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  1. Content type: Short report

    Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) is an aggressive malignancy secondary to chronic human T-cell lymphotropic virus 1 infection, triggered by the virally encoded oncoprotein Tax. The transforming activity an...

    Authors: Rita Hleihel, Behzad Khoshnood, Ingrid Dacklin, Hayssam Omran, Carine Mouawad, Zeina Dassouki, Marwan El-Sabban, Margret Shirinian, Caroline Grabbe and Ali Bazarbachi

    Citation: Retrovirology 2018 15:33

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  2. Content type: Research

    The apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing enzyme catalytic polypeptide-like 3 (APOBEC3; A3) gene family appears only in mammalian genomes. Some A3 proteins can be incorporated into progeny virions and inhibit lentivir...

    Authors: Yoriyuki Konno, Shumpei Nagaoka, Izumi Kimura, Keisuke Yamamoto, Yumiko Kagawa, Ryuichi Kumata, Hirofumi Aso, Mahoko Takahashi Ueda, So Nakagawa, Tomoko Kobayashi, Yoshio Koyanagi and Kei Sato

    Citation: Retrovirology 2018 15:31

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  3. Content type: Review

    Among the different markers of HIV persistence in infected cells, total HIV DNA is to date the most widely used. It allows an overall quantification of all viral forms of HIV DNA in infected cells, each playin...

    Authors: Christine Rouzioux and Véronique Avettand-Fenoël

    Citation: Retrovirology 2018 15:30

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  4. Content type: Research

    The native pre-fusion structure of gp120/gp41 complex of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 was recently revealed. In the model, the helices of gp41 (α6, α7, α8, and α9) form a four-helix collar underneath trime...

    Authors: Dehua Liu, Hongyun Wang, Mizuki Yamamoto, Jiping Song, Rui Zhang, Qingling Du, Yasushi Kawaguchi, Jun-ichiro Inoue and Zene Matsuda

    Citation: Retrovirology 2018 15:27

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  5. Content type: Research

    The InterFeron Induced TransMembrane (IFITM) proteins are interferon stimulated genes that restrict many viruses, including HIV-1. SAMHD1 is another restriction factor blocking replication of HIV-1 and other v...

    Authors: Ferdinand Roesch, Molly OhAinle and Michael Emerman

    Citation: Retrovirology 2018 15:26

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  6. Content type: Research

    NSC260594, a quinolinium derivative from the NCI diversity set II compound library, was previously identified in a target-based assay as an inhibitor of the interaction between the HIV-1 (ψ) stem-loop 3 (SL3) ...

    Authors: Carin K. Ingemarsdotter, Jingwei Zeng, Ziqi Long, Andrew M.L. Lever and Julia C. Kenyon

    Citation: Retrovirology 2018 15:25

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  7. Content type: Research

    The initial envelope (Env)-specific antibody response in acutely HIV-1-infected individuals and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected rhesus monkeys (RMs) is dominated by non-neutralizing antibodies tar...

    Authors: Quang N. Nguyen, David R. Martinez, Jonathon E. Himes, R. Whitney Edwards, Qifeng Han, Amit Kumar, Riley Mangan, Nathan I. Nicely, Guanhua Xie, Nathan Vandergrift, Xiaoying Shen, Justin Pollara and Sallie R. Permar

    Citation: Retrovirology 2018 15:24

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  8. Content type: Review

    Antiretroviral therapy cannot cure HIV-1 infection due to the persistence of a small number of latently infected cells harboring replication-competent proviruses. Measuring persistent HIV-1 is challenging, as ...

    Authors: Zheng Wang, Francesco R. Simonetti, Robert F. Siliciano and Gregory M. Laird

    Citation: Retrovirology 2018 15:21

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  9. Content type: Review

    Retroviruses can cause severe diseases such as cancer and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. A unique feature in the life cycle of retroviruses is that their RNA genome is reverse transcribed into double-stra...

    Authors: Xu Zhang, Xiancai Ma, Shuliang Jing, Hui Zhang and Yijun Zhang

    Citation: Retrovirology 2018 15:20

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  10. Content type: Research

    Simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIVs) of chimpanzees and gorillas from Central Africa crossed the species barrier at least four times giving rise to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) groups M, N, O ...

    Authors: Mirela D’arc, Carolina Furtado, Juliana D. Siqueira, Héctor N. Seuánez, Ahidjo Ayouba, Martine Peeters and Marcelo A. Soares

    Citation: Retrovirology 2018 15:19

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  11. Content type: Research

    Damage to the central nervous system during HIV infection can lead to variable neurobehavioral dysfunction termed HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). There is no clear consensus regarding the neuro...

    Authors: Stephanie J. Bissel, Kate Gurnsey, Hank P. Jedema, Nicholas F. Smith, Guoji Wang, Charles W. Bradberry and Clayton A. Wiley

    Citation: Retrovirology 2018 15:17

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  12. Content type: Review

    Characterizing HIV genetic diversity and evolution during antiretroviral therapy (ART) provides insights into the mechanisms that maintain the viral reservoir during ART. This review describes common methods u...

    Authors: Gert van Zyl, Michael J. Bale and Mary F. Kearney

    Citation: Retrovirology 2018 15:14

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  13. Content type: Review

    Although antiretroviral therapy is able to suppress HIV replication in infected patients, the virus persists and rebounds when treatment is stopped. In order to find a cure that can eradicate the latent reserv...

    Authors: Sofie Rutsaert, Kobus Bosman, Wim Trypsteen, Monique Nijhuis and Linos Vandekerckhove

    Citation: Retrovirology 2018 15:16

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  14. Content type: Review

    Cell-associated (CA) HIV RNA has received much attention in recent years as a surrogate measure of the efficiency of HIV latency reversion and because it may provide an estimate of the viral reservoir size. Th...

    Authors: Alexander O. Pasternak and Ben Berkhout

    Citation: Retrovirology 2018 15:13

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  15. Content type: Review

    The multiple roles of both viral and cellular RNAs have become increasingly apparent in recent years, and techniques to model them have become significantly more powerful, enabling faster and more accurate vis...

    Authors: Dhivya Jayaraman and Julia Claire Kenyon

    Citation: Retrovirology 2018 15:11

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  16. Content type: Short report

    The retrovirus murine leukemia virus (MuLV) has an 8.3 kb RNA genome with a simple 5′-gag-pol-env-3′ architecture. Translation of the pol gene is dependent upon readthrough of the gag UAG stop codon; whereas the

    Authors: Nerea Irigoyen, Adam M. Dinan, Ian Brierley and Andrew E. Firth

    Citation: Retrovirology 2018 15:10

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