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  1. Although CD4+ memory T cells are considered the primary latent reservoir for HIV-1, replication competent HIV has been detected in tissue macrophages in both animal and human studies. During in vitro HIV infectio...

    Authors: Junru Cui, Mesfin Meshesha, Natela Churgulia, Christian Merlo, Edward Fuchs, Jennifer Breakey, Joyce Jones and James T. Stivers
    Citation: Retrovirology 2022 19:21
  2. Avian leukosis virus (ALV) is an infectious retrovirus, that mainly causes various forms of tumours, immunosuppression, a decreased egg production rate and slow weight gain in poultry. ALV consists of 11 subgr...

    Authors: Jian Chen, Jinqun Li, Xinyi Dong, Ming Liao and Weisheng Cao
    Citation: Retrovirology 2022 19:19
  3. The generation of over 69 spliced HIV-1 mRNAs from one primary transcript by alternative RNA splicing emphasizes the central role that RNA processing plays in HIV-1 replication. Control is mediated in part thr...

    Authors: Subha Dahal, Kiera Clayton, Terek Been, Raphaële Fernet-Brochu, Alonso Villasmil Ocando, Ahalya Balachandran, Mikaël Poirier, Rebecca Kaddis Maldonado, Lulzim Shkreta, Kayluz Frias Boligan, Furkan Guvenc, Fariha Rahman, Donald Branch, Brendan Bell, Benoit Chabot, Scott D. Gray-Owen…
    Citation: Retrovirology 2022 19:18
  4. Nonhuman primates (NHPs) are well-established basic and translational research models for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections and pathophysiology, hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) transplantation, and a...

    Authors: Jenna Kropp Schmidt, Matthew R. Reynolds, Thaddeus G. Golos and Igor I. Slukvin
    Citation: Retrovirology 2022 19:17
  5. Mammalian cells mount a variety of defense mechanisms against invading viruses to prevent or reduce infection. One such defense is the transcriptional silencing of incoming viral DNA, including the silencing o...

    Authors: Franziska K. Geis, Demetra P. Kelenis and Stephen P. Goff
    Citation: Retrovirology 2022 19:16
  6. Innate immunity and type 1 interferon (IFN) defenses are critical for early control of HIV infection within CD4 + T cells. Despite these defenses, some acutely infected cells silence viral transcription to bec...

    Authors: Rebecca M. Olson, Germán Gornalusse, Leanne S. Whitmore, Dan Newhouse, Jennifer Tisoncik-Go, Elise Smith, Christina Ochsenbauer, Florian Hladik and Michael Gale Jr
    Citation: Retrovirology 2022 19:15
  7. Despite antiretroviral treatment efficacy, it does not lead to the complete eradication of HIV infection. Consequently, reactivation of the virus from latently infected cell reservoirs is a major challenge tow...

    Authors: Lendel Correia da Costa, Larissa Maciel Bomfim, Uilla Victoria Torres Dittz, Camila de Almeida Velozo, Rodrigo Delvecchio da Cunha and Amilcar Tanuri
    Citation: Retrovirology 2022 19:12
  8. Human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) result from ancestral infections caused by exogenous retroviruses that became incorporated into the germline DNA and evolutionarily fixed in the human genome. HERVs can be...

    Authors: Lei Jia, Mengying Liu, Caiqin Yang, Hanping Li, Yongjian Liu, Jingwan Han, Xiuli Zhai, Xiaolin Wang, Tianyi Li, Jingyun Li, Bohan Zhang, Changyuan Yu and Lin Li
    Citation: Retrovirology 2022 19:11
  9. Marijuana’s putative anti-inflammatory properties may benefit HIV-associated comorbidities. How recreational marijuana use affects gene expression in peripheral blood cells (PBC) among youth with HIV-1 (YWH) i...

    Authors: Li Yin, Ashok R. Dinasarapu, Samiksha A. Borkar, Kai-Fen Chang, Kristina De Paris, Julie J. Kim-Chang, John W. Sleasman and Maureen M. Goodenow
    Citation: Retrovirology 2022 19:10
  10. P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1/CD162) has been studied extensively for its role in mediating leukocyte rolling through interactions with its cognate receptor, P-selectin. Recently, PSGL-1 was identif...

    Authors: Jonathan Burnie, Arvin Tejnarine Persaud, Laxshaginee Thaya, Qingbo Liu, Huiyi Miao, Stephen Grabinsky, Vanessa Norouzi, Paolo Lusso, Vera A. Tang and Christina Guzzo
    Citation: Retrovirology 2022 19:9
  11. The potential risk and association of bovine leukemia virus (BLV) with human remains controversial as it has been reported to be both positive and negative in human breast cancer and blood samples. Therefore, ...

    Authors: Meripet Polat Yamanaka, Susumu Saito, Yukiko Hara, Ryosuke Matsuura, Shin-nosuke Takeshima, Kazuyoshi Hosomichi, Yasunobu Matsumoto, Rika A. Furuta, Masami Takei and Yoko Aida
    Citation: Retrovirology 2022 19:7
  12. Long-Term Non-Progressors (LTNPs) are untreated Human Immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infected individuals able to control disease progression for prolonged periods. However, the LTNPs status is temporar...

    Authors: Ana Moyano, Oscar Blanch-Lombarte, Laura Tarancon-Diez, Nuria Pedreño-Lopez, Miguel Arenas, Tamara Alvaro, Concepción Casado, Isabel Olivares, Mar Vera, Carmen Rodriguez, Jorge del Romero, Cecilio López-Galíndez, Ezequiel Ruiz-Mateos, Julia G. Prado and María Pernas
    Citation: Retrovirology 2022 19:6
  13. The recent discovery of the role of m6A methylation in the regulation of HIV-1 replication unveiled a novel layer of regulation for HIV gene expression. This epitranscriptomic modification of HIV-1 RNAs is under ...

    Authors: Sarah N’Da Konan, Emmanuel Ségéral, Fabienne Bejjani, Maryam Bendoumou, Mélissa Ait Said, Sarah Gallois-Montbrun and Stéphane Emiliani
    Citation: Retrovirology 2022 19:4
  14. Bone marrow stromal antigen 2 (BST-2) also known as Tetherin (CD317/HM1.24), is a host restriction factor that blocks the release of HIV-1 virions from infected cells. Previous studies reported that BST-2 gene...

    Authors: Hlelolwenkosi Mlimi, Kewreshini K. Naidoo, Jenniffer Mabuka, Thumbi Ndung’u and Paradise Madlala
    Citation: Retrovirology 2022 19:3
  15. The NF-κB family of transcription factors and associated signalling pathways are abundant and ubiquitous in human immune responses. Activation of NF-κB transcription factors by viral pathogen-associated molecu...

    Authors: Douglas L. Fink, James Cai, Matthew V. X. Whelan, Christopher Monit, Carlos Maluquer de Motes, Greg J. Towers and Rebecca P. Sumner
    Citation: Retrovirology 2022 19:2
  16. Our understanding of the peripheral human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) reservoir is strongly biased towards subtype B HIV-1 strains, with only limited information available from patients infected with...

    Authors: Samira Joussef-Piña, Immaculate Nankya, Sophie Nalukwago, Joy Baseke, Sandra Rwambuya, Dane Winner, Fred Kyeyune, Keith Chervenak, Bonnie Thiel, Robert Asaad, Curtis Dobrowolski, Benjamin Luttge, Blair Lawley, Cissy M. Kityo, W. Henry Boom, Jonathan Karn…
    Citation: Retrovirology 2022 19:1
  17. The capsid core of HIV-1 is a large macromolecular assembly that surrounds the viral genome and is an essential component of the infectious virus. In addition to its multiple roles throughout the viral life cy...

    Authors: William M. McFadden, Alexa A. Snyder, Karen A. Kirby, Philip R. Tedbury, Monika Raj, Zhengqiang Wang and Stefan G. Sarafianos
    Citation: Retrovirology 2021 18:41
  18. The majority of emerging infectious diseases in humans are of animal origin, and many of them are caused by neuropathogenic viruses. Many cases of neurological disease and encephalitis in livestock remain etio...

    Authors: Melanie M. Hierweger, Michel C. Koch, Ronja V. Kauer, Zoltán Bagó, Anna Oevermann, Giuseppe Bertoni and Torsten Seuberlich
    Citation: Retrovirology 2021 18:40

    The Correction to this article has been published in Retrovirology 2022 19:5

  19. Prototype foamy virus (PFV) is nonpathogenic complex retroviruses that express a transcriptional transactivator Tas, which is essential for the activity of viral long terminal repeat (LTR) promoter and interna...

    Authors: Peipei Yuan, Jun Yan, Shuang Wang, Yang Guo, Xueyan Xi, Song Han, Jun Yin, Biwen Peng, Xiaohua He, Jochen Bodem and Wanhong Liu
    Citation: Retrovirology 2021 18:38
  20. During HIV-1 maturation, Gag and Gag-Pol polyproteins are proteolytically cleaved and the capsid protein polymerizes to form the honeycomb capsid lattice. HIV-1 integrase (IN) binds the viral genomic RNA (gRNA...

    Authors: Shuohui Liu, Pratibha C. Koneru, Wen Li, Chathuri Pathirage, Alan N. Engelman, Mamuka Kvaratskhelia and Karin Musier-Forsyth
    Citation: Retrovirology 2021 18:37
  21. Retroviruses utilize multiple unique RNA elements to control RNA processing and translation. However, it is unclear what functional RNA elements are present in endogenous retroviruses (ERVs). Gene co-option fr...

    Authors: Koichi Kitao, So Nakagawa and Takayuki Miyazawa
    Citation: Retrovirology 2021 18:36
  22. The critical role of antibody Fc-mediated effector functions in immune defense has been widely reported in various viral infections. These effector functions confer cellular responses through engagement with i...

    Authors: Hao D. Cheng, Karen G. Dowell, Chris Bailey-Kellogg, Brittany A. Goods, J. Christopher Love, Guido Ferrari, Galit Alter, Johannes Gach, Donald N. Forthal, George K. Lewis, Kelli Greene, Hongmei Gao, David C. Montefiori and Margaret E. Ackerman
    Citation: Retrovirology 2021 18:35
  23. Zhang et al. (Proc Natl Acad Sci 118:e2105968118, 2021) recently reported that SARS-CoV-2 RNA can be retrotranscribed and integrated into the DNA of human cells by the L1 retrotransposon machinery. This phenom...

    Authors: Nicole Grandi, Enzo Tramontano and Ben Berkhout
    Citation: Retrovirology 2021 18:34
  24. Autophagy plays an important role as a cellular defense mechanism against intracellular pathogens, like viruses. Specifically, autophagy orchestrates the recruitment of specialized cargo, including viral compo...

    Authors: Sergio Castro-Gonzalez, Yuexuan Chen, Jared Benjamin, Yuhang Shi and Ruth Serra-Moreno
    Citation: Retrovirology 2021 18:33
  25. We previously developed drug-like peptide triazoles (PTs) that target HIV-1 Envelope (Env) gp120, potently inhibit viral entry, and irreversibly inactivate virions. Here, we investigated potential mechanisms o...

    Authors: Shiyu Zhang, Andrew P. Holmes, Alexej Dick, Adel A. Rashad, Lucía Enríquez Rodríguez, Gabriela A. Canziani, Michael J. Root and Irwin M. Chaiken
    Citation: Retrovirology 2021 18:31
  26. The genome of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is encapsulated in a core consisting of viral capsid proteins (CA). After viral entry, the HIV-1 core dissociates and releases the viral genome into th...

    Authors: Naoki Kishimoto, Ryosuke Okano, Ayano Akita, Satoshi Miura, Ayaka Irie, Nobutoki Takamune and Shogo Misumi
    Citation: Retrovirology 2021 18:30
  27. The viral capsid plays a key role in HIV-1 reverse transcription. Recent studies have demonstrated that the small molecule IP6 dramatically enhances reverse transcription in vitro by stabilizing the viral caps...

    Authors: Christopher Aiken and Itay Rousso
    Citation: Retrovirology 2021 18:29
  28. We observe the emergence of several promoter-variant viral strains in India during recent years. The variant viral promoters contain additional copies of transcription factor binding sites present in the viral...

    Authors: Haider Ali, Disha Bhange, Kavita Mehta, Yuvrajsinh Gohil, Harshit Kumar Prajapati, Siddappa N. Byrareddy, Shilpa Buch and Udaykumar Ranga
    Citation: Retrovirology 2021 18:27
  29. Extracellular Vesicles (EV) recently have been implicated in the pathogenesis of HIV-1 syndromes, including neuroinflammation and HIV-1 associated neurological disorder (HAND). Cocaine, an illicit stimulant dr...

    Authors: Manojkumar Narayanan, Rutuja Kulkarni, Shuxian Jiang, Fatah Kashanchi and Anil Prasad
    Citation: Retrovirology 2021 18:26
  30. The HIV co-receptors, CCR5 and CXCR4, are necessary for HIV entry into target cells, interacting with the HIV envelope protein, gp120, to initiate several signaling cascades thought to be important to the entr...

    Authors: E. A. Nickoloff-Bybel, L. Festa, O. Meucci and P. J. Gaskill
    Citation: Retrovirology 2021 18:24
  31. Recent data suggest the importance of non-neutralizing antibodies (nnAbs) in the development of vaccines against HIV-1 because two types of nnAbs that recognize the coreceptor binding site (CoRBS) and the C1C2...

    Authors: Hasan Md Zahid, Takeo Kuwata, Shokichi Takahama, Yu Kaku, Shashwata Biswas, Kaho Matsumoto, Hirokazu Tamamura and Shuzo Matsushita
    Citation: Retrovirology 2021 18:23
  32. CRF55_01B is a newly identified HIV-1 circulating recombinant form originated from MSM in China. However, its impact on the disease progression and transmission risk has not been investigated. This study aimed...

    Authors: Lan Wei, Hao Li, Xing Lv, Chenli Zheng, Guilian Li, Zhengrong Yang, Lin Chen, Xiaoxu Han, Huachun Zou, Yanxiao Gao, Jinquan Cheng, Hui Wang and Jin Zhao
    Citation: Retrovirology 2021 18:22
  33. HIV-1 persists in infected individuals despite years of antiretroviral therapy (ART), due to the formation of a stable and long-lived latent viral reservoir. Early ART can reduce the latent reservoir and is as...

    Authors: Sherazaan D. Ismail, Joshua Pankrac, Emmanuel Ndashimye, Jessica L. Prodger, Melissa-Rose Abrahams, Jamie F. S. Mann, Andrew D. Redd and Eric J. Arts
    Citation: Retrovirology 2021 18:21
  34. Retroviruses exist as exogenous infectious agents and as endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) integrated into host chromosomes. Such endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) are grouped into three classes roughly correspondin...

    Authors: Venkat R. K. Yedavalli, Akash Patil, Janay Parrish and Christine A. Kozak
    Citation: Retrovirology 2021 18:20
  35. HIV remains one of the most important health issues worldwide, with almost 40 million people living with HIV. Although patients develop antibodies against the virus, its high mutation rate allows evasion of im...

    Authors: Catherine M. Moore, Melanie Grandits, Clemens Grünwald-Gruber, Friedrich Altmann, Maria Kotouckova, Audrey Y.-H. Teh and Julian K.-C. Ma
    Citation: Retrovirology 2021 18:17
  36. The characterisation of the HIV-1 reservoir, which consists of replication-competent integrated proviruses that persist on antiretroviral therapy (ART), is made difficult by the rarity of intact proviruses rel...

    Authors: Imogen A. Wright, Michael J. Bale, Wei Shao, Wei-Shau Hu, John M. Coffin, Gert U. Van Zyl and Mary F. Kearney
    Citation: Retrovirology 2021 18:16
  37. Human Syncytin-1 is a placentally-expressed cell surface glycoprotein of retroviral origin. After interaction with ASCT2, its cellular receptor, Syncytin-1 triggers cell–cell fusion and formation of a multinuc...

    Authors: Kryštof Štafl, Martin Trávníček, Dana Kučerová, Ľubomíra Pecnová, Veronika Krchlíková, Eliška Gáliková, Volodymyr Stepanets, Jiří Hejnar and Kateřina Trejbalová
    Citation: Retrovirology 2021 18:15
  38. Humanized mice have become an important workhorse model for HIV research. Advances that enabled development of a human immune system in immune deficient mouse strains have aided new basic research in HIV patho...

    Authors: Janice J. Endsley, Matthew B. Huante, Kubra F. Naqvi, Benjamin B. Gelman and Mark A. Endsley
    Citation: Retrovirology 2021 18:14
  39. Humanized mice model human disease and as such are used commonly for research studies of infectious, degenerative and cancer disorders. Recent models also reflect hematopoiesis, natural immunity, neurobiology,...

    Authors: Prasanta K. Dash, Santhi Gorantla, Larisa Poluektova, Mahmudul Hasan, Emiko Waight, Chen Zhang, Milica Markovic, Benson Edagwa, Jatin Machhi, Katherine E. Olson, Xinglong Wang, R. Lee Mosley, Bhavesh Kevadiya and Howard E. Gendelman
    Citation: Retrovirology 2021 18:13

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