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  1. HTLV-1 was the first described human retrovirus and was soon found to be associated with severe clinical diseases, including a devastating lymphoma/leukemia and other inflammatory diseases. Although HTLV-2 is ...

    Authors: Ricardo Ishak, Marluísa de Oliveira Guimarães Ishak and Antonio Carlos R. Vallinoto

    Citation: Retrovirology 2020 17:4

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

  2. The HIV accessory protein Nef downregulates the viral entry receptor CD4, the Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA)-A and -B molecules, the Serine incorporator 5 (SERINC5) protein and other molecules from the infected...

    Authors: Hanwei Sudderuddin, Natalie N. Kinloch, Steven W. Jin, Rachel L. Miller, Bradley R. Jones, Chanson J. Brumme, Jeffrey B. Joy, Mark A. Brockman and Zabrina L. Brumme

    Citation: Retrovirology 2020 17:3

    Content type: Short report

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  3. Human T cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) causes adult T-cell leukemia-lymphoma (ATL) and inflammatory diseases. The HTLV-1 bZIP factor (HBZ) gene is constantly expressed in HTLV-1 infected cells and ATL cel...

    Authors: Masao Matsuoka and Jean-Michel Mesnard

    Citation: Retrovirology 2020 17:2

    Content type: Review

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  4. Human T-lymphotropic virus 1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) is a progressive disease of the central nervous system that significantly affected spinal cord, nevertheless, the patho...

    Authors: Sayed-Hamidreza Mozhgani, Mehran Piran, Mohadeseh Zarei-Ghobadi, Mohieddin Jafari, Seyed-Mohammad Jazayeri, Talat Mokhtari-Azad, Majid Teymoori-Rad, Narges Valizadeh, Hamid Farajifard, Mehdi Mirzaie, Azam Khamseh, Houshang Rafatpanah, Seyed-Abdolrahim Rezaee and Mehdi Norouzi

    Citation: Retrovirology 2019 16:46

    Content type: Research

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  5. Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is the etiologic agent of adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) and the neurological disorder HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). The...

    Authors: Michael P. Martinez, Xiaogang Cheng, Ancy Joseph, Jacob Al-Saleem, Amanda R. Panfil, Marilly Palettas, Wessel P. Dirksen, Lee Ratner and Patrick L. Green

    Citation: Retrovirology 2019 16:44

    Content type: Research

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  6. The human T cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTVL-1), first reported in 1980 by Robert Gallo’s group, is the etiologic agent of both cancer and inflammatory diseases. Despite approximately 40 years of investigation...

    Authors: Sarkis Sarkis, Veronica Galli, Ramona Moles, David Yurick, Georges Khoury, Damian F. J. Purcell, Genoveffa Franchini and Cynthia A. Pise-Masison

    Citation: Retrovirology 2019 16:43

    Content type: Review

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  7. The extraordinarily high prevalence of HTLV-1 subtype C (HTLV-1C) in some isolated indigenous communities in Oceania and the severity of the health conditions associated with the virus impress the great need f...

    Authors: Ramona Moles, Sarkis Sarkis, Veronica Galli, Maria Omsland, Damian F. J. Purcell, David Yurick, Georges Khoury, Cynthia A. Pise-Masison and Genoveffa Franchini

    Citation: Retrovirology 2019 16:42

    Content type: Review

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  8. Few years after HTLV-1 identification and isolation in humans, STLV-1, its simian counterpart, was discovered. It then became clear that STLV-1 is present almost in all simian species. Subsequent molecular epi...

    Authors: Brice Jégado, Fatah Kashanchi, Hélène Dutartre and Renaud Mahieux

    Citation: Retrovirology 2019 16:41

    Content type: Review

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  9. The HERV-K (HML-2) viruses are the youngest of the human endogenous retroviruses. They are present as several almost complete proviral copies and numerous fragments in the human genome. Many HERV-K proviruses ...

    Authors: Laurie R. Gray, Rachel E. Jackson, Patrick E. H. Jackson, Stefan Bekiranov, David Rekosh and Marie-Louise Hammarskjöld

    Citation: Retrovirology 2019 16:40

    Content type: Research

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  10. Human T cell leukaemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is a retrovirus associated with human diseases such as adult T-cell leukaemia/lymphoma and HTLV-1 associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis. In contrast to...

    Authors: Paola Miyazato, Misaki Matsuo, Benjy J. Y. Tan, Michiyo Tokunaga, Hiroo Katsuya, Saiful Islam, Jumpei Ito, Yasuhiro Murakawa and Yorifumi Satou

    Citation: Retrovirology 2019 16:38

    Content type: Research

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  11. Life expectancy is increasing in the HIV-positive population and age-related non-communicable diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, (CVD) are seen more frequently. This study investigated to what extent HI...

    Authors: Alinda G. Vos, Klariska Hoeve, Roos E. Barth, Joyce Peper, Michelle Moorhouse, Nigel J. Crowther, Willem D. F. Venter, Diederick E. Grobbee, Michiel L. Bots and Kerstin Klipstein-Grobusch

    Citation: Retrovirology 2019 16:37

    Content type: Research

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  12. Peptides corresponding to N- and C-terminal heptad repeat regions (HR1 and HR2, respectively) of gp41 can inhibit HIV-1 infection in a dominant negative manner by interfering with refolding of the viral HR1 an...

    Authors: Chen Yuan, Jia-Ye Wang, Hai-Jiao Zhao, Yan Li, Di Li, Hong Ling and Min Zhuang

    Citation: Retrovirology 2019 16:36

    Content type: Research

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  13. Immunity against pathogens evolved through complex mechanisms that only for sake of simplicity are defined as innate immunity and adaptive immunity. Indeed innate and adaptive immunity are strongly intertwined...

    Authors: Greta Forlani, Mariam Shallak, Elise Ramia, Alessandra Tedeschi and Roberto S. Accolla

    Citation: Retrovirology 2019 16:34

    Content type: Review

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  14. The Deltaretrovirus genus of retroviruses (family Retroviridae) includes the human T cell leukemia viruses and bovine leukemia virus (BLV). Relatively little is known about the biology and evolution of these viru...

    Authors: Tomáš Hron, Daniel Elleder and Robert J. Gifford

    Citation: Retrovirology 2019 16:33

    Content type: Short report

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  15. HIV-infected cell lines are widely used to study latent HIV infection, which is considered the main barrier to HIV cure. We hypothesized that these cell lines differ from each other and from cells from HIV-inf...

    Authors: Sushama Telwatte, Sara Morón-López, Dvir Aran, Peggy Kim, Christine Hsieh, Sunil Joshi, Mauricio Montano, Warner C. Greene, Atul J. Butte, Joseph K. Wong and Steven A. Yukl

    Citation: Retrovirology 2019 16:32

    Content type: Research

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  16. The existing repertoire of HIV-1 patient derived broadly neutralising antibodies (bNAbs) that target the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env) present numerous and exciting opportunities for immune-based therapeut...

    Authors: Tumelo Moshoette, Stuart Alvaro Ali, Maria Antonia Papathanasopoulos and Mark Andrew Killick

    Citation: Retrovirology 2019 16:31

    Content type: Short report

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  17. HIV-1 integration results in genomic DNA gaps that are repaired by cellular DNA repair pathways. This step of the lentiviral life cycle remains poorly understood despite its crucial importance for successful r...

    Authors: Ekaterina Knyazhanskaya, Andrey Anisenko, Olga Shadrina, Anastasia Kalinina, Timofei Zatsepin, Arthur Zalevsky, Dmitriy Mazurov and Marina Gottikh

    Citation: Retrovirology 2019 16:30

    Content type: Research

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  18. Terminally differentiated/nondividing macrophages, a key target cell type of HIV-1, harbor extremely low dNTP concentrations established by a host dNTP triphosphohydrolase, SAM domain and HD domain containing ...

    Authors: Caitlin Shepard, Joella Xu, Jessica Holler, Dong-Hyun Kim, Louis M. Mansky, Raymond F. Schinazi and Baek Kim

    Citation: Retrovirology 2019 16:29

    Content type: Research

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  19. PIE12-trimer is a highly potent d-peptide HIV-1 entry inhibitor that broadly targets group M isolates. It specifically binds the three identical conserved hydrophobic pockets at the base of the gp41 N-trimer with...

    Authors: Amanda R. Smith, Matthew T. Weinstock, Amanda E. Siglin, Frank G. Whitby, J. Nicholas Francis, Christopher P. Hill, Debra M. Eckert, Michael J. Root and Michael S. Kay

    Citation: Retrovirology 2019 16:28

    Content type: Research

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  20. Arawete and Asurini Indian tribes were revisited after a 36-year follow-up in search of HTLV infections. 46 persons (23 from each tribe) were tested for HTLV-1/2 antibodies and viral DNA. None were positive; t...

    Authors: Antonio C. R. Vallinoto, Mateus I. Otake, Paulo V. N. R. Sousa, Felipe T. Lopes, Eliene R. P. Sacuena, Maria A. F. Queiroz, Greice L. C. Costa, Marluísa O. G. Ishak, Izaura M. V. Cayres-Vallinoto, João F. Guerreiro and Ricardo Ishak

    Citation: Retrovirology 2019 16:27

    Content type: Correspondence

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  21. Vaccination against retroviruses is a challenge because of their ability to stably integrate into the host genome, undergo long-term latency in a proportion of infected cells and thereby escape immune response...

    Authors: Alejandro Abdala, Irene Alvarez, Hélène Brossel, Luis Calvinho, Hugo Carignano, Lautaro Franco, Hélène Gazon, Christelle Gillissen, Malik Hamaidia, Clotilde Hoyos, Jean-Rock Jacques, Thomas Joris, Florent Laval, Marcos Petersen, Florent Porquet, Natalia Porta…

    Citation: Retrovirology 2019 16:26

    Content type: Review

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  22. Human T-cell leukemia virus type-1 (HTLV-1) causes adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL), HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP), and other inflammatory diseases. There is no diseas...

    Authors: Mari Kannagi, Atsuhiko Hasegawa, Yoshiko Nagano, Shuichi Kimpara and Youko Suehiro

    Citation: Retrovirology 2019 16:23

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

  23. Authors: Monsef Benkirane, Ben Berkhout, Persephone Borrow, Ariberto Fassati, Masahiro Fujii, J. Victor Garcia-Martinez, D. Margolis, Monique Nijhuis, Leslie Parent, Klaus Strebel, François Venter, Frank Kirchhoff, Andrew Lever, Susan Ross and Johnson Mak

    Citation: Retrovirology 2019 16:22

    Content type: Editorial

    Published on:

  24. Human T cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) was the first discovered human retrovirus and the etiologic agent of adult T-cell leukemia and HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis. Shortly aft...

    Authors: Michael P. Martinez, Jacob Al-Saleem and Patrick L. Green

    Citation: Retrovirology 2019 16:21

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

  25. Following publication of their article [1], the authors realized that they inadvertently omitted the contribution of Dr. Li Wu (Ohio State University) who commented on the manuscript at the early stage of the ...

    Authors: Qiaoqiao Xiao, Shuliang Chen, Qiankun Wang, Zhepeng Liu, Shuai Liu, Huan Deng, Wei Hou, Dongcheng Wu, Yong Xiong, Jiafu Li and Deyin Guo

    Citation: Retrovirology 2019 16:20

    Content type: Correction

    Published on:

    The original article was published in Retrovirology 2019 16:15

  26. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) can effectively suppress ongoing HIV replication and block disease progression, but the infection is never cured due to the persistence of a small pool of latently infected cells h...

    Authors: Atze T. Das, Alexander O. Pasternak and Ben Berkhout

    Citation: Retrovirology 2019 16:19

    Content type: Correspondence

    Published on:

  27. Nef is a multifunctional accessory protein encoded by HIV-1, HIV-2 and SIV that plays critical roles in viral pathogenesis, contributing to viral replication, assembly, budding, infectivity and immune evasion,...

    Authors: Elodie Mailler, Abdul A. Waheed, Sang-Yoon Park, David C. Gershlick, Eric O. Freed and Juan S. Bonifacino

    Citation: Retrovirology 2019 16:18

    Content type: Research

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  28. Current efforts towards HIV-1 eradication focus on the reactivation and elimination of the latent viral reservoir, so-called shock and kill therapy. However, work from several groups indicates that infected ce...

    Authors: Benjamin Trinité, Hongtao Zhang and David N. Levy

    Citation: Retrovirology 2019 16:17

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  29. The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) cell reservoir is currently a main obstacle towards complete eradication of the virus. This infected pool is refractory to anti-viral therapy and harbors integrated provi...

    Authors: Simona Krasnopolsky, Lital Marom, Rachel A. Victor, Alona Kuzmina, Jacob C. Schwartz, Koh Fujinaga and Ran Taube

    Citation: Retrovirology 2019 16:16

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  30. The chemokine receptor CCR5, which belongs to the superfamily of G protein-coupled receptors, is the major co-receptor for HIV-1 entry. Individuals with a homozygous CCR5Δ32 mutation have a long lasting and incre...

    Authors: Qiaoqiao Xiao, Shuliang Chen, Qiankun Wang, Zhepeng Liu, Shuai Liu, Huan Deng, Wei Hou, Dongcheng Wu, Yong Xiong, Jiafu Li and Deyin Guo

    Citation: Retrovirology 2019 16:15

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

    The Correction to this article has been published in Retrovirology 2019 16:20

  31. Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) causes enzootic bovine leukosis and is closely related to the human T-lymphotropic virus. Bovine major histocompatibility complex (BoLAs) are used extensively as markers of disease ...

    Authors: Shin-nosuke Takeshima, Ayumu Ohno and Yoko Aida

    Citation: Retrovirology 2019 16:14

    Content type: Short report

    Published on:

  32. HIV-1 patients receiving combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) survive infection but require life-long adherence at high expense. In chronic cART-treated patients with undetectable viral titers, cell-assoc...

    Authors: Daniel O. Pinto, Tristan A. Scott, Catherine DeMarino, Michelle L. Pleet, Thy T. Vo, Mohammed Saifuddin, Dmytro Kovalskyy, James Erickson, Maria Cowen, Robert A. Barclay, Chen Zeng, Marc S. Weinberg and Fatah Kashanchi

    Citation: Retrovirology 2019 16:13

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  33. The different interactions between viral proteins and cellular host proteins are required for efficient replication of HIV-1. Various reports implicated host cellular proteins as a key factor that either inter...

    Authors: Pooja Yadav, Souvik Sur, Dipen Desai, Smita Kulkarni, Vartika Sharma and Vibha Tandon

    Citation: Retrovirology 2019 16:12

    Content type: Research

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  34. Reverse transcription (RT) of HIV and SIV is initiated by the binding of the acceptor stem of tRNALys3 to the primer binding site (PBS) of the viral RNA genome. Previous studies have suggested that this tRNALys3 ...

    Authors: Christine M. Fennessey, Celine Camus, Taina T. Immonen, Carolyn Reid, Frank Maldarelli, Jeffrey D. Lifson and Brandon F. Keele

    Citation: Retrovirology 2019 16:11

    Content type: Research

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  35. Efficient HIV-1 replication depends on interaction of the viral capsid with the host protein cyclophilin A (CypA). CypA, a peptidylprolyl isomerase, binds to an exposed loop in the viral CA protein via the enz...

    Authors: Wang Peng, Jiong Shi, Chantal L. Márquez, Derrick Lau, James Walsh, K. M. Rifat Faysal, Chang H. Byeon, In-Ja L. Byeon, Christopher Aiken and Till Böcking

    Citation: Retrovirology 2019 16:10

    Content type: Research

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  36. We previously showed that the gM of HSV-1 could restrict the release of infectious HIV-1 from cells. In this study, we analyzed if the four HSV-1 glycoproteins (gD, gB, and gH/gL), which are the minimum glycop...

    Authors: Sachith Polpitiya Arachchige, Wyatt Henke, Maria Kalamvoki and Edward B. Stephens

    Citation: Retrovirology 2019 16:9

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  37. Persistence of latent, replication-competent provirus is the main impediment towards the cure of HIV infection. One of the critical questions concerning HIV latency is the role of integration site selection in...

    Authors: Gerlinde Vansant, Lenard S. Vranckx, Irena Zurnic, Dominique Van Looveren, Paulien Van de Velde, Christopher Nobles, Rik Gijsbers, Frauke Christ and Zeger Debyser

    Citation: Retrovirology 2019 16:8

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  38. Vertebrate genomes contain a record of retroviruses that invaded the germlines of ancestral hosts and are passed to offspring as endogenous retroviruses (ERVs). ERVs can impact host function since they contain...

    Authors: Julia V. Halo, Amanda L. Pendleton, Abigail S. Jarosz, Robert J. Gifford, Malika L. Day and Jeffrey M. Kidd

    Citation: Retrovirology 2019 16:6

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  39. Adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) is an aggressive neoplasm caused by human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1). ATL carries a poor prognosis due to chemotherapy resistance. Thus, it is urgent to develop new treat...

    Authors: Lingling Xu, Xueqing Zhang, Wenzhao Cheng, Yong Wang, Kaining Yi, Zhilong Wang, Yiling Zhang, Linxiang Shao and Tiejun Zhao

    Citation: Retrovirology 2019 16:5

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  40. Latently infected CD4 lymphocytes preclude cure of HIV infection, even with the most effective antiretroviral therapy. The replication competent latent HIV reservoir has been quantified with the terminal dilut...

    Authors: Douglas D. Richman, Karissa Huang, Steven M. Lada, Xiaoying Sun, Sonia Jain, Marta Massanella and Bryson Menke

    Citation: Retrovirology 2019 16:4

    Content type: Short report

    Published on:

  41. Mammalian cells harbour RNA quality control and degradative machineries such as nonsense-mediated mRNA decay that target cellular mRNAs for clearance from the cell to avoid aberrant gene expression. The role o...

    Authors: Shringar Rao, Raquel Amorim, Meijuan Niu, Yann Breton, Michel J. Tremblay and Andrew J. Mouland

    Citation: Retrovirology 2019 16:3

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  42. HIV infection is enhanced by cell adhesions that form between infected and uninfected T cells called virological synapses (VS). VS are initiated by an interaction between Env and CD4 on cell surfaces and resul...

    Authors: Lili Wang, Sudeh Izadmehr, Edwin Kamau, Xiang-Peng Kong and Benjamin K. Chen

    Citation: Retrovirology 2019 16:2

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

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