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  1. Content type: Review

    Vaccination against retroviruses is a challenge because of their ability to stably integrate into the host genome, undergo long-term latency in a proportion of infected cells and thereby escape immune response...

    Authors: Alejandro Abdala, Irene Alvarez, Hélène Brossel, Luis Calvinho, Hugo Carignano, Lautaro Franco, Hélène Gazon, Christelle Gillissen, Malik Hamaidia, Clotilde Hoyos, Jean-Rock Jacques, Thomas Joris, Florent Laval, Marcos Petersen, Florent Porquet, Natalia Porta…

    Citation: Retrovirology 2019 16:26

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  2. Content type: Review

    Human T-cell leukemia virus type-1 (HTLV-1) causes adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL), HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP), and other inflammatory diseases. There is no diseas...

    Authors: Mari Kannagi, Atsuhiko Hasegawa, Yoshiko Nagano, Shuichi Kimpara and Youko Suehiro

    Citation: Retrovirology 2019 16:23

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  3. Content type: Editorial

    Authors: Monsef Benkirane, Ben Berkhout, Persephone Borrow, Ariberto Fassati, Masahiro Fujii, J. Victor Garcia-Martinez, D. Margolis, Monique Nijhuis, Leslie Parent, Klaus Strebel, François Venter, Frank Kirchhoff, Andrew Lever, Susan Ross and Johnson Mak

    Citation: Retrovirology 2019 16:22

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  4. Content type: Review

    Human T cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) was the first discovered human retrovirus and the etiologic agent of adult T-cell leukemia and HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis. Shortly aft...

    Authors: Michael P. Martinez, Jacob Al-Saleem and Patrick L. Green

    Citation: Retrovirology 2019 16:21

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  5. Content type: Correction

    Following publication of their article [1], the authors realized that they inadvertently omitted the contribution of Dr. Li Wu (Ohio State University) who commented on the manuscript at the early stage of the ...

    Authors: Qiaoqiao Xiao, Shuliang Chen, Qiankun Wang, Zhepeng Liu, Shuai Liu, Huan Deng, Wei Hou, Dongcheng Wu, Yong Xiong, Jiafu Li and Deyin Guo

    Citation: Retrovirology 2019 16:20

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    The original article was published in Retrovirology 2019 16:15

  6. Content type: Correspondence

    Antiretroviral therapy (ART) can effectively suppress ongoing HIV replication and block disease progression, but the infection is never cured due to the persistence of a small pool of latently infected cells h...

    Authors: Atze T. Das, Alexander O. Pasternak and Ben Berkhout

    Citation: Retrovirology 2019 16:19

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  7. Content type: Research

    Nef is a multifunctional accessory protein encoded by HIV-1, HIV-2 and SIV that plays critical roles in viral pathogenesis, contributing to viral replication, assembly, budding, infectivity and immune evasion,...

    Authors: Elodie Mailler, Abdul A. Waheed, Sang-Yoon Park, David C. Gershlick, Eric O. Freed and Juan S. Bonifacino

    Citation: Retrovirology 2019 16:18

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  8. Content type: Research

    Current efforts towards HIV-1 eradication focus on the reactivation and elimination of the latent viral reservoir, so-called shock and kill therapy. However, work from several groups indicates that infected ce...

    Authors: Benjamin Trinité, Hongtao Zhang and David N. Levy

    Citation: Retrovirology 2019 16:17

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  9. Content type: Research

    The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) cell reservoir is currently a main obstacle towards complete eradication of the virus. This infected pool is refractory to anti-viral therapy and harbors integrated provi...

    Authors: Simona Krasnopolsky, Lital Marom, Rachel A. Victor, Alona Kuzmina, Jacob C. Schwartz, Koh Fujinaga and Ran Taube

    Citation: Retrovirology 2019 16:16

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  10. Content type: Research

    The chemokine receptor CCR5, which belongs to the superfamily of G protein-coupled receptors, is the major co-receptor for HIV-1 entry. Individuals with a homozygous CCR5Δ32 mutation have a long lasting and incre...

    Authors: Qiaoqiao Xiao, Shuliang Chen, Qiankun Wang, Zhepeng Liu, Shuai Liu, Huan Deng, Wei Hou, Dongcheng Wu, Yong Xiong, Jiafu Li and Deyin Guo

    Citation: Retrovirology 2019 16:15

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    The Correction to this article has been published in Retrovirology 2019 16:20

  11. Content type: Short report

    Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) causes enzootic bovine leukosis and is closely related to the human T-lymphotropic virus. Bovine major histocompatibility complex (BoLAs) are used extensively as markers of disease ...

    Authors: Shin-nosuke Takeshima, Ayumu Ohno and Yoko Aida

    Citation: Retrovirology 2019 16:14

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  12. Content type: Research

    HIV-1 patients receiving combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) survive infection but require life-long adherence at high expense. In chronic cART-treated patients with undetectable viral titers, cell-assoc...

    Authors: Daniel O. Pinto, Tristan A. Scott, Catherine DeMarino, Michelle L. Pleet, Thy T. Vo, Mohammed Saifuddin, Dmytro Kovalskyy, James Erickson, Maria Cowen, Robert A. Barclay, Chen Zeng, Marc S. Weinberg and Fatah Kashanchi

    Citation: Retrovirology 2019 16:13

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  13. Content type: Research

    The different interactions between viral proteins and cellular host proteins are required for efficient replication of HIV-1. Various reports implicated host cellular proteins as a key factor that either inter...

    Authors: Pooja Yadav, Souvik Sur, Dipen Desai, Smita Kulkarni, Vartika Sharma and Vibha Tandon

    Citation: Retrovirology 2019 16:12

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  14. Content type: Research

    Reverse transcription (RT) of HIV and SIV is initiated by the binding of the acceptor stem of tRNALys3 to the primer binding site (PBS) of the viral RNA genome. Previous studies have suggested that this tRNALys3 ...

    Authors: Christine M. Fennessey, Celine Camus, Taina T. Immonen, Carolyn Reid, Frank Maldarelli, Jeffrey D. Lifson and Brandon F. Keele

    Citation: Retrovirology 2019 16:11

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  15. Content type: Research

    Efficient HIV-1 replication depends on interaction of the viral capsid with the host protein cyclophilin A (CypA). CypA, a peptidylprolyl isomerase, binds to an exposed loop in the viral CA protein via the enz...

    Authors: Wang Peng, Jiong Shi, Chantal L. Márquez, Derrick Lau, James Walsh, K. M. Rifat Faysal, Chang H. Byeon, In-Ja L. Byeon, Christopher Aiken and Till Böcking

    Citation: Retrovirology 2019 16:10

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  16. Content type: Research

    We previously showed that the gM of HSV-1 could restrict the release of infectious HIV-1 from cells. In this study, we analyzed if the four HSV-1 glycoproteins (gD, gB, and gH/gL), which are the minimum glycop...

    Authors: Sachith Polpitiya Arachchige, Wyatt Henke, Maria Kalamvoki and Edward B. Stephens

    Citation: Retrovirology 2019 16:9

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  17. Content type: Research

    Persistence of latent, replication-competent provirus is the main impediment towards the cure of HIV infection. One of the critical questions concerning HIV latency is the role of integration site selection in...

    Authors: Gerlinde Vansant, Lenard S. Vranckx, Irena Zurnic, Dominique Van Looveren, Paulien Van de Velde, Christopher Nobles, Rik Gijsbers, Frauke Christ and Zeger Debyser

    Citation: Retrovirology 2019 16:8

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  18. Content type: Research

    Vertebrate genomes contain a record of retroviruses that invaded the germlines of ancestral hosts and are passed to offspring as endogenous retroviruses (ERVs). ERVs can impact host function since they contain...

    Authors: Julia V. Halo, Amanda L. Pendleton, Abigail S. Jarosz, Robert J. Gifford, Malika L. Day and Jeffrey M. Kidd

    Citation: Retrovirology 2019 16:6

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  19. Content type: Research

    Adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) is an aggressive neoplasm caused by human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1). ATL carries a poor prognosis due to chemotherapy resistance. Thus, it is urgent to develop new treat...

    Authors: Lingling Xu, Xueqing Zhang, Wenzhao Cheng, Yong Wang, Kaining Yi, Zhilong Wang, Yiling Zhang, Linxiang Shao and Tiejun Zhao

    Citation: Retrovirology 2019 16:5

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  20. Content type: Short report

    Latently infected CD4 lymphocytes preclude cure of HIV infection, even with the most effective antiretroviral therapy. The replication competent latent HIV reservoir has been quantified with the terminal dilut...

    Authors: Douglas D. Richman, Karissa Huang, Steven M. Lada, Xiaoying Sun, Sonia Jain, Marta Massanella and Bryson Menke

    Citation: Retrovirology 2019 16:4

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  21. Content type: Research

    Mammalian cells harbour RNA quality control and degradative machineries such as nonsense-mediated mRNA decay that target cellular mRNAs for clearance from the cell to avoid aberrant gene expression. The role o...

    Authors: Shringar Rao, Raquel Amorim, Meijuan Niu, Yann Breton, Michel J. Tremblay and Andrew J. Mouland

    Citation: Retrovirology 2019 16:3

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  22. Content type: Research

    HIV infection is enhanced by cell adhesions that form between infected and uninfected T cells called virological synapses (VS). VS are initiated by an interaction between Env and CD4 on cell surfaces and resul...

    Authors: Lili Wang, Sudeh Izadmehr, Edwin Kamau, Xiang-Peng Kong and Benjamin K. Chen

    Citation: Retrovirology 2019 16:2

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  23. Content type: Research

    The large and constantly evolving HIV-1 pandemic has led to an increasingly complex diversity. Because of some taxonomic difficulties among the most diverse HIV-1 subtypes, and taking advantage of the large am...

    Authors: Nathalie Désiré, Lorenzo Cerutti, Quentin Le Hingrat, Marine Perrier, Stefan Emler, Vincent Calvez, Diane Descamps, Anne-Geneviève Marcelin, Stéphane Hué and Benoit Visseaux

    Citation: Retrovirology 2018 15:80

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  24. Content type: Research

    The APOBEC3 (A3) family of DNA cytosine deaminases provides an innate barrier to infection by retroviruses including HIV-1. A total of five enzymes, A3C, A3D, A3F, A3G and A3H, are degraded by the viral access...

    Authors: Brett D. Anderson, Terumasa Ikeda, Seyed Arad Moghadasi, Amber St. Martin, William L. Brown and Reuben S. Harris

    Citation: Retrovirology 2018 15:78

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  25. Content type: Research

    HIV infection and antiretroviral treatment are associated with changes in lipid levels, insulin resistance and risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). We investigated these changes in the first 96 weeks of treat...

    Authors: Alinda G. Vos, Matthew F. Chersich, Kerstin Klipstein-Grobusch, Peter Zuithoff, Michelle A. Moorhouse, Samanta T. Lalla-Edward, Andrew Kambugu, N. Kumarasamy, Diederick E. Grobbee, Roos E. Barth and Willem D. Venter

    Citation: Retrovirology 2018 15:77

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  26. Content type: Research

    To investigate the impact of early combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) on inflammation biomarkers and immune activation during acute and early chronic HIV-1 infection.

    Authors: Hury Hellen Souza de Paula, Ana Cristina Garcia Ferreira, Diogo Gama Caetano, Edson Delatorre, Sylvia Lopes Maia Teixeira, Lara Esteves Coelho, Eduarda Grinsztejn João, Michelle Morata de Andrade, Sandra Wagner Cardoso, Beatriz Grinsztejn, Valdilea Gonçalves Veloso, Mariza Gonçalves Morgado, Monick Lindenmeyer Guimarães and Fernanda Heloise Côrtes

    Citation: Retrovirology 2018 15:76

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  27. Content type: Research

    Host genetic factors such as MBL2 gene polymorphisms cause defects in the polymerization of MBL protein and result in a functional deficiency and/or in low serum levels that can influence susceptibility to variou...

    Authors: Viviane Martha Santos de Morais, Elker Lene Santos de Lima, Georgea Gertrudes de Oliveira Mendes Cahú, Thaisa Regina Rocha Lopes, Juliana Prado Gonçales, Maria Tereza Cartaxo Muniz and Maria Rosângela Cunha Duarte Coêlho

    Citation: Retrovirology 2018 15:75

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  28. Content type: Research

    Among human T cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1)-infected individuals, there is an association between HTLV-1 tax subgroups (subgroup-A or subgroup-B) and the risk of HAM/TSP in the Japanese population. To inves...

    Authors: Tadasuke Naito, Jun-ichirou Yasunaga, Yuichi Mitobe, Kazumasa Shirai, Hiroe Sejima, Hiroshi Ushirogawa, Yuetsu Tanaka, Tatsufumi Nakamura, Kousuke Hanada, Masahiro Fujii, Masao Matsuoka and Mineki Saito

    Citation: Retrovirology 2018 15:72

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  29. Content type: Research

    SAM domain and HD domain containing protein 1 (SAMHD1) is a host anti-HIV-1 restriction factor known to suppress viral reverse transcription in nondividing myeloid cells by its dNTP triphosphorylase activity t...

    Authors: Bijan Mahboubi, Christina Gavegnano, Dong-Hyun Kim, Raymond F. Schinazi and Baek Kim

    Citation: Retrovirology 2018 15:69

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  30. Content type: Research

    Current antiretroviral therapy is effective in controlling HIV-1 infection. However, cessation of therapy is associated with rapid return of viremia from the viral reservoir. Eradicating the HIV-1 reservoir ha...

    Authors: Catalina Méndez, Scott Ledger, Kathy Petoumenos, Chantelle Ahlenstiel and Anthony D. Kelleher

    Citation: Retrovirology 2018 15:67

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  31. Content type: Research

    There is a constant need to improve antiretrovirals against HIV since therapy is limited by cost, side effects and the emergence of drug resistance. Kudzu is a climbing vine from which the root extract (Pueraria ...

    Authors: S. Mediouni, J. A. Jablonski, S. Tsuda, A. Richard, C. Kessing, M. V. Andrade, A. Biswas, Y. Even, T. Tellinghuisen, H. Choe, M. Cameron, M. Stevenson and S. T. Valente

    Citation: Retrovirology 2018 15:64

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  32. Content type: Research

    Despite the low level of viral replication in HIV controllers (HICs), studies have reported viral mutations related to escape from cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response in HIV-1 plasma sequences. Thus, evaluat...

    Authors: Diogo Gama Caetano, Fernanda Heloise Côrtes, Gonzalo Bello, Sylvia Lopes Maia Teixeira, Brenda Hoagland, Beatriz Grinsztejn, Valdilea Gonçalves Veloso, Monick Lindenmeyer Guimarães and Mariza Gonçalves Morgado

    Citation: Retrovirology 2018 15:62

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  33. Content type: Review

    As increasing numbers of broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against HIV-1 enter clinical trials, it is becoming evident that combinations of mAbs are necessary to block infection by the diverse ...

    Authors: Neal N. Padte, Jian Yu, Yaoxing Huang and David D. Ho

    Citation: Retrovirology 2018 15:60

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  34. Content type: Review

    Retroviral integration into germline DNA can result in the formation of a vertically inherited proviral sequence called an endogenous retrovirus (ERV). Over the course of their evolution, vertebrate genomes ha...

    Authors: Robert J. Gifford, Jonas Blomberg, John M. Coffin, Hung Fan, Thierry Heidmann, Jens Mayer, Jonathan Stoye, Michael Tristem and Welkin E. Johnson

    Citation: Retrovirology 2018 15:59

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