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  1. The initial envelope (Env)-specific antibody response in acutely HIV-1-infected individuals and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected rhesus monkeys (RMs) is dominated by non-neutralizing antibodies tar...

    Authors: Quang N. Nguyen, David R. Martinez, Jonathon E. Himes, R. Whitney Edwards, Qifeng Han, Amit Kumar, Riley Mangan, Nathan I. Nicely, Guanhua Xie, Nathan Vandergrift, Xiaoying Shen, Justin Pollara and Sallie R. Permar
    Citation: Retrovirology 2018 15:24
  2. Antiretroviral therapy cannot cure HIV-1 infection due to the persistence of a small number of latently infected cells harboring replication-competent proviruses. Measuring persistent HIV-1 is challenging, as ...

    Authors: Zheng Wang, Francesco R. Simonetti, Robert F. Siliciano and Gregory M. Laird
    Citation: Retrovirology 2018 15:21
  3. Retroviruses can cause severe diseases such as cancer and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. A unique feature in the life cycle of retroviruses is that their RNA genome is reverse transcribed into double-stra...

    Authors: Xu Zhang, Xiancai Ma, Shuliang Jing, Hui Zhang and Yijun Zhang
    Citation: Retrovirology 2018 15:20
  4. Simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIVs) of chimpanzees and gorillas from Central Africa crossed the species barrier at least four times giving rise to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) groups M, N, O ...

    Authors: Mirela D’arc, Carolina Furtado, Juliana D. Siqueira, Héctor N. Seuánez, Ahidjo Ayouba, Martine Peeters and Marcelo A. Soares
    Citation: Retrovirology 2018 15:19
  5. Damage to the central nervous system during HIV infection can lead to variable neurobehavioral dysfunction termed HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). There is no clear consensus regarding the neuro...

    Authors: Stephanie J. Bissel, Kate Gurnsey, Hank P. Jedema, Nicholas F. Smith, Guoji Wang, Charles W. Bradberry and Clayton A. Wiley
    Citation: Retrovirology 2018 15:17
  6. Although antiretroviral therapy is able to suppress HIV replication in infected patients, the virus persists and rebounds when treatment is stopped. In order to find a cure that can eradicate the latent reserv...

    Authors: Sofie Rutsaert, Kobus Bosman, Wim Trypsteen, Monique Nijhuis and Linos Vandekerckhove
    Citation: Retrovirology 2018 15:16
  7. Characterizing HIV genetic diversity and evolution during antiretroviral therapy (ART) provides insights into the mechanisms that maintain the viral reservoir during ART. This review describes common methods u...

    Authors: Gert van Zyl, Michael J. Bale and Mary F. Kearney
    Citation: Retrovirology 2018 15:14
  8. Cell-associated (CA) HIV RNA has received much attention in recent years as a surrogate measure of the efficiency of HIV latency reversion and because it may provide an estimate of the viral reservoir size. Th...

    Authors: Alexander O. Pasternak and Ben Berkhout
    Citation: Retrovirology 2018 15:13
  9. The multiple roles of both viral and cellular RNAs have become increasingly apparent in recent years, and techniques to model them have become significantly more powerful, enabling faster and more accurate vis...

    Authors: Dhivya Jayaraman and Julia Claire Kenyon
    Citation: Retrovirology 2018 15:11
  10. The retrovirus murine leukemia virus (MuLV) has an 8.3 kb RNA genome with a simple 5′-gag-pol-env-3′ architecture. Translation of the pol gene is dependent upon readthrough of the gag UAG stop codon; whereas the

    Authors: Nerea Irigoyen, Adam M. Dinan, Ian Brierley and Andrew E. Firth
    Citation: Retrovirology 2018 15:10
  11. The factors determining differential HIV disease outcome among individuals expressing protective HLA alleles such as HLA-B*27:05 and HLA-B*57:01 remain unknown. We here analyse two HIV-infected subjects expre...

    Authors: Jacqui Brener, Astrid Gall, Jacob Hurst, Rebecca Batorsky, Nora Lavandier, Fabian Chen, Anne Edwards, Chrissy Bolton, Reena Dsouza, Todd Allen, Oliver G. Pybus, Paul Kellam, Philippa C. Matthews and Philip J. R. Goulder
    Citation: Retrovirology 2018 15:7
  12. The HIV-1 accessory proteins Nef and Vpu alter cell surface levels of multiple host proteins to modify the immune response and increase viral persistence. Nef and Vpu can downregulate cell surface levels of th...

    Authors: Emily N. Pawlak, Brennan S. Dirk, Rajesh Abraham Jacob, Aaron L. Johnson and Jimmy D. Dikeakos
    Citation: Retrovirology 2018 15:6
  13. Combination antiretroviral therapy efficiently suppresses HIV replication in infected patients, transforming HIV/AIDS into a chronic disease. Viral resistance does develop however, especially under suboptimal ...

    Authors: Jonas Demeulemeester, Jolien Blokken, Stéphanie De Houwer, Lieve Dirix, Hugo Klaassen, Arnaud Marchand, Patrick Chaltin, Frauke Christ and Zeger Debyser
    Citation: Retrovirology 2018 15:5
  14. The development of increasingly safe and effective antiretroviral treatments for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) over the past several decades has led to vastly improved patient survival when treatment is a...

    Authors: Claire Deleage, Chi N. Chan, Kathleen Busman-Sahay and Jacob D. Estes
    Citation: Retrovirology 2018 15:4
  15. Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is a deltaretrovirus infecting bovine B cells and causing enzootic bovine leucosis. The SU or surface subunit, gp51, of its envelope glycoprotein is involved in receptor recognition...

    Authors: Aneta Pluta, Lorraine M. Albritton, Marzena Rola-Łuszczak and Jacek Kuźmak
    Citation: Retrovirology 2018 15:2
  16. Emergence of resistance against integrase inhibitor raltegravir in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) patients is generally associated with selection of one of three signature mutations: Y143C/R, Q148...

    Authors: Axel Fun, Thomas Leitner, Linos Vandekerckhove, Martin Däumer, Alexander Thielen, Bernd Buchholz, Andy I. M. Hoepelman, Elizabeth H. Gisolf, Pauline J. Schipper, Annemarie M. J. Wensing and Monique Nijhuis
    Citation: Retrovirology 2018 15:1
  17. A robust measure of the size of the latent HIV reservoir is essential to quantifying the effect of interventions designed to deplete the pool of reactivatable, replication competent proviruses. In addition to ...

    Authors: Nicholas J. Norton, Axel Fun, Mikaila Bandara, Mark R. Wills, Hoi Ping Mok and Andrew M. L. Lever
    Citation: Retrovirology 2017 14:58
  18. MOV10 protein has ATP-dependent 5′–3′ RNA helicase activity and belongs to the UPF1p superfamily. It can inhibit human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) replication at multiple stages and interact with apo...

    Authors: Cancan Chen, Xiaocao Ma, Qifei Hu, Xinghua Li, Feng Huang, Junsong Zhang, Ting Pan, Jinyu Xia, Chao Liu and Hui Zhang
    Citation: Retrovirology 2017 14:56
  19. Foamy viruses (FV) are ancient complex retroviruses that differ from orthoretroviruses such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and murine leukemia virus (MLV) and comprise a distinct subfamily of retrovirus...

    Authors: Delia M. Pinto-Santini, Carolyn R. Stenbak and Maxine L. Linial
    Citation: Retrovirology 2017 14:55
  20. Stable insertion of the retroviral DNA genome into host chromatin requires the functional association between the intasome (integrase·viral DNA complex) and the nucleosome. The data from the literature suggest...

    Authors: Mohamed S. Benleulmi, Julien Matysiak, Xavier Robert, Csaba Miskey, Eric Mauro, Delphine Lapaillerie, Paul Lesbats, Stéphane Chaignepain, Daniel R. Henriquez, Christina Calmels, Oyindamola Oladosu, Eloïse Thierry, Oscar Leon, Marc Lavigne, Marie-Line Andreola, Olivier Delelis…
    Citation: Retrovirology 2017 14:54
  21. The CRISPR/Cas9 system has been widely used for genome editing in mammalian cells. CXCR4 is a co-receptor for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) entry, and loss of CXCR4 function can protect cells from C...

    Authors: Qiankun Wang, Shuliang Chen, Qiaoqiao Xiao, Zhepeng Liu, Shuai Liu, Panpan Hou, Li Zhou, Wei Hou, Wenzhe Ho, Chunmei Li, Li Wu and Deyin Guo
    Citation: Retrovirology 2017 14:51
  22. HIV-1 Integrase (IN) interacts with the cellular co-factor LEDGF/p75 and tethers the HIV preintegration complex to the host genome enabling integration. Recently a new class of IN inhibitors was described, th...

    Authors: Céline Amadori, Yme Ubeles van der Velden, Damien Bonnard, Igor Orlov, Nikki van Bel, Erwann Le Rouzic, Laia Miralles, Julie Brias, Francis Chevreuil, Daniele Spehner, Sophie Chasset, Benoit Ledoussal, Luzia Mayr, François Moreau, Felipe García, José Gatell…
    Citation: Retrovirology 2017 14:50
  23. The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) structural protein Gag is necessary and sufficient to form viral particles. In addition to encoding the amino acid sequence for Gag, the underlying RNA sequence ...

    Authors: Irati Antzin-Anduetza, Charlotte Mahiet, Luke A. Granger, Charlotte Odendall and Chad M. Swanson
    Citation: Retrovirology 2017 14:49
  24. The authors wish to apologize for an error within the scale bar of the microarray heatmap in Additional File 5 of the supplementary information. Two values were incorrectly displayed on the scale bar (11 inste...

    Authors: Franziska K. Geis, Melanie Galla, Dirk Hoffmann, Johannes Kuehle, Daniela Zychlinski, Tobias Maetzig, Juliane W. Schott, Adrian Schwarzer, Christine Goffinet, Stephen P. Goff and Axel Schambach
    Citation: Retrovirology 2017 14:48

    The original article was published in Retrovirology 2017 14:34

  25. In patients with HIV/AIDS receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART), HIV-1 persistence in brain tissue is a vital and unanswered question. HIV-1 infects and replicates in resident microglia and trafficking macrop...

    Authors: Eugene L. Asahchop, Oussama Meziane, Manmeet K. Mamik, Wing F. Chan, William G. Branton, Lothar Resch, M. John Gill, Elie Haddad, Jean V. Guimond, Mark A. Wainberg, Glen B. Baker, Eric A. Cohen and Christopher Power
    Citation: Retrovirology 2017 14:47
  26. Mutations rapidly accumulate in the HIV-1 genome after infection. Some of those mutations are selected by host immune responses and often cause viral fitness losses. This study is to investigate whether strong...

    Authors: Donglai Liu, Chu Wang, Bhavna Hora, Tao Zuo, Nilu Goonetilleke, Michael K. P. Liu, Mark Berrong, Guido Ferrari, Andrew J. McMichael, Tanmoy Bhattacharya, Alan S. Perelson and Feng Gao
    Citation: Retrovirology 2017 14:46
  27. Like all viruses, HIV-1 relies on host systems to replicate. The human purinome consists of approximately two thousand proteins that bind and use purines such as ATP, NADH, and NADPH. By virtue of their purin...

    Authors: Manjusha M. Kulkarni, Annette N. Ratcliff, Menakshi Bhat, Yazan Alwarawrah, Philip Hughes, Jesus Arcos, David Loiselle, Jordi B. Torrelles, Nicholas T. Funderburg, Timothy A. Haystead and Jesse J. Kwiek
    Citation: Retrovirology 2017 14:45
  28. The CD4-induced (CD4i) epitopes in gp120 includes the co-receptor binding site, which are formed and exposed after interaction with CD4. Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) to the CD4i epitopes exhibit limited neutra...

    Authors: Kazuki Tanaka, Takeo Kuwata, Muntasir Alam, Gilad Kaplan, Shokichi Takahama, Kristel Paola Ramirez Valdez, Anna Roitburd-Berman, Jonathan M. Gershoni and Shuzo Matsushita
    Citation: Retrovirology 2017 14:44
  29. The HIV-1 RNA genome has a biased nucleotide composition with a surplus of As. Several hypotheses have been put forward to explain this striking phenomenon, but the A-count of the HIV-1 genome has thus far not...

    Authors: Bep Klaver, Yme van der Velden, Formijn van Hemert, Antoinette C. van der Kuyl and Ben Berkhout
    Citation: Retrovirology 2017 14:43
  30. Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) can suppress T cell responses in several different diseases. Previously these suppressive cells were observed to expand in HIV patients and in a mouse retrovirus model,...

    Authors: Malgorzata Drabczyk-Pluta, Tanja Werner, Daniel Hoffmann, Qibin Leng, Lieping Chen, Ulf Dittmer and Gennadiy Zelinskyy
    Citation: Retrovirology 2017 14:42
  31. Human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) comprise approximately 8% of the human genome and while the majority are transcriptionally silent, the most recently integrated HERV, HERV-K (HML-2), remains active. Durin...

    Authors: Miguel de Mulder, Devi SenGupta, Steven G. Deeks, Jeffrey N. Martin, Christopher D. Pilcher, Frederick M. Hecht, Jonah B. Sacha, Douglas F. Nixon and Henri-Alexandre Michaud
    Citation: Retrovirology 2017 14:41
  32. Rev-like proteins are post-transcriptional regulatory proteins found in several retrovirus genera, including lentiviruses, betaretroviruses, and deltaretroviruses. These essential proteins mediate the nuclear ...

    Authors: Chijioke N. Umunnakwe, Karin S. Dorman, Drena Dobbs and Susan Carpenter
    Citation: Retrovirology 2017 14:40
  33. Insertion of retroviral genome DNA occurs in the chromatin of the host cell. This step is modulated by chromatin structure as nucleosomes compaction was shown to prevent HIV-1 integration and chromatin remodel...

    Authors: Julien Matysiak, Paul Lesbats, Eric Mauro, Delphine Lapaillerie, Jean-William Dupuy, Angelica P. Lopez, Mohamed Salah Benleulmi, Christina Calmels, Marie-Line Andreola, Marc Ruff, Manuel Llano, Olivier Delelis, Marc Lavigne and Vincent Parissi
    Citation: Retrovirology 2017 14:39
  34. Integrase strand transfer inhibitors (INSTIs) are the newest class of antiretroviral drugs to be approved for treatment and act by inhibiting the essential HIV protein integrase from inserting the viral DNA ge...

    Authors: Kaitlin Anstett, Bluma Brenner, Thibault Mesplede and Mark A. Wainberg
    Citation: Retrovirology 2017 14:36
  35. Simian immunodeficiency virus of chimpanzees (SIVcpz), the progenitor of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), is associated with increased mortality and AIDS-like immunopathology in wild-living chimpan...

    Authors: Hannah J. Barbian, Raven Jackson-Jewett, Corrine S. Brown, Frederic Bibollet-Ruche, Gerald H. Learn, Timothy Decker, Edward F. Kreider, Yingying Li, Thomas N. Denny, Paul M. Sharp, George M. Shaw, Jeffrey Lifson, Edward P. Acosta, Michael S. Saag, Katharine J. Bar and Beatrice H. Hahn
    Citation: Retrovirology 2017 14:35
  36. Retroviral vectors are derived from wild-type retroviruses, can be used to study retrovirus-host interactions and are effective tools in gene and cell therapy. However, numerous cell types are resistant or les...

    Authors: Franziska K. Geis, Melanie Galla, Dirk Hoffmann, Johannes Kuehle, Daniela Zychlinski, Tobias Maetzig, Juliane W. Schott, Adrian Schwarzer, Christine Goffinet, Stephen P. Goff and Axel Schambach
    Citation: Retrovirology 2017 14:34

    The Correction to this article has been published in Retrovirology 2017 14:48

  37. Parent-offspring (PO) regression is a central tool to determine the heritability of phenotypic traits; i.e., the relative extent to which those traits are controlled by genetic factors. The applicability of PO...

    Authors: Nadine Bachmann, Teja Turk, Claus Kadelka, Alex Marzel, Mohaned Shilaih, Jürg Böni, Vincent Aubert, Thomas Klimkait, Gabriel E. Leventhal, Huldrych F. Günthard and Roger Kouyos
    Citation: Retrovirology 2017 14:33

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