highly divergent patterns of genetic diversity and evolution in proviral quasispecies from HIV controllers

    Ongoing intra-host HIV-1 evolution has been shown in individuals that naturally suppress the viremia to low levels (HIV controllers) by the analysis of the RNA in plasma compartment. Detection of evolution at ...

    Suwellen S. D. de Azevedo, Diogo Gama Caetano, Fernanda H. Côrtes, Sylvia L. M. Teixeira, Karina dos Santos Silva, Brenda Hoagland, Beatriz Grinsztejn, Valdilea G. Veloso, Mariza G. Morgado and Gonzalo Bello

    Retrovirology 2017 14:29

    Published on: 2 May 2017

  18. Short report

    Interference of retroviral envelope with vaccine-induced CD8+ T cell responses is relieved by co-administration of cytokine-encoding vectors

    Retroviral envelope (Env) proteins are known to exhibit immunosuppressive properties, which become apparent not only in retroviral infections, but also in gene-based immunizations using retroviral immunogens, ...

    Nadine Bongard, Dennis Lapuente, Sonja Windmann, Ulf Dittmer, Matthias Tenbusch and Wibke Bayer

    Retrovirology 2017 14:28

    Published on: 27 April 2017

  19. Research

    Effects of host restriction factors and the HTLV-1 subtype on susceptibility to HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis

    Although human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) infection is a prerequisite for the development of HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP), specific provirus mutations in HAM/TS...

    Satoshi Nozuma, Eiji Matsuura, Daisuke Kodama, Yuichi Tashiro, Toshio Matsuzaki, Ryuji Kubota, Shuji Izumo and Hiroshi Takashima

    Retrovirology 2017 14:26

    Published on: 19 April 2017

  20. Short report

    Type I interferon signaling is required for the APOBEC3/Rfv3-dependent neutralizing antibody response but not innate retrovirus restriction

    APOBEC3/Rfv3 restricts acute Friend retrovirus (FV) infection and promotes virus-specific neutralizing antibody (NAb) responses. Classical Rfv3 studies utilized FV stocks containing lactate-dehydrogenase eleva...

    Bradley S. Barrett, Michael S. Harper, Sean T. Jones, Kejun Guo, Karl J. Heilman, Ross M. Kedl, Kim J. Hasenkrug and Mario L. Santiago

    Retrovirology 2017 14:25

    Published on: 17 April 2017

  21. Short report

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the bovine MHC region of Japanese Black cattle are associated with bovine leukemia virus proviral load

    Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is the causative agent of enzootic bovine leukosis, a malignant B cell lymphoma that has spread worldwide and causes serious problems for the cattle industry. The BLV proviral load,...

    Shin-nosuke Takeshima, Shinji Sasaki, Polat Meripet, Yoshikazu Sugimoto and Yoko Aida

    Retrovirology 2017 14:24

    Published on: 4 April 2017

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