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  1. Some multifunctional cellular proteins, as the monocyte chemotactic protein-induced protein 1 (ZC3H12A/MCPIP1) and the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor CDKN1A/p21, are able to modulate the cellular susceptibi...

    Authors: Suwellen S. D. de Azevedo, Marcelo Ribeiro-Alves, Fernanda H. Côrtes, Edson Delatorre, Lucia Spangenberg, Hugo Naya, Leonardo N. Seito, Brenda Hoagland, Beatriz Grinsztejn, Valdilea G. Veloso, Mariza G. Morgado, Thiago Moreno L. Souza and Gonzalo Bello

    Citation: Retrovirology 2020 17:18

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  2. Heterosexual transmission remains the main route of HIV-1 transmission and female genital tract (FGT) inflammation increases the risk of infection. However, the mechanism(s) by which inflammation facilitates i...

    Authors: Evelyn Ngwa Lumngwena, Simon Metenou, Lindi Masson, Claudia Cicala, James Arthos and Zenda Woodman

    Citation: Retrovirology 2020 17:17

    Content type: Research

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  3. The human myxovirus resistance 2 (Mx2/MxB) protein was originally found to regulate cytoplasmic-nuclear transport but was recently reported to restrict HIV-1 replication by binding to HIV-1 capsid (CA), preven...

    Authors: Linlin Xie, Lang Chen, Chaojie Zhong, Ting Yu, Zhao Ju, Meirong Wang, Hairong Xiong, Yan Zeng, Jianhua Wang, Haitao Hu, Wei Hou and Yong Feng

    Citation: Retrovirology 2020 17:16

    Content type: Research

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  4. Simian T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (STLV-1) is disseminated among various non-human primate species and is closely related to human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1), the causative agent of adult T-cell l...

    Authors: Megumi Murata, Jun-ichirou Yasunaga, Ayaka Washizaki, Yohei Seki, Madoka Kuramitsu, Wei Keat Tan, Anna Hu, Kazu Okuma, Isao Hamaguchi, Takuo Mizukami, Masao Matsuoka and Hirofumi Akari

    Citation: Retrovirology 2020 17:15

    Content type: Research

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  5. Patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are more prone to systemic inflammation and pathological clotting, and many may develop deep vein thrombosis (DVT) as a result of this dysregulated...

    Authors: Brandon S. Jackson, Julien Nunes Goncalves and Etheresia Pretorius

    Citation: Retrovirology 2020 17:14

    Content type: Research

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  6. HIV-1 can develop resistance to antiretroviral drugs, mainly through mutations within the target regions of the drugs. In HIV-1 protease, a majority of resistance-associated mutations that develop in response ...

    Authors: Tomas Bastys, Vytautas Gapsys, Hauke Walter, Eva Heger, Nadezhda T. Doncheva, Rolf Kaiser, Bert L. de Groot and Olga V. Kalinina

    Citation: Retrovirology 2020 17:13

    Content type: Research

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  7. Human T cell leukemia virus type-1 (HTLV-1) was the first retrovirus found to cause cancer in humans, but the mechanisms that drive the development of leukemia and other diseases associated with HTLV-1 infecti...

    Authors: Maria Omsland, Micol Silic-Benussi, Ramona Moles, Sarkis Sarkis, Damian F. J. Purcell, David Yurick, Georges Khoury, Donna M. D’Agostino, Vincenzo Ciminale and Genoveffa Franchini

    Citation: Retrovirology 2020 17:11

    Content type: Review

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  8. Human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs), suspected to be transposition-defective, may reshape the transcriptional network of the human genome by regulatory elements distributed in their long terminal repeats (LT...

    Authors: Bei Xue, Tiansheng Zeng, Lisha Jia, Dongsheng Yang, Stanley L. Lin, Leonardo A. Sechi and David J. Kelvin

    Citation: Retrovirology 2020 17:10

    Content type: Research

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  9. The development of safe and effective combination antiretroviral therapies for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection over the past several decades has significantly reduced HIV-associated morbidity and ...

    Authors: Yash Agarwal, Cole Beatty, Shivkumar Biradar, Isabella Castronova, Sara Ho, Kevin Melody and Moses Turkle Bility

    Citation: Retrovirology 2020 17:8

    Content type: Review

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  10. HIV-1 does not encode a helicase and hijacks those of the cell for efficient replication. We and others previously showed that the DEAD box helicase, DDX5, is an essential HIV dependency factor. DDX5 was recen...

    Authors: Nyaradzai Sithole, Claire A. Williams, Truus E. M. Abbink and Andrew M. L. Lever

    Citation: Retrovirology 2020 17:6

    Content type: Research

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  11. Adult T-cell leukemia-lymphoma (ATL) is an aggressive mature lymphoid proliferation associated with poor prognosis. Standard of care includes chemotherapy and/or the combination of zidovudine and interferon-al...

    Authors: Ambroise Marçais, Lucy Cook, Aviva Witkover, Vahid Asnafi, Véronique Avettand-Fenoel, Richard Delarue, Morgane Cheminant, David Sibon, Laurent Frenzel, Hugues de Thé, Charles R. M. Bangham, Ali Bazarbachi, Olivier Hermine and Felipe Suarez

    Citation: Retrovirology 2020 17:5

    Content type: Short report

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  12. HTLV-1 was the first described human retrovirus and was soon found to be associated with severe clinical diseases, including a devastating lymphoma/leukemia and other inflammatory diseases. Although HTLV-2 is ...

    Authors: Ricardo Ishak, Marluísa de Oliveira Guimarães Ishak and Antonio Carlos R. Vallinoto

    Citation: Retrovirology 2020 17:4

    Content type: Review

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  13. The HIV accessory protein Nef downregulates the viral entry receptor CD4, the Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA)-A and -B molecules, the Serine incorporator 5 (SERINC5) protein and other molecules from the infected...

    Authors: Hanwei Sudderuddin, Natalie N. Kinloch, Steven W. Jin, Rachel L. Miller, Bradley R. Jones, Chanson J. Brumme, Jeffrey B. Joy, Mark A. Brockman and Zabrina L. Brumme

    Citation: Retrovirology 2020 17:3

    Content type: Short report

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  14. Human T cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) causes adult T-cell leukemia-lymphoma (ATL) and inflammatory diseases. The HTLV-1 bZIP factor (HBZ) gene is constantly expressed in HTLV-1 infected cells and ATL cel...

    Authors: Masao Matsuoka and Jean-Michel Mesnard

    Citation: Retrovirology 2020 17:2

    Content type: Review

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  15. Human T-lymphotropic virus 1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) is a progressive disease of the central nervous system that significantly affected spinal cord, nevertheless, the patho...

    Authors: Sayed-Hamidreza Mozhgani, Mehran Piran, Mohadeseh Zarei-Ghobadi, Mohieddin Jafari, Seyed-Mohammad Jazayeri, Talat Mokhtari-Azad, Majid Teymoori-Rad, Narges Valizadeh, Hamid Farajifard, Mehdi Mirzaie, Azam Khamseh, Houshang Rafatpanah, Seyed-Abdolrahim Rezaee and Mehdi Norouzi

    Citation: Retrovirology 2019 16:46

    Content type: Research

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  16. Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is the etiologic agent of adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) and the neurological disorder HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). The...

    Authors: Michael P. Martinez, Xiaogang Cheng, Ancy Joseph, Jacob Al-Saleem, Amanda R. Panfil, Marilly Palettas, Wessel P. Dirksen, Lee Ratner and Patrick L. Green

    Citation: Retrovirology 2019 16:44

    Content type: Research

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  17. The human T cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTVL-1), first reported in 1980 by Robert Gallo’s group, is the etiologic agent of both cancer and inflammatory diseases. Despite approximately 40 years of investigation...

    Authors: Sarkis Sarkis, Veronica Galli, Ramona Moles, David Yurick, Georges Khoury, Damian F. J. Purcell, Genoveffa Franchini and Cynthia A. Pise-Masison

    Citation: Retrovirology 2019 16:43

    Content type: Review

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  18. The extraordinarily high prevalence of HTLV-1 subtype C (HTLV-1C) in some isolated indigenous communities in Oceania and the severity of the health conditions associated with the virus impress the great need f...

    Authors: Ramona Moles, Sarkis Sarkis, Veronica Galli, Maria Omsland, Damian F. J. Purcell, David Yurick, Georges Khoury, Cynthia A. Pise-Masison and Genoveffa Franchini

    Citation: Retrovirology 2019 16:42

    Content type: Review

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  19. Few years after HTLV-1 identification and isolation in humans, STLV-1, its simian counterpart, was discovered. It then became clear that STLV-1 is present almost in all simian species. Subsequent molecular epi...

    Authors: Brice Jégado, Fatah Kashanchi, Hélène Dutartre and Renaud Mahieux

    Citation: Retrovirology 2019 16:41

    Content type: Review

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  20. The HERV-K (HML-2) viruses are the youngest of the human endogenous retroviruses. They are present as several almost complete proviral copies and numerous fragments in the human genome. Many HERV-K proviruses ...

    Authors: Laurie R. Gray, Rachel E. Jackson, Patrick E. H. Jackson, Stefan Bekiranov, David Rekosh and Marie-Louise Hammarskjöld

    Citation: Retrovirology 2019 16:40

    Content type: Research

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  21. Human T cell leukaemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is a retrovirus associated with human diseases such as adult T-cell leukaemia/lymphoma and HTLV-1 associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis. In contrast to...

    Authors: Paola Miyazato, Misaki Matsuo, Benjy J. Y. Tan, Michiyo Tokunaga, Hiroo Katsuya, Saiful Islam, Jumpei Ito, Yasuhiro Murakawa and Yorifumi Satou

    Citation: Retrovirology 2019 16:38

    Content type: Research

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  22. Life expectancy is increasing in the HIV-positive population and age-related non-communicable diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, (CVD) are seen more frequently. This study investigated to what extent HI...

    Authors: Alinda G. Vos, Klariska Hoeve, Roos E. Barth, Joyce Peper, Michelle Moorhouse, Nigel J. Crowther, Willem D. F. Venter, Diederick E. Grobbee, Michiel L. Bots and Kerstin Klipstein-Grobusch

    Citation: Retrovirology 2019 16:37

    Content type: Research

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  23. Peptides corresponding to N- and C-terminal heptad repeat regions (HR1 and HR2, respectively) of gp41 can inhibit HIV-1 infection in a dominant negative manner by interfering with refolding of the viral HR1 an...

    Authors: Chen Yuan, Jia-Ye Wang, Hai-Jiao Zhao, Yan Li, Di Li, Hong Ling and Min Zhuang

    Citation: Retrovirology 2019 16:36

    Content type: Research

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  24. Immunity against pathogens evolved through complex mechanisms that only for sake of simplicity are defined as innate immunity and adaptive immunity. Indeed innate and adaptive immunity are strongly intertwined...

    Authors: Greta Forlani, Mariam Shallak, Elise Ramia, Alessandra Tedeschi and Roberto S. Accolla

    Citation: Retrovirology 2019 16:34

    Content type: Review

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  25. The Deltaretrovirus genus of retroviruses (family Retroviridae) includes the human T cell leukemia viruses and bovine leukemia virus (BLV). Relatively little is known about the biology and evolution of these viru...

    Authors: Tomáš Hron, Daniel Elleder and Robert J. Gifford

    Citation: Retrovirology 2019 16:33

    Content type: Short report

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  26. HIV-infected cell lines are widely used to study latent HIV infection, which is considered the main barrier to HIV cure. We hypothesized that these cell lines differ from each other and from cells from HIV-inf...

    Authors: Sushama Telwatte, Sara Morón-López, Dvir Aran, Peggy Kim, Christine Hsieh, Sunil Joshi, Mauricio Montano, Warner C. Greene, Atul J. Butte, Joseph K. Wong and Steven A. Yukl

    Citation: Retrovirology 2019 16:32

    Content type: Research

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  27. The existing repertoire of HIV-1 patient derived broadly neutralising antibodies (bNAbs) that target the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env) present numerous and exciting opportunities for immune-based therapeut...

    Authors: Tumelo Moshoette, Stuart Alvaro Ali, Maria Antonia Papathanasopoulos and Mark Andrew Killick

    Citation: Retrovirology 2019 16:31

    Content type: Short report

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  28. HIV-1 integration results in genomic DNA gaps that are repaired by cellular DNA repair pathways. This step of the lentiviral life cycle remains poorly understood despite its crucial importance for successful r...

    Authors: Ekaterina Knyazhanskaya, Andrey Anisenko, Olga Shadrina, Anastasia Kalinina, Timofei Zatsepin, Arthur Zalevsky, Dmitriy Mazurov and Marina Gottikh

    Citation: Retrovirology 2019 16:30

    Content type: Research

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  29. Terminally differentiated/nondividing macrophages, a key target cell type of HIV-1, harbor extremely low dNTP concentrations established by a host dNTP triphosphohydrolase, SAM domain and HD domain containing ...

    Authors: Caitlin Shepard, Joella Xu, Jessica Holler, Dong-Hyun Kim, Louis M. Mansky, Raymond F. Schinazi and Baek Kim

    Citation: Retrovirology 2019 16:29

    Content type: Research

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  30. PIE12-trimer is a highly potent d-peptide HIV-1 entry inhibitor that broadly targets group M isolates. It specifically binds the three identical conserved hydrophobic pockets at the base of the gp41 N-trimer with...

    Authors: Amanda R. Smith, Matthew T. Weinstock, Amanda E. Siglin, Frank G. Whitby, J. Nicholas Francis, Christopher P. Hill, Debra M. Eckert, Michael J. Root and Michael S. Kay

    Citation: Retrovirology 2019 16:28

    Content type: Research

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  31. Arawete and Asurini Indian tribes were revisited after a 36-year follow-up in search of HTLV infections. 46 persons (23 from each tribe) were tested for HTLV-1/2 antibodies and viral DNA. None were positive; t...

    Authors: Antonio C. R. Vallinoto, Mateus I. Otake, Paulo V. N. R. Sousa, Felipe T. Lopes, Eliene R. P. Sacuena, Maria A. F. Queiroz, Greice L. C. Costa, Marluísa O. G. Ishak, Izaura M. V. Cayres-Vallinoto, João F. Guerreiro and Ricardo Ishak

    Citation: Retrovirology 2019 16:27

    Content type: Correspondence

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  32. Vaccination against retroviruses is a challenge because of their ability to stably integrate into the host genome, undergo long-term latency in a proportion of infected cells and thereby escape immune response...

    Authors: Alejandro Abdala, Irene Alvarez, Hélène Brossel, Luis Calvinho, Hugo Carignano, Lautaro Franco, Hélène Gazon, Christelle Gillissen, Malik Hamaidia, Clotilde Hoyos, Jean-Rock Jacques, Thomas Joris, Florent Laval, Marcos Petersen, Florent Porquet, Natalia Porta…

    Citation: Retrovirology 2019 16:26

    Content type: Review

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  33. Human T-cell leukemia virus type-1 (HTLV-1) causes adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL), HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP), and other inflammatory diseases. There is no diseas...

    Authors: Mari Kannagi, Atsuhiko Hasegawa, Yoshiko Nagano, Shuichi Kimpara and Youko Suehiro

    Citation: Retrovirology 2019 16:23

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

  34. Authors: Monsef Benkirane, Ben Berkhout, Persephone Borrow, Ariberto Fassati, Masahiro Fujii, J. Victor Garcia-Martinez, D. Margolis, Monique Nijhuis, Leslie Parent, Klaus Strebel, François Venter, Frank Kirchhoff, Andrew Lever, Susan Ross and Johnson Mak

    Citation: Retrovirology 2019 16:22

    Content type: Editorial

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  35. Human T cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) was the first discovered human retrovirus and the etiologic agent of adult T-cell leukemia and HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis. Shortly aft...

    Authors: Michael P. Martinez, Jacob Al-Saleem and Patrick L. Green

    Citation: Retrovirology 2019 16:21

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

  36. Following publication of their article [1], the authors realized that they inadvertently omitted the contribution of Dr. Li Wu (Ohio State University) who commented on the manuscript at the early stage of the ...

    Authors: Qiaoqiao Xiao, Shuliang Chen, Qiankun Wang, Zhepeng Liu, Shuai Liu, Huan Deng, Wei Hou, Dongcheng Wu, Yong Xiong, Jiafu Li and Deyin Guo

    Citation: Retrovirology 2019 16:20

    Content type: Correction

    Published on:

    The original article was published in Retrovirology 2019 16:15

  37. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) can effectively suppress ongoing HIV replication and block disease progression, but the infection is never cured due to the persistence of a small pool of latently infected cells h...

    Authors: Atze T. Das, Alexander O. Pasternak and Ben Berkhout

    Citation: Retrovirology 2019 16:19

    Content type: Correspondence

    Published on:

  38. Nef is a multifunctional accessory protein encoded by HIV-1, HIV-2 and SIV that plays critical roles in viral pathogenesis, contributing to viral replication, assembly, budding, infectivity and immune evasion,...

    Authors: Elodie Mailler, Abdul A. Waheed, Sang-Yoon Park, David C. Gershlick, Eric O. Freed and Juan S. Bonifacino

    Citation: Retrovirology 2019 16:18

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  39. Current efforts towards HIV-1 eradication focus on the reactivation and elimination of the latent viral reservoir, so-called shock and kill therapy. However, work from several groups indicates that infected ce...

    Authors: Benjamin Trinité, Hongtao Zhang and David N. Levy

    Citation: Retrovirology 2019 16:17

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  40. The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) cell reservoir is currently a main obstacle towards complete eradication of the virus. This infected pool is refractory to anti-viral therapy and harbors integrated provi...

    Authors: Simona Krasnopolsky, Lital Marom, Rachel A. Victor, Alona Kuzmina, Jacob C. Schwartz, Koh Fujinaga and Ran Taube

    Citation: Retrovirology 2019 16:16

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  41. The chemokine receptor CCR5, which belongs to the superfamily of G protein-coupled receptors, is the major co-receptor for HIV-1 entry. Individuals with a homozygous CCR5Δ32 mutation have a long lasting and incre...

    Authors: Qiaoqiao Xiao, Shuliang Chen, Qiankun Wang, Zhepeng Liu, Shuai Liu, Huan Deng, Wei Hou, Dongcheng Wu, Yong Xiong, Jiafu Li and Deyin Guo

    Citation: Retrovirology 2019 16:15

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

    The Correction to this article has been published in Retrovirology 2019 16:20

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