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  1. Content type: Research

    HIV-1 entry is a receptor-mediated process directed by the interaction of the viral envelope with the host cell CD4 molecule and one of two co-receptors, CCR5 or CXCR4. The amino acid sequence of the third var...

    Authors: Gregory C. Antell, Will Dampier, Benjamas Aiamkitsumrit, Michael R. Nonnemacher, Jeffrey M. Jacobson, Vanessa Pirrone, Wen Zhong, Katherine Kercher, Shendra Passic, Jean W. Williams, Gregory Schwartz, Uri Hershberg, Fred C. Krebs and Brian Wigdahl

    Citation: Retrovirology 2016 13:32

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  2. Content type: Research

    HIV reservoirs pose major challenges to viral eradication. The main cellular reservoirs include CD4 T cells and macrophages, whereas anatomic reservoirs are thought to be primarily lymphoid tissues. Adipose ti...

    Authors: Jacob Couturier, Neeti Agarwal, Pramod N. Nehete, Wallace B. Baze, Michael A. Barry, K. Jagannadha Sastry, Ashok Balasubramanyam and Dorothy E. Lewis

    Citation: Retrovirology 2016 13:30

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  3. Content type: Research

    Human T cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) basic leucine zipper factor (HBZ), which is encoded by a minus strand mRNA, is thought to play important roles in the development of adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) and ...

    Authors: Yasuo Shiohama, Tadasuke Naito, Toshio Matsuzaki, Reiko Tanaka, Takeaki Tomoyose, Hiroshi Takashima, Takuya Fukushima, Yuetsu Tanaka and Mineki Saito

    Citation: Retrovirology 2016 13:29

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  4. Content type: Research

    HIV-1 capsid influences viral uncoating and nuclear import. Some capsid is detected in the nucleus but it is unclear if it has any function. We reported that the antibiotic Coumermycin-A1 (C-A1) inhibits HIV-1...

    Authors: Nan-Yu Chen, Lihong Zhou, Paul J. Gane, Silvana Opp, Neil J. Ball, Giuseppe Nicastro, Madeleine Zufferey, Cindy Buffone, Jeremy Luban, David Selwood, Felipe Diaz-Griffero, Ian Taylor and Ariberto Fassati

    Citation: Retrovirology 2016 13:28

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  5. Content type: Commentary

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) populations are characterized by extensive genetic diversity. Antigenic diversification is essential for escape from immune selection and therapy, and remains one of the majo...

    Authors: Redmond P. Smyth and Matteo Negroni

    Citation: Retrovirology 2016 13:27

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  6. Content type: Short report

    Tetherin is an intrinsic anti-viral factor impairing the release of nascent HIV-1 particles from infected cells. Vpu, an HIV-1 accessory protein, antagonizes the anti-viral action of tetherin. Although previou...

    Authors: Hiroki Ikeda, Shinji Nakaoka, Rob J. de Boer, Satoru Morita, Naoko Misawa, Yoshio Koyanagi, Kazuyuki Aihara, Kei Sato and Shingo Iwami

    Citation: Retrovirology 2016 13:23

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  7. Content type: Research

    Regulatory T cells (Tregs) have been shown to limit anti-viral immunity during chronic retroviral infection and to restrict vaccine-induced T cell responses. The objective of the study was to assess whether a ...

    Authors: Torben Knuschke, Olga Rotan, Wibke Bayer, Viktoriya Sokolova, Wiebke Hansen, Tim Sparwasser, Ulf Dittmer, Matthias Epple, Jan Buer and Astrid M. Westendorf

    Citation: Retrovirology 2016 13:24

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  8. Content type: Research

    Through incorporation into virus particles, the HIV-1 Vpr protein participates in the early steps of the virus life cycle by influencing the reverse transcription process. We previously showed that this positi...

    Authors: Cecile Herate, Clarisse Vigne, Carolin A. Guenzel, Marie Lambele, Marie-Christine Rouyez and Serge Benichou

    Citation: Retrovirology 2016 13:26

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  9. Content type: Research

    A Tat Oyi vaccine preparation was administered with informed consent to 48 long-term HIV-1 infected volunteers whose viral loads had been suppressed by antiretroviral therapy (cART). These volunteers were rand...

    Authors: Erwann P. Loret, Albert Darque, Elisabeth Jouve, Elvenn A. Loret, Corinne Nicolino-Brunet, Sophie Morange, Elisabeth Castanier, Josiane Casanova, Christine Caloustian, Charléric Bornet, Julie Coussirou, Jihen Boussetta, Vincent Couallier, Olivier Blin, Bertrand Dussol and Isabelle Ravaux

    Citation: Retrovirology 2016 13:21

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    The Erratum to this article has been published in Retrovirology 2016 13:35

  10. Content type: Research

    CD4 T cell depletion during HIV-1 infection is associated with AIDS disease progression, and the HIV-1 Env protein plays an important role in the process. Together with CXCR4, CCR5 is one of the two co-recepto...

    Authors: Li-Chung Tsao, Haitao Guo, Jerry Jeffrey, James A. Hoxie and Lishan Su

    Citation: Retrovirology 2016 13:22

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  11. Content type: Research

    HIV-1 replication kinetics inherently depends on the availability of cellular dNTPs for viral DNA synthesis. In activated CD4+ T cells and other rapidly dividing cells, the concentrations of dNTPs are high and H...

    Authors: Michele B. Daly, Megan E. Roth, Laurent Bonnac, José O. Maldonado, Jiashu Xie, Christine L. Clouser, Steven E. Patterson, Baek Kim and Louis M. Mansky

    Citation: Retrovirology 2016 13:20

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  12. Content type: Research

    The promyelocytic leukemia (PML) protein, a type I interferon (IFN-I)-induced gene product and a member of the tripartite motif (TRIM) family, modulates the transcriptional activity of viruses belonging to var...

    Authors: Nasser Masroori, Natacha Merindol and Lionel Berthoux

    Citation: Retrovirology 2016 13:19

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  13. Content type: Research

    The Gag polyprotein is a multifunctional regulator of retroviral replication and major structural component of immature virions. The nucleic acid chaperone (NAC) activity is considered necessary to retroviral ...

    Authors: Katarzyna Pachulska-Wieczorek, Leszek Błaszczyk, Marcin Biesiada, Ryszard W. Adamiak and Katarzyna J. Purzycka

    Citation: Retrovirology 2016 13:18

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  14. Content type: Research

    The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) capsid is a self-assembled protein shell that contains the viral genome. During the stages between viral entry into a host cell and nuclear import of the viral DNA, the...

    Authors: Ruben Ramalho, Sanela Rankovic, Jing Zhou, Christopher Aiken and Itay Rousso

    Citation: Retrovirology 2016 13:17

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  15. Content type: Review

    Human T cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is an oncogenic retrovirus responsible for the development of adult T-cell leukemia (ATL). Although HTLV-1 harbors an oncogene, tax, that transforms T cells in vitro an...

    Authors: Guangyong Ma, Jun-ichirou Yasunaga and Masao Matsuoka

    Citation: Retrovirology 2016 13:16

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  16. Content type: Research

    LILRA3 is an immunostimulatory molecule which can conditionally induce the proliferation of cytotoxic cells. LILRA3 has a deletion genotype which is associated with multiple immune disorders. In this study, we wa...

    Authors: Hui Zhi Low, Gerrit Ahrenstorf, Claudia Pommerenke, Nadine Habermann, Klaus Schughart, David Ordóñez, Renata Stripecke, Esther Wilk and Torsten Witte

    Citation: Retrovirology 2016 13:15

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  17. Content type: Research

    Gene therapy is currently being attempted using a number of delivery vehicles including lentiviral-based vectors. The delivery and insertion of a gene using lentiviral-based vectors involves multiple discrete ...

    Authors: Daniel O. Griffin and Stephen P. Goff

    Citation: Retrovirology 2016 13:14

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  18. Content type: Research

    BST-2 is an interferon-induced host restriction factor that inhibits the release of diverse mammalian enveloped viruses from infected cells by physically trapping the newly formed virions onto the host cell s...

    Authors: Quan Zhang, Zeyun Mi, Yuming Huang, Ling Ma, Jiwei Ding, Jing Wang, Yongxin Zhang, Yang chen, Jinming Zhou, Fei Guo, Xiaoyu Li and Shan Cen

    Citation: Retrovirology 2016 13:13

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  19. Content type: Research

    Majority of HIV-1 infection is established by one transmitted/founder virus and understanding how the neutralizing antibodies develop against this virus is critical for our rational design an HIV-1 vaccine.

    Authors: Su Jin, Yangtao Ji, Qian Wang, Hua Wang, Xuanling Shi, Xiaoxu Han, Tongqing Zhou, Hong Shang and Linqi Zhang

    Citation: Retrovirology 2016 13:12

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  20. Content type: Research

    Nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) are a class of antiretroviral compounds that bind in an allosteric binding pocket in HIV-1 RT, located about 10 Å from the polymerase active site. Bindin...

    Authors: Steven J. Smith, Gary T. Pauly, Aamir Akram, Kevin Melody, Ganesha Rai, David J. Maloney, Zandrea Ambrose, Craig J. Thomas, Joel T. Schneider and Stephen H. Hughes

    Citation: Retrovirology 2016 13:11

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  21. Content type: Research

    While antiretroviral therapies have improved life expectancy and reduced viral loads in HIV-1-positive individuals, the cessation of treatment results in a rebound of viral replication. This suggests that a r...

    Authors: Tara Hurst, Matthew Pace, Aris Katzourakis, Rodney Phillips, Paul Klenerman, John Frater and Gkikas Magiorkinis

    Citation: Retrovirology 2016 13:10

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  22. Content type: Research

    The equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) vaccine is the only attenuated lentiviral vaccine applied on a large scale that has been shown to be effective in controlling the prevalence of EIA in China. This vacc...

    Authors: Xue-Feng Wang, Yue-Zhi Lin, Qiang Li, Qiang Liu, Wei-Wei Zhao, Cheng Du, Jie Chen, Xiaojun Wang and Jian-Hua Zhou

    Citation: Retrovirology 2016 13:9

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  23. Content type: Research

    Broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) directed against the mannose-patch on the HIV envelope glycoprotein gp120 have several features that make them desirable targets for vaccine design. The PGT125-131 bnAb ...

    Authors: Stefanie A. Krumm, Hajer Mohammed, Khoa M. Le, Max Crispin, Terri Wrin, Pascal Poignard, Dennis R. Burton and Katie J. Doores

    Citation: Retrovirology 2016 13:8

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  24. Content type: Research

    Human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) represent the inheritance of ancient germ-line cell infections by exogenous retroviruses and the subsequent transmission of the integrated proviruses to the descendants. E...

    Authors: Laura Vargiu, Patricia Rodriguez-Tomé, Göran O. Sperber, Marta Cadeddu, Nicole Grandi, Vidar Blikstad, Enzo Tramontano and Jonas Blomberg

    Citation: Retrovirology 2016 13:7

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  25. Content type: Short report

    Endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) are remnants of ancient retroviral infections that have invaded the germ line of both humans and non-human primates. Most ERVs are functionally crippled by deletions, mutations, ...

    Authors: Helen L. Wu, Enrique J. Léon, Lyle T. Wallace, Francesca A. Nimiyongskul, Matthew B. Buechler, Laura P. Newman, Philip A. Castrovinci, R. Paul Johnson, Robert J. Gifford, R. Brad Jones and Jonah B. Sacha

    Citation: Retrovirology 2016 13:6

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  26. Content type: Research

    Early HIV-1 infection is characterized by high levels of HIV-1 replication and substantial CD4 T cell depletion in the intestinal mucosa, intestinal epithelial barrier breakdown, and microbial translocation. H...

    Authors: Stephanie M. Dillon, Eric J. Lee, Andrew M. Donovan, Kejun Guo, Michael S. Harper, Daniel N. Frank, Martin D. McCarter, Mario L. Santiago and Cara C. Wilson

    Citation: Retrovirology 2016 13:5

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  27. Content type: Research

    Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is a member of retroviridae family, together with human T cell leukemia virus types 1 and 2 (HTLV-1 and -2) belonging to the genes deltaretrovirus, and infects cattle worldwide. Previo...

    Authors: Meripet Polat, Shin-nosuke Takeshima, Kazuyoshi Hosomichi, Jiyun Kim, Taku Miyasaka, Kazunori Yamada, Mariluz Arainga, Tomoyuki Murakami, Yuki Matsumoto, Veronica de la Barra Diaz, Carlos Javier Panei, Ester Teresa González, Misao Kanemaki, Misao Onuma, Guillermo Giovambattista and Yoko Aida

    Citation: Retrovirology 2016 13:4

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  28. Content type: Research

    Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) infects an estimated 10 million persons globally with transmission resulting in lifelong infection. Disease, linked to high proviral load, occurs in a minority. In es...

    Authors: Lucy B. M. Cook, Anat Melamed, Maria Antonietta Demontis, Daniel J. Laydon, James M. Fox, Jennifer H. C. Tosswill, Declan de Freitas, Ashley D. Price, James F. Medcalf, Fabiola Martin, James M. Neuberger, Charles R. M. Bangham and Graham P. Taylor

    Citation: Retrovirology 2016 13:3

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  29. Content type: Research

    Myristoylation of the matrix (MA) domain mediates the transport and binding of Gag polyproteins to the plasma membrane (PM) and is required for the assembly of most retroviruses. In betaretroviruses, which ass...

    Authors: Michal Doležal, Aleš Zábranský, Jiří Dostál, Ondřej Vaněk, Jiří Brynda, Martin Lepšík, Romana Hadravová and Iva Pichová

    Citation: Retrovirology 2016 13:2

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  30. Content type: Research

    HIV-1 integration is prone to a high rate of failure, resulting in the accumulation of unintegrated viral genomes (uDNA) in vivo and in vitro. uDNA can be transcriptionally active, and circularized uDNA genome...

    Authors: Chi N. Chan, Benjamin Trinité, Caroline S. Lee, Saurabh Mahajan, Akanksha Anand, Dominik Wodarz, Steffanie Sabbaj, Anju Bansal, Paul A. Goepfert and David N. Levy

    Citation: Retrovirology 2016 13:1

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  31. Content type: Research

    Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is the causative agent of enzootic bovine leukosis, the most common neoplastic disease of cattle. BLV is closely related to human T cell leukemia virus. B cell epitopes are importa...

    Authors: Lanlan Bai, Hiroyuki Otsuki, Hirotaka Sato, Junko Kohara, Emiko Isogai, Shin-nosuke Takeshima and Yoko Aida

    Citation: Retrovirology 2015 12:106

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  32. Content type: Research

    The feline leukemia virus (FeLV) is a gamma-retrovirus of domestic cats that was discovered half a century ago. Cats that are infected with FeLV may develop a progressive infection resulting in persistent vir...

    Authors: Stefanie Nesina, A. Katrin Helfer-Hungerbuehler, Barbara Riond, Felicitas S. Boretti, Barbara Willi, Marina L. Meli, Paula Grest and Regina Hofmann-Lehmann

    Citation: Retrovirology 2015 12:105

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  33. Content type: Short report

    Intracellular defense proteins, also referred to as restriction factors, are capable of interfering with different steps of the viral life cycle. Among these, we have shown that Tripartite motif 22 (TRIM22) su...

    Authors: Filippo Turrini, Sara Marelli, Anna Kajaste-Rudnitski, Marina Lusic, Carine Van Lint, Atze T. Das, Alex Harwig, Ben Berkhout and Elisa Vicenzi

    Citation: Retrovirology 2015 12:104

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  34. Content type: Research

    Human SAMHD1 is a triphosphohydrolase that restricts the replication of retroviruses, retroelements and DNA viruses in noncycling cells. While modes of action have been extensively described for human SAMHD1, ...

    Authors: Sabine Wittmann, Rayk Behrendt, Kristin Eissmann, Bianca Volkmann, Dominique Thomas, Thomas Ebert, Alexandra Cribier, Monsef Benkirane, Veit Hornung, Nerea Ferreirós Bouzas and Thomas Gramberg

    Citation: Retrovirology 2015 12:103

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  35. Content type: Research

    The HIV-1 infection is characterized by profound CD4+ T cell destruction and a marked Th17 dysfunction at the mucosal level. Viral suppressive antiretroviral therapy restores Th1 but not Th17 cells. Although sev...

    Authors: Aurélie Cleret-Buhot, Yuwei Zhang, Delphine Planas, Jean-Philippe Goulet, Patricia Monteiro, Annie Gosselin, Vanessa Sue Wacleche, Cécile L. Tremblay, Mohammad-Ali Jenabian, Jean-Pierre Routy, Mohamed El-Far, Nicolas Chomont, Elias K. Haddad, Rafick-Pierre Sekaly and Petronela Ancuta

    Citation: Retrovirology 2015 12:102

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  36. Content type: Research

    Adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) is a CD4+ T-cell neoplasm with a poor prognosis. A previous study has shown that there is a strong correlation between the secreted matricellular protein osteopontin (OPN) level and di...

    Authors: Naoyoshi Maeda, Takashi Ohashi, Haorile Chagan-Yasutan, Toshio Hattori, Yayoi Takahashi, Hideo Harigae, Hiroo Hasegawa, Yasuaki Yamada, Masahiro Fujii, Katsumi Maenaka and Toshimitsu Uede

    Citation: Retrovirology 2015 12:99

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  37. Content type: Research

    HLA class I-associated escape mutations in HIV-1 Gag can reduce viral replication, suggesting that associated fitness costs could impact HIV-1 disease progression. Previous studies in North American and Africa...

    Authors: Keiko Sakai, Takayuki Chikata, Zabrina L. Brumme, Chanson J. Brumme, Hiroyuki Gatanaga, Shinichi Oka and Masafumi Takiguchi

    Citation: Retrovirology 2015 12:98

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    The Erratum to this article has been published in Retrovirology 2015 12:100

  38. Content type: Research

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) must take advantage of its own proteins with two or more functions to successfully replicate. Although many attempts have been made to determine the function of vira...

    Authors: Minako Ogawa, Yuki Takemoto, Shintaro Sumi, Daisuke Inoue, Naoki Kishimoto, Nobutoki Takamune, Shozo Shoji, Shinya Suzu and Shogo Misumi

    Citation: Retrovirology 2015 12:97

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  39. Content type: Research

    Previous studies have demonstrated that single HIV-1 genotypes are commonly transmitted from mother to child, but such analyses primarily used single samples from mother and child. It is possible that in a sin...

    Authors: Keri B. Sanborn, Mohan Somasundaran, Katherine Luzuriaga and Thomas Leitner

    Citation: Retrovirology 2015 12:96

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  40. Content type: Research

    While simian foamy viruses have co-evolved with their primate hosts for millennia, most scientific studies have focused on understanding infection in Old World primates with little knowledge available on the e...

    Authors: Cláudia P. Muniz, Hongwei Jia, Anupama Shankar, Lian L. Troncoso, Anderson M. Augusto, Elisabete Farias, Alcides Pissinatti, Luiz P. Fedullo, André F. Santos, Marcelo A. Soares and William M. Switzer

    Citation: Retrovirology 2015 12:94

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  41. Content type: Research

    Determining the anatomic compartments that contribute to plasma HIV-1 is critical to understanding the sources of residual viremia during combination antiretroviral therapy (ART). We analyzed viral DNA and RNA...

    Authors: Mary F. Kearney, Elizabeth M. Anderson, Charles Coomer, Luke Smith, Wei Shao, Nicholas Johnson, Christopher Kline, Jonathan Spindler, John W. Mellors, John M. Coffin and Zandrea Ambrose

    Citation: Retrovirology 2015 12:93

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  42. Content type: Research

    Bone marrow stromal cell antigen 2 (BST2), also known as tetherin, HM1.24 or CD317 represents a type 2 integral membrane protein, which has been described to restrict the production of some enveloped viruses b...

    Authors: Bianka Mussil, Aneela Javed, Katharina Töpfer, Ulrike Sauermann and Sieghart Sopper

    Citation: Retrovirology 2015 12:92

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  43. Content type: Research

    Human T-lymphotropic Virus Type I (HTLV-1) is a retrovirus that persistently infects 5–10 million individuals worldwide and causes disabling or fatal inflammatory and malignant diseases. The majority of the HT...

    Authors: Anat Melamed, Daniel J. Laydon, Hebah Al Khatib, Aileen G. Rowan, Graham P. Taylor and Charles R. M. Bangham

    Citation: Retrovirology 2015 12:91

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  44. Content type: Research

    The human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) nucleocapsid protein (NC) is an essential and multifunctional protein involved in multiple stages of the viral life cycle such as reverse transcription, integrat...

    Authors: Min-Jung Kim, Seon Hee Kim, Jung Ae Park, Kyung Lee Yu, Soo In Jang, Byung Soo Kim, Eun Soo Lee and Ji Chang You

    Citation: Retrovirology 2015 12:90

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  45. Content type: Research

    HIV-1 Vpr is recruited into virions during assembly and appears to remain associated with the viral core after the reverse transcription and uncoating steps of entry. This feature has prompted the use of fluor...

    Authors: Tanay M. Desai, Mariana Marin, Chetan Sood, Jiong Shi, Fatima Nawaz, Christopher Aiken and Gregory B. Melikyan

    Citation: Retrovirology 2015 12:88

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