- Open Access
HIV latency reversing agents act through Tat post translational modifications
© The Author(s) 2018
- Received: 4 July 2017
- Accepted: 5 May 2018
- Published: 11 May 2018
Different classes of latency reversing agents (LRAs) are being evaluated to measure their effects in reactivating HIV replication from latently infected cells. A limited number of studies have demonstrated additive effects of LRAs with the viral protein Tat in initiating transcription, but less is known about how LRAs interact with Tat, particularly through basic residues that may be post-translationally modified to alter the behaviour of Tat for processive transcription and co-transcriptional RNA processing.
Here we show that various lysine and arginine mutations reduce the capacity of Tat to induce both transcription and mRNA splicing. The lysine 28 and lysine 50 residues of Tat, or the acetylation and methylation modifications of these basic amino acids, were essential for Tat transcriptional control, and also for the proviral expression effects elicited by histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) or the bromodomain inhibitor JQ1. We also found that JQ1 was the only LRA tested that could induce HIV mRNA splicing in the absence of Tat, or rescue splicing for Tat lysine mutants in a BRD4-dependent manner.
Our data provide evidence that Tat activities in both co-transcriptional RNA processing together with transcriptional initiation and processivity are crucial during reactivation of latent HIV infection. The HDACi and JQ1 LRAs act with Tat to increase transcription, but JQ1 also enables post-transcriptional mRNA splicing. Tat residues K28 and K50, or their modifications through acetylation or methylation, are critical for LRAs that function in conjunction with Tat.
- HIV latency
- Post-translational modification
The major barrier to a cure for HIV is long lived latently infected memory CD4+ T-cells that persist on antiretroviral therapy (ART) . One strategy being investigated to eliminate latency is to activate virus production from latency in the presence of ART so that no further rounds of infection occur, and it was speculated that the cell would then die either through immune mediated clearance or virus induced cytolysis . Epigenetic modifiers including histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) have been used to reverse latency in vitro and in vivo [2–7]. Although clinical trials of these agents in HIV-infected individuals on ART demonstrated modest increases in cell-associated unspliced HIV mRNA (US RNA), indicative of the initiation of viral transcription, when used alone, these studies failed to show a reduction in the frequency of latently infected cells as measured by HIV DNA [2–7]. Understanding how different classes of latency reversing agents (LRAs) affect distinct aspects of virus production post integration is needed to define the optimal compounds to efficiently reverse latency.
Tat is a critical viral protein required to transactivate viral transcriptional elongation and splicing [8–13]. In active HIV replication, Tat undergoes various post-translational modifications including acetylation and methylation. Depending on which residue is modified and the type of modification it carries, the behaviour of Tat changes to regulate its activity [14–27]. These multiple modifications provide an interconnected regulatory network that enables Tat to control viral transcription, elongation, and splicing throughout viral replication [14–27]. These modifications differ depending on the cellular environment, specifically the activation state of the cell , and thus should differ during active replication in activated cells versus latent infection in resting cells. Moreover, these modifications may differ under the influence of LRAs as a limited number of studies have demonstrated additive effects of LRAs with the viral protein Tat in initiating transcription . However, less is known about how LRAs interact with Tat, particularly through basic residues that may be post-translationally modified to alter the behaviour of Tat.
In this study, we generated a series of Tat mutants to determine their effects on viral transcription and/or splicing. We investigated the effects of Tat mutants on the activity of a panel of LRAs and found that post translational modifications of different lysine residues of Tat are important for its activity with different LRAs, with differing abilities to actively initiate transcription and/or splicing.
A novel in vitro model using fluorescent reporter proteins to test the impact of interventions on HIV transcription and splicing
A potent LRA is required for efficient reactivation and clearance of latent proviruses. To investigate the ability of LRAs to induce HIV-1 transcription and splicing, we determined the effects of LRAs alone or in combination with full-length wild-type (WT) Tat101 given Tat’s important role in splicing and transcription .
To test that this model measures unspliced and spliced viral products, HEK293T cells were co-transfected with the reporter and a plasmid containing rev (pRev) to facilitate the nuclear export of Rev response element (RRE)-containing unspliced mRNA, in the presence or absence of pTat101. Flow cytometry was used to measure each fluorescent colour using the gating strategy shown for a representative sample (Fig. 1b) out of five independent experiments, each performed in triplicate (Fig. 1c–e). For cells transfected with the reporter and pRev without Tat, a mean of 8.03 and 0.39% of cells expressed EGFP and DsRed respectively, indicating that there was basal transcription from the LTR but only a low efficiency of splicing at D4A7 without Tat (Fig. 1c–e, minus sample). The addition of WT Tat101 (100 ng pTat) enabled a significant increase in transcription (31.7% EGFP+; p = 0.0076) (Fig. 1c) and splicing (21.6% DsRed+; n = 5, Paired T test, p = 0.0015) (Fig. 1d). To control for Tat-induced increases in transcription and for transfection efficiency, we also measured the percentage of spliced product versus total product (spliced/(spliced + unspliced) × 100). A significant increase in spliced product was observed in the presence of WT Tat compared to cells only and DMSO (p = 0.0004; n = 5; Paired T test) (Fig. 1e).
Latency reversing agents change the behaviour of Tat during reactivation from the LTR
Using the same reporter system, we investigated the effects of a panel of LRAs on LTR-driven transcription and splicing in the absence and presence of WT Tat. Transfected cells were treated with the two HDACi vorinostat (VOR) and panobinostat (PAN), the bromodomain inhibitor JQ1, the methyltransferase inhibitor chaetocin (CTN), the anti-alcoholic disulfiram (DIS) and the T cell activation stimuli phorbol myristate acetate/phytohaemagglutinin (PMA/PHA), with concentrations at the maximum tolerated doses to preserve cell viability (Additional file 1: Fig. S1). Cells were then harvested at 48 h post-transfection for flow cytometry analysis.
In the presence of Tat101, while JQ1 and both HDACi significantly increased the levels of EGFP (1.2 and 1.3 FC over DMSO respectively, p < 0.05) (Fig. 2c), only JQ1 significantly increased the proportion of spliced product when compared to DMSO (Fig. 2d; n = 5, 2-way ANOVA across all LRAs). Similar results were obtained using Tat86 from the HIV NL4-3 strain (data not shown). Taken together, these data demonstrate that different classes of LRAs have differential effects on HIV transcription and splicing. In addition, while Tat alone is the most potent activator of LTR-driven transcription, Tat can also have an additive effect with HDACi and JQ1 on transcription, and with JQ1 alone on splicing.
Accumulation of HIV spliced RNA following JQ1 treatment
Both JQ1 alone and Tat alone increased the levels of US (3.16 and 6.65 FC over DMSO) as well as spliced RNA (19.75 and 19.33 FC over DMSO), while no significant change was detected in the level of total viral RNA following JQ1 treatment (Fig. 3b). As we observed previously in Fig. 2, the combination of Tat and JQ1 increased the levels of US and spliced RNAs (Fig. 3b) confirming the ability of JQ1 and Tat to turn on HIV transcription and splicing. Moreover, the RNA analysis revealed consistent changes in RNA transcription and splicing that was mirrored by the EGFP and DsRed protein expression in this model following treatment with JQ1: a 2.5-fold increase in both US/all viral RNA and %EGFP+, and 18.5-fold increase in spliced/all viral RNA and %spliced product (compare Fig. 3c, d and Additional file 2: Fig. S2A, S2C). This indicates that EGFP and DsRed expressing cells well reflect the ability of JQ1 to induce HIV transcription and splicing at D4A7. These results also confirm the ability to use the splicing reporter pLTR.gp140/EGFP.Rev∆38/DsRed in high throughput assays where we can accurately measure by flow cytometry the effect of LRAs on HIV transcription and splicing.
Overall, these data demonstrate that JQ1 treatment leads to a significant accumulation of HIV spliced RNA. This was consistent with an increase in the ability of JQ1 to drive both HIV-1 transcription but more profoundly splicing, potentially due to a decrease in splicing inhibitory factors such as hnRNP A1 and an increase in RNA binding proteins facilitating RNA nuclear export like PTB.
Mutations in lysine and arginine residues in Tat101 reduce HIV transcription and splicing efficiency
Next, we investigated the effects of these mutations on LTR-driven transcription alone (without splicing) by transfecting each mutant into TZMbl cells that contain a luciferase reporter under the control of HIV LTR. Cells were harvested 48 h later and luciferase expression was measured and represented as a percentage of expression relative to WT Tat (Fig. 5c). Mutations of K28, K50 and K50-51 to alanine significantly reduced the ability of Tat to transactivate transcription from the LTR, while no effect was observed following K71 and R53 mutations (n = 5; Paired T test).
Lysine 28 and 50 mutants reduce LTR-driven transcription in the presence of LRAs
Next, to investigate whether Tat PTMs affect LTR-driven transcription with commonly used LRAs, we co-transfected each mutant into HEK293T with the splicing reporter described above and then treated the cells with the LRA panel or DMSO diluent control.
To assess the effects of Tat PTMs on transcription (EGFP+ cells), statistical comparisons of EGFP+ cells were made to DMSO+ Tat101 with or without the designated mutation (Additional file 4: Fig. S4). VOR, PAN and JQ1 had statistically significant activity with WT Tat101 (Additional file 4: Fig. S4A; n = 5; 2-way ANOVA test across all LRAs). However, VOR and JQ1 lost this significant activity with the K28A and K50A mutants compared to their respective DMSO control (Additional file 4: Fig. S4B and S4C). In contrast, Tat K50/51A retained its activity with HDACi and JQ1, and gained a modest but statistically significant enhancement of activity with PMA/PHA (Additional file 4: Fig. S4C). The pattern was different with the K71A and R53A mutants, where PAN and JQ1 retained their ability to induce transcription, but this ability was lost with VOR (Additional file 4: Fig. S4E-F). These data suggest that Tat K28 and K50, or the post translational modifications that these basic amino acids acquire, are essential for Tat action with VOR and JQ1 in driving transcription.
JQ1 promotes HIV D4-A7 splicing with or without WT Tat101 and its various mutants in a splicing reporter system
BRD4 mediates JQ1 effect on HIV D4-A7 RNA splicing
As expected, treatment with JQ1 (−) analogue that does not interact with any bromodomain  abolished the JQ1 (+) effect on HIV transcription (Fig. 9a). Interestingly, as shown in Fig. 9b, a specific activation of HIV D4-A7 splicing with JQ1 (+), but not with the stereoisomer control JQ1 (−), was also observed in all cases (p = 0.0151; n = 3; Friedman nonparametric test) suggesting a role of BRD4 in mediating HIV D4-A7 RNA splicing via JQ1 (+).
A variety of LRAs are currently being investigated ex vivo and in vivo for their efficacy to induce virus production from latently infected rCD4+ T cells. However, not much is known about how these LRAs affect different aspects of the viral replication cycle, such as the behaviour of Tat protein in transcription and splicing. Given the ability of Tat to be post-translationally modified and the possibility that these modifications may differ under the influence of LRAs, we were interested to investigate how different classes of LRAs acted in combination with Tat.
In agreement with previous studies by Caputi’s team , our data show that wild-type (WT) Tat101 expression induced a change in HIV-1 splicing pattern, increasing the use of A7 3′ss and thus the expression of rev mRNAs. We also showed that the Tat K28 and K50/51 residues are essential for the additive effect between LRAs and Tat on transcription. Interestingly, K28 and K50 are highly conserved across HIV-1 and SIV . These same Tat residues, in addition to R53, were also required for efficient RNA splicing. Additionally, in the presence of K28A, K50A, and K50/51A mutations that deny acetylation at these positions, JQ1 alone could rescue this defect in splicing. These data suggest that JQ1 can induce HIV RNA splicing independently of Tat, yet when Tat is present these residues are not essential. It is unclear if this positive activity of JQ1 and Tat extends to other alternatively spliced cellular RNAs.
Suboptimal levels of Tat protein or Tat function facilitate the maintenance of HIV latency where the addition of exogenous or co-transfected Tat can efficiently reactivate virus production from latent HIV [10, 36–40]. It remains unknown if Tat expression and appropriate post-translational modification can be induced by LRAs in rCD4+ T cells, particularly since the long non-coding RNA NRON, which is highly expressed in rCD4+ T cells, can target Tat for degradation . Our results suggest that the Tat residues K28, K50 and K51, or the modifications that these basic amino acids acquire from cellular factors, are essential for Tat mediated HIV transcription and splicing.
HDACi can modestly activate transcription and their activity is enhanced in the presence of Tat, which could be due to the fact that Tat transactivation through the LTR is intricately controlled by lysine acetylation . In particular, the acetylation of K28 is mediated by host histone acetyltransferases (HATs) p300, which strengthens the binding of Tat to the transactivation response (TAR) RNA element within the LTR to promote transcription [19, 21, 22]. Yet when K50 is acetylated by p300, this interaction enables the dissociation of the Tat•P-TEFb•TAR complex to transfer Tat onto the elongating RNA Pol II [19, 21]. Tat is hypothesized to control elongation rates by orchestrating the phosphorylation of the C-terminal domain (CTD) of RNA Pol II to enable the association and dissociation of transcribing RNAs and RNA-associated factors throughout elongation, as well as the control of the processivity and pausing of RNA Pol II to regulate viral splicing [8, 41, 42]. Given that the additive effect on transcription between HDACi and Tat is lost with the K28A and K50A mutants, we propose a model where HDACi act by promoting the acetylation of K28 and K50 to enhance transactivation by Tat-mediated assembly of the transcription complex (Fig. 10). However, acetylation of Tat at K28 may continuously promote the Tat:TAR interaction in a way that precludes splicing.
Using our in vitro model system to assess transcription and splicing, while JQ1 had a similar activity to HDACi in enhancing transcription, JQ1 also had a unique additional action in enabling splicing in the presence and absence of Tat101. JQ1 can act in both a Tat-dependent [43–46] and Tat-independent  manner to reverse latency, where the Tat-independent activity of JQ1 is crucial given that Tat protein is scarce in latency . The positive effects of JQ1 on HIV splicing may be explained by its ability either to alter the level of trans-acting factors such as hnRNPs (heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins), which are involved in alternative splicing, mRNA stability, transcriptional and translational regulation , or to initiate the upregulation of the CDK9 subunit of P-TEFb  and AFF4 , as well as host genes crucial for chromatin reorganization and genes that influence posttranslational modifications of Tat . We demonstrated that the lysine residues at K28, K50, and K50/51 were critical for splicing but JQ1 was able to rescue this defect. Our finding highlights the usefulness of compounds like JQ1 in situations where there are forms of Tat in the latent provirus that have attenuated activity, as defective proviruses rapidly accumulate during acute infection and shape the proviral landscape [50–52]. Therefore, bromodomain inhibitors may be more attractive compounds than HDACi for latency reversal.
JQ1 binds competitively to acetyl-lysine recognition domains as in BRD4 . Besides its role in transcriptional elongation, the bromodomain protein BRD4 is involved in alternative splicing regulation as it interacts with JMJD6 (JmjC domain containing protein 6) that mediates 5′ hydroxylation of U2AF65, a major component of the spliceosomal complex important for 3′ splice site recognition [53, 54]. BRD4 can also regulate splicing following a heat shock response, as an increase in intron retention was observed upon BRD4 depletion . Following JQ1 treatment, the expression of various host proteins is altered, including hnRNP A1 and PTB, which are known regulators of HIV-1 splicing and nuclear export of viral RNAs. HIV splice acceptor sites usage is strongly dependent on SR and hnRNP proteins [56–59]. Through cooperative binding to enhancer (ESE3) and silencer (ESS3a, ISS) elements nearby the viral A7 splice site, hnRNP A1, a known regulator of HIV-1 splicing, modulates tat and rev mRNA production . Additionally, a lack of PTB (polypyrimidine tract-binding protein), also known as hnRNP I in resting CD4+ T cells has been implicated in nuclear retention of multiply spliced RNAs during latency . An increase in the levels of PTB following JQ1 treatment would allow efficient export and expression of multiply spliced RNAs encoding for Tat and Rev. Given that changes in the balance of splicing can perturb viral replicative fitness and infectivity [29, 62], these alterations in splicing factors may have a major impact on the efficiency of virus production from latency. Whether through splicing and/or export, the ability of PTB to revert nuclear retention of multiply spliced RNAs in rCD4+ from patients on cART  indicates an mRNA processing restriction mechanism that is in place in rCD4+ T cells affecting Tat and Rev expression during latency. In fact, a new study revealed a series of blocks to HIV proximal elongation, distal transcription/polyadenylation (completion) and splicing (D4-A7) in CD4+ T cells from HIV infected patients on ART . As viral Tat and Rev proteins play crucial roles in transcription initiation-elongation and nuclear export, multiply spliced transcripts (tat and rev mRNAs) may be of increased utility as a marker for viral rebound in patients after cART interruption  than unspliced RNA, which have been mainly used in clinical trials.
Recent study from Ott’s group has revealed that a short isoform of BRD4 promotes latency by engaging repressive SWI/SNF chromatin-remodelling complexes, which could be reversed by JQ1 treatment . In synergy with protein kinase C (PKC) agonists such as Bryostatin-1, bromodomain and extra-terminal domain inhibitors (BETis) like JQ1, UMB-136 and OTX015 constitute highly effective LRA combinations capable of inducing robust increase in HIV mRNA expression, comparable to CD3/CD28 antibodies stimulation, in rCD4 T cells from infected individuals on ART without inducing global T cell activation. This reactivation occurs through binding of BETis with the long isoform of BRD4 and release of P-TEFb [46, 66–69]. In agreement with these previous reports, our data revealed JQ1 ability to induce BRD4 dependent HIV-1 transcription and D4-A7 RNA splicing.
Given the difficulty in measuring Tat protein and Tat activity ex vivo, there are several limitations in this study. We chose HEK293T cells to use the splicing reporter system given the feasibility of transfecting these cells with the multiple plasmids required to clearly visualize EGFP and DsRed expression, which proved more difficult in a T-cell line such as Jurkats. It would be interesting to test these Tat mutants and LRAs in the context of full-length virus in a primary cell model of latency or ex vivo given the different landscape of cellular factors in rCD4+ T cells compared to a cancer cell line that affect the capacity of a cell to reactivate a latent provirus. Differences in the availability of host transcription, elongation and splicing factors in a rCD4+ T cell may augment the results observed in this study. Primary resting cells lack sufficient levels of transcription and elongation factors that mainly remain in inhibitory complexes in the cytoplasm [70–72]. We predict our results may be more pronounced ex vivo given P-TEFb, which exists in very low levels in rCD4+ T cells [45, 73] can be released from its inhibitory complex with 7SK snRNP and HEXIM1 with the addition of an HDACi, JQ1 or Tat protein [45, 49, 72, 74, 75]. Finally, we did not specifically address whether these same effects on transcription and splicing are relevant in other cellular reservoirs such as long lived infected macrophages, or whether they can induce replication competent virus by measuring HIV RNA production in culture supernatant.
A lack of Tat is important in maintaining latency in resting CD4+ T-cells and therefore Tat is not readily available during the initial reactivation of provirus. This will limit the potency of some LRAs, such as HDACi, which fail to induce splicing in the absence of Tat. In contrast, JQ1 which also acts in combination with Tat to activate transcription, can enable splicing even in the absence of Tat. In conclusion, the potency of an LRA to induce virus production is enhanced if Tat is present, as certain agents may work directly or indirectly through post-translational modifications of Tat. Strategies to increase Tat expression during latency reversal should be explored to fully activate the viral replication cycle and further enhance the potency of LRAs.
Tat101AD8—Flag was inserted into pcDNA3.1 (−) vector (Invitrogen) cleaved by XbaI and EcoRI. Site-directed mutagenesis was used to insert alanine substitutions or conservative mutations at particular locations to remove Lysine or Arginine function within Tat (see Additional file 5: Table S1 for oligonucleotide sequences for each mutant). Mutagenesis PCR was performed using High-Fidelity PCR DNA Polymerase (Promega) according to the manufacturer’s instructions. The PCR reaction was performed as following: 98 °C 5 min, 30 cycles of 98 °C 30 s, 50 °C 30 s, 72 °C 7 min, and a final 72 °C 10 min. After treatment with DpnI (NEB), amplified PCR product was purified with DNA gel extraction (Macherey–nagel nucleospin gel) and transformed into TOP10 competent E. Coli bacteria. Sequencing analysis confirmed the accuracy of cloning.
HEK293T cells transfected with WT and mutants Tat plasmids, and then treated with JQ1 (1 μM) or DMSO diluent control, were lysed with RIPA buffer (50 mM Tris–HCl pH8, 150 mM NaCl, 1% IgePal, 1 mM EDTA) supplemented with protease inhibitor cocktail (Roche), followed by sonication and centrifugation at 12,000xg for 15 min at 4 °C. The amount of proteins in the cell lysate was determined by Bradford assay (BioRad). Equal amounts of each sample were loaded on 12.5% SDS-PAGE, transferred to a nitrocellulose membrane (0.45 μm BioRad) then blocked in 5% milk-PBS-T (0.1% Tween-20) for 1 h at room temperature. Blots were probed with anti-Flag (ab1162, abcam, 1/2500°), anti-GAPDH (#14C10, cell signalling, 1/1000°), anti-PTBP1 (clone 7, ThermoFischer Scientific, #325000, 1/500°) and anti-hnRNP A1 (clone 9H10, Santa Cruz, sc-56700, 1/25°). After several washes, the membrane was incubated with either 1/5000° goat anti-rabbit IgG (H + L) HRP (Invitrogen, Cat. No. 656120) or goat anti-mouse IgG (H + L) HRP (Invitrogen, Cat. No. 626520) for 1 h at RT. Blots were developed using Supersignal west pico chemiluminescent substrate (ThermoFisher Scientific) and visualized using the MF-ChemiBis 3.2 imaging system (DNR).
Splicing reporter experiments
Splicing reporter experiments with pLTR.gp140/EGFP.Rev∆38/DsRed were performed as previously described [30, 31]. Briefly, 2 × 104 HEK293T cells (human embryonic kidney cells that stably express the SV40 large T antigen; American Tissue Culture Collection) were seeded per well into 96-well plates with DMEM (Gibco) + 10% FBS with Penicillin (100U/ml)/Streptomycin (100 μg/ml) and cultured overnight. Cells were then transfected in the absence of antibiotics using Lipofectamine 2000 (ThermoFisher) with 400 ng of an LTR-driven splicing reporter pLTR.gp140/EGFP.Rev∆38/DsRed, 20 ng of pRevNL4.3, with or without wild type or mutant pTat101AD8 in triplicate wells per experiment on 5 separate occasions for n = 5. A matched empty tat vector pcDNA3.1 (−) was used for experiments without Tat. Cells were incubated for 5 h prior to treatment with DMSO (1:5000, #67-68-S Merck), vorinostat (0.5 μM, #10009929 Cayman Chemical or #S1047 Selleck Chemicals), panobinostat (30 nM, #P180500 TRC or #S1030 Selleck Chemicals), JQ1 (+) (1 μM, #11187 Cayman Chemical or #S7110 Selleck Chemicals), JQ1 (−) (1 μM, #11232 Cayman Chemical), chaetocin (30 nM, #C9492 Sigma), disulfiram (500 nM, #D3374 LKT or #S1680 Selleck Chemicals), or PMA/PHA (10 nM PMA, #16561-29-8 Sigma-Aldrich/10 μg/mL PHA, #HA15/R30852701 Remel). Cells were harvested at 48 h, stained with LIVE/DEAD Fixable Dead Cell Stain (Near-IR, Thermo Fisher Scientific) and then assessed for EGFP and DsRed expression by flow cytometry (LSRII, BD Biosciences). Optimal compensation was achieved using HEK293T cells expressing the individual fluorescent protein. A minimum of 10.000 viable cell events per sample was acquired. Data was analysed using FlowJo version 10.0.8. The gating strategy includes exclusion of debris and selection of single cells based on forward and side scatter. Size selected cells were subgated using the live/dead marker, followed by the identification of unspliced and spliced products as positive for EGFP and DsRed, respectively. For that, live cells were gated on EGFP and DsRed versus “dump channel” (violet). The CellTiter 96 Aqueous One Solution Cell Proliferation Assay (Promega) was also used following manufacturer’s instructions to determine the toxicity of the LRAs.
Quantitative PCR of viral and human RNA species
Total RNA was extracted from cells using TRIzol (Invitrogen) following manufacturer instructions followed by RQ1 RNase-Free DNase (Promega, 2 U/μg) treatment for 30 min at 37 °C. One µg of DNase treated RNA was reverse-transcribed using Omniscript-reverse transcriptase (Qiagen), d(T)15 and random hexamer primers following the manufacturers specifications. HIV US, spliced and all viral RNA (copies/μl) were quantified by ddPCR. Briefly, the ddPCR reaction consisted of 12 μl 2 × ddPCR super mix for probes (no dUTP, Bio-Rad); 900 nM of each primer; 250 nM probe (FAM-MGBNFQ, Applied Biosystems, Additional file 5: Table S1) and 0.8-80 ng cDNA into a 24 μl final volume. Ribonuclease P/MRP 30 kDa (RPP30, dHsaCPE5038241), importin8 (IPO8, dHsaCPE5044719) and TATA-binding protein (TBP, dHsaCPE5058363) were used as reference genes (HEX, Bio-Rad) in multiplexed reactions with the HIV quantification. Following droplets generation (15,000-18,000 on average), thermal cycling was conducted as follows: 95 °C for 10 min, 40 cycles of 94 °C for 30 s and 60 °C for 60 s, followed by 98 °C for 10 min (ramp rate 2 °C/s for each step) on a C1000 Touch Thermal cycler (Bio-Rad). The droplets were subsequently read by a QX200 droplet-reader (Bio-Rad) and the data were analysed with QuantaSoft 1.7.4 software. A minus reverse transcriptase control (−RT) was included for each sample. The positive droplets were designated based on the −RT and the no template controls (NTC). Data of the triplicate wells per experiment were merged and the mean of the 4 independent assays was determined. The synthesized cDNA (10 ng) was also used as a template for semi-quantitative RT-PCR reactions to access exon inclusion and exclusion isoforms of CD45-exon13, ATF2-exon6 and ABI1-exon8,9 using primers listed in Additional file 5: Table S1. PCR products were resolved on a 2% agarose gel (TBE 1×) and visualized on a Syngene GBox imaging system.
TZMbl cells (NIH AIDS Reagent Program) were seeded into 96-well plates in DMEM (Gibco) + 10% FBS with Penicillin (100U/ml)/Streptomycin (100 μg/ml) and cultured overnight. Cells were then transfected in the absence of antibiotics using Lipofectamine 2000 (ThermoFisher) with or without WT or mutant pTat101AD8 (100 ng) in triplicates wells on 5 separate occasions for n = 5. Cells were harvested at 48 h and lysed with 35 μl of 1 × Passive Lysis Buffer (PLB, Promega), incubated for 5 min at RT before 5ul of each well was transferred to a CoStar 96-well white plate. The luciferase assay was performed as per the manufacturer’s protocol (Promega) by addition of 25 μl of LARII and quantified on a FLUOStar Omega microplate reader (BMG Labtech, Ortenburg, Germany).
GraphPad PRISM version 7 software was used for statistical analyses. Paired T tests and 2-way ANOVA were used to compare values to DMSO and across all LRAs, as indicated.
GK TMM DFJP conceived and designed the study. GK TMM SL CT MYL JJ LH performed the experiments. GK TMM analysed the data. GK and TMM interpreted the data. GK TMM JLA SRL DFJP contributed important intellectual discussion. GK TMM SRL DFJP wrote the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
We thank the DMI Flow Facility staff for their advice and generous assistance in maintaining the flow cytometer used in this study.
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
Availability of data and materials
The datasets used and/or analysed during the current study are available from the corresponding author on request.
Consent for publication
Ethics approval and consent to participate
This work was supported by project grant APP1129320, and program grant APP1052979 from the NHMRC of Australia. SRL is an NHMRC practitioner fellow and is supported by the National Institutes for Health Delaney AIDS Research Enterprise (DARE U19 AI096109), and the American Foundation for AIDS Research.
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.
- Deeks SG, Lewin SR, Ross AL, Ananworanich J, Benkirane M, Cannon P, Chomont N, Douek D, Lifson JD, Lo YR, et al. International AIDS Society global scientific strategy: towards an HIV cure 2016. Nat Med. 2016;22:839–50.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Archin NM, Liberty AL, Kashuba AD, Choudhary SK, Kuruc JD, Crooks AM, Parker DC, Anderson EM, Kearney MF, Strain MC, et al. Administration of vorinostat disrupts HIV-1 latency in patients on antiretroviral therapy. Nature. 2012;487:482–5.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Archin NM, Bateson R, Tripathy MK, Crooks AM, Yang K-H, Dahl NP, Kearney MF, Anderson EM, Coffin JM, Strain MC, et al. HIV-1 expression within resting CD4+ T cells after multiple doses of vorinostat. J Infect Dis. 2014;210:728–35.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Elliott JH, Wightman F, Solomon A, Ghneim K, Ahlers J, Cameron MJ, Smith MZ, Spelman T, McMahon J, Velayudham P, et al. Activation of HIV transcription with short-course vorinostat in HIV-infected patients on suppressive antiretroviral therapy. PLoS Pathog. 2014;10:E1004473.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Rasmussen TA, Tolstrup M, Brinkmann CR, Olesen R, Erikstrup C, Solomon A, Winckelmann A, Palmer S, Dinarello C, Buzon M, et al. Panobinostat, a histone deacetylase inhibitor, for latent-virus reactivation in HIV-infected patients on suppressive antiretroviral therapy: a phase 1/2, single group, clinical trial. Lancet HIV. 2014;1:e13–21.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Søgaard OS, Graversen ME, Leth S, Olesen R, Brinkmann CR, Nissen SK, Kjaer AS, Schleimann MH, Denton PW, Hey-Cunningham WJ, et al. The depsipeptide romidepsin reverses HIV-1 latency in vivo. PLoS Pathog. 2015;11:E1005142.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Leth S, Schleimann MH, Nissen SK, Højen JF, Olesen R, Graversen ME, Jørgensen S, Kjær AS, Denton PW, Mørk A, et al. Combined effect of Vacc-4x, recombinant human granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor vaccination, and romidepsin on the HIV-1 reservoir (REDUC): a single-arm, phase 1B/2A trial. Lancet HIV. 2016;3:e463–72.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Jablonski JA, Amelio AL, Giacca M, Caputi M. The transcriptional transactivator Tat selectively regulates viral splicing. Nucleic Acids Res. 2009;38:1249–60.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Karn J, Stoltzfus CM. Transcriptional and posttranscriptional regulation of HIV-1 gene expression. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Med. 2012;2:a006916.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Razooky BS, Pai A, Aull K, Rouzine IM, Weinberger LS. A hardwired HIV latency program. Cell. 2015;160:990–1001.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Li J, Chen C, Ma X, Geng G, Liu B, Zhang Y, Zhang S, Zhong F, Liu C, Yin Y, et al. Long noncoding RNA NRON contributes to HIV-1 latency by specifically inducing Tat protein degradation. Nat Commun. 2016;7:11730.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Pace MJ, Graf EH, Agosto LM, Mexas AM, Male F, Brady T, Bushman FD, O’Doherty U. Directly infected resting CD4+ T cells can produce HIV Gag without spreading infection in a model of HIV latency. PLoS Pathog. 2012;8:15.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Graf EH, Pace MJ, Peterson BA, Lynch LJ, Chukwulebe SB, Mexas AM, Shaheen F, Martin JN, Deeks SG, Connors M, et al. Gag-positive reservoir cells are susceptible to HIV-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte mediated clearance. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e71879.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- He M, Zhang L, Wang X, Huo L, Sun L, Feng C, Jing X, Du D, Liang H, Liu M, et al. Systematic analysis of the functions of lysine acetylation in the regulation of Tat activity. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e67186.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Ott M, Schnölzer M, Garnica J, Fischle W, Emiliani S, Rackwitz HR, Verdin E. Acetylation of the HIV-1 Tat protein by p300 is important for its transcriptional activity. Curr Biol. 1999;9:1489–92.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ott M, Geyer M, Zhou Q. The control of HIV transcription: keeping RNA polymerase II on track. Cell Host Microbe. 2011;10:426–35.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Pagans S, Kauder SE, Kaehlcke K, Sakane N, Schroeder S, Dormeyer W, Trievel RC, Verdin E, Schnolzer M, Ott M. The cellular lysine methyltransferase Set7/9-KMT7 binds HIV-1 TAR RNA, monomethylates the viral transactivator Tat, and enhances HIV transcription. Cell Host Microbe. 2010;7:234–44.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Sakane N, Kwon HS, Pagans S, Kaehlcke K, Mizusawa Y, Kamada M, Lassen KG, Chan J, Greene WC, Schnoelzer M, Ott M. Activation of hiv transcription by the viral Tat protein requires a demethylation step mediated by lysine-specific demethylase 1 (LSD1/KDM1). PLoS Pathog. 2011;7:e1002184.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Kiernan RE, Vanhulle C, Schiltz L, Adam E, Xiao H, Maudoux F, Calomme C, Burny A, Nakatani Y, Jeang KT, et al. HIV-1 Tat transcriptional activity is regulated by acetylation. EMBO J. 1999;18:6106–18.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Col E, Caron C, Seigneurin-Berny D, Gracia J, Favier A, Khochbin S. The histone acetyltransferase, hGCN5, interacts with and acetylates the HIV transactivator. Tat J Biol Chem. 2001;276:28179–84.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kaehlcke K, Dorr A, Hetzer-Egger C, Kiermer V, Henklein P, Schnoelzer M, Loret E, Cole PA, Verdin E, Ott M. Acetylation of Tat defines a CyclinT1-independent step in HIV transactivation. Mol Cell. 2003;12:167–76.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Dorr A, Kiermer V, Pedal A, Rackwitz HR, Henklein P, Schubert U, Zhou MM, Verdin E, Ott M. Transcriptional synergy between Tat and PCAF is dependent on the binding of acetylated Tat to the PCAF bromodomain. EMBO J. 2002;21:2715–23.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Huo L, Li D, Sun X, Shi X, Karna P, Yang W, Liu M, Qiao W, Aneja R, Zhou J. Regulation of Tat acetylation and transactivation activity by the microtubule-associated deacetylase HDAC6. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:9280–6.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Van Duyne R, Easley R, Wu W, Berro R, Pedati C, Klase Z, Kehn-Hall K, Flynn EK, Symer DE, Kashanchi F. Lysine methylation of HIV-1 Tat regulates transcriptional activity of the viral LTR. Retrovirology. 2008;5:40.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Xie B, Invernizzi CF, Richard S, Wainberg MA. Arginine methylation of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Tat protein by PRMT6 negatively affects Tat interactions with both cyclin T1 and the Tat transactivation region. J Virol. 2007;81:4226–34.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Sivakumaran H, van der Horst A, Fulcher AJ, Apolloni A, Lin M-H, Jans DA, Harrich D. Arginine methylation increases the stability of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Tat. J Virol. 2009;83:11694–703.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Ali I, Ramage H, Boehm D, Dirk LMA, Sakane N, Hanada K, Pagans S, Kaehlcke K, Aull K, Weinberger L, et al. The HIV-1 Tat protein is monomethylated at lysine-71 by the lysine methyltransferase KMT7. J Biol Chem. 2016;291:16240.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Tang X, Lu H, Dooner M, Chapman S, Quesenberry PJ, Ramratnam B. Exosomal Tat protein activates latent HIV-1 in primary, resting CD4+ T lymphocytes. JCI Insight. 2018;3:e95676.View ArticlePubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Purcell DF, Martin MA. Alternative splicing of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 mRNA modulates viral protein expression, replication, and infectivity. J Virol. 1993;67:6365–78.PubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Anderson JL, Johnson AT, Howard JL, Purcell DFJ. Both linear and discontinuous ribosome scanning are used for translation initiation from bicistronic human immunodeficiency virus type 1 env mRNAs. J Virol. 2007;81:4664–76.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Alexander MR, Wheatley AK, Center RJ, Purcell DFJ. Efficient transcription through an intron requires the binding of an Sm-type U1 snRNP with intact stem loop II to the splice donor. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010;38:3041–53.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Yang Z, Yik JHN, Chen R, He N, Moon KJ, Ozato K, Zhou Q. Recruitment of P-TEFb for stimulation of transcriptional elongation by the bromodomain protein Brd4. Mol Cell. 2005;19:535–45.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Moon KJ, Mochizuki K, Zhou M, Jeong HS, Brady JN, Ozato K. The bromodomain protein Brd4 is a positive regulatory component of P-TEFb and stimulates RNA polymerase II-dependent transcription. Mol Cell. 2005;19:523–34.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Bisgrove DA, Mahmoudi T, Henklein P, Verdin E. Conserved P-TEFb-interacting domain of BRD4 inhibits HIV transcription. Proc Natl Acad Sci. 2007;104:13690–5.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Filippakopoulos P, Qi J, Picaud S, Shen Y, Smith WB, Fedorov O, Morse EM, Keates T, Hickman TT, Felletar I, et al. Selective inhibition of BET bromodomains. Nature. 2010;468:1067–73.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Sonza S, Mutimer HP, O’Brien K, Ellery P, Howard JL, Axelrod JH, Deacon NJ, Crowe SM, Purcell DFJ. Selectively reduced Tat mRNA heralds the decline in productive human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection in monocyte-derived macrophages. J Virol. 2002;76:12611–21.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Kuhn AN, van Santen MA, Schwienhorst A, Urlaub H, Lührmann R. Stalling of spliceosome assembly at distinct stages by small-molecule inhibitors of protein acetylation and deacetylation. RNA (New York, NY). 2009;15:153–75.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Cannon P, Kim SH, Ulich C, Kim S. Analysis of Tat function in human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected low-level-expression cell lines U1 and ACH-2. J Virol. 1994;68:1993–7.PubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Emiliani S, Van Lint C, Fischle W, Paras P, Ott M, Brady J, Verdin E. A point mutation in the HIV-1 Tat responsive element is associated with postintegration latency. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 1996;93:6377–81.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Lu HK, Gray LR, Wightman F, Ellenberg P, Khoury G, Cheng WJ, Mota TM, Wesselingh S, Gorry PR, Cameron PU, et al. Ex vivo response to histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors of the HIV long terminal repeat (LTR) derived from HIV-infected patients on antiretroviral therapy. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e113341.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Bentley DL. Rules of engagement: co-transcriptional recruitment of pre-mRNA processing factors. Curr Opin Cell Biol. 2005;17:251–6.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kornblihtt AR. Promoter usage and alternative splicing. Curr Opin Cell Biol. 2005;17:262–8.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Li Z, Guo J, Wu Y, Zhou Q. The BET bromodomain inhibitor JQ1 activates HIV latency through antagonizing Brd4 inhibition of Tat-transactivation. Nucleic Acids Res. 2013;41:277–87.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Banerjee C, Archin N, Michaels D, Belkina AC, Denis GV, Bradner J, Sebastiani P, Margolis DM, Montano M. BET bromodomain inhibition as a novel strategy for reactivation of HIV-1. J Leukoc Biol. 2012;92:1147–54.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Bartholomeeusen K, Xiang Y, Fujinaga K, Peterlin BM. Bromodomain and extra-terminal (BET) bromodomain inhibition activate transcription via transient release of Positive Transcription Elongation Factor b (P-TEFb) from 7SK small nuclear ribonucleoprotein. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:36609–16.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Darcis G, Kula A, Bouchat S, Fujinaga K, Corazza F, Ait-Ammar A, Delacourt N, Melard A, Kabeya K, Vanhulle C, et al. An in-depth comparison of latency-reversing agent combinations in various in vitro and ex vivo HIV-1 latency models identified bryostatin-1 + JQ1 and ingenol-B + JQ1 to potently reactivate viral gene expression. PLoS Pathog. 2015;11:e1005063.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Boehm D, Calvanese V, Dar RD, Xing S, Schroeder S, Martins L, Aull K, Li PC, Planelles V, Bradner JE, et al. BET bromodomain-targeting compounds reactivate HIV from latency via a Tat-independent mechanism. Cell Cycle. 2013;12:452–62.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Geuens T, Bouhy D, Timmerman V. The hnRNP family: insights into their role in health and disease. Hum Genet. 2016;135:851–67.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Jamaluddin M, Hu P, Jan Y, Siwak E, Rice A. Short communication: the broad-spectrum histone deacetylase inhibitors vorinostat and panobinostat activate latent HIV in CD4 (+) T cells in part through phosphorylation of the T-loop of the CDK9 subunit of P-TEFb. AIDS Res Hum Retrovir. 2016;32:169–73.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Bruner KM, Murray AJ, Pollack RA, Soliman MG, Laskey SB, Capoferri AA, Lai J, Strain MC, Lada SM, Hoh R, et al. Defective proviruses rapidly accumulate during acute HIV-1 infection. Nat Med. 2016;22:1043–9.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Imamichi H, Dewar RL, Adelsberger JW, Rehm CA, O’Doherty U, Paxinos EE, Fauci AS, Lane HC. Defective HIV-1 proviruses produce novel protein-coding RNA species in HIV-infected patients on combination antiretroviral therapy. Proc Natl Acad Sci. 2016;113:8783–8.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Pollack RA, Jones RB, Pertea M, Bruner KM, Martin AR, Thomas AS, Capoferri AA, Beg SA, Huang SH, Karandish S, et al. Defective HIV-1 proviruses are expressed and can be recognized by cytotoxic T lymphocytes, which shape the proviral landscape. Cell Host Microbe. 2017;21(494–506):e4.Google Scholar
- Rahman S, Sowa ME, Ottinger M, Smith JA, Shi Y, Harper JW, Howley PM. The Brd4 extraterminal domain confers transcription activation independent of pTEFb by recruiting multiple proteins, including NSD3. Mol Cell Biol. 2011;31:2641–52.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Webby CJ, Wolf A, Gromak N, Dreger M, Kramer H, Kessler B, Nielsen ML, Schmitz C, Butler DS, Yates JR, et al. Jmjd6 catalyses lysyl-hydroxylation of U2AF65, a protein associated with RNA splicing. Science. 2009;325:90–3.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Hussong M, Kaehler C, Kerick M, Grimm C, Franz A, Timmermann B, Welzel F, Isensee J, Hucho T, Krobitsch S, Schweiger MR. The bromodomain protein BRD4 regulates splicing during heat shock. Nucleic Acids Res. 2017;45:382–94.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Zahler AM, Damgaard CK, Kjems J, Caputi M. SC35 and heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A/B proteins bind to a juxtaposed exonic splicing enhancer/exonic splicing silencer element to regulate HIV-1 Tat exon 2 splicing. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:10077–84.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ropers D, Ayadi L, Gattoni R, Jacquenet S, Damier L, Branlant C, Stévenin J. Differential effects of the SR proteins 9G8, SC35, ASF/SF2, and SRp40 on the utilization of the A1 to A5 splicing sites of HIV-1 RNA. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:29963–73.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Amendt BA, Si ZH, Stoltzfus CM. Presence of exon splicing silencers within human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Tat exon 2 and Tat-rev exon 3: evidence for inhibition mediated by cellular factors. Mol Cell Biol. 1995;15:4606–15.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Si ZH, Amendt BA, Stoltzfus CM. Splicing efficiency of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Tat RNA is determined by both a suboptimal 3′ splice site and a 10 nucleotide exon splicing silencer element located within Tat exon 2. Nucleic Acids Res. 1997;25:861–7.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Marchand V, Mereau A, Jacquenet S, Thomas D, Mougin A, Gattoni R, Stevenin J, Branlant C. A Janus splicing regulatory element modulates HIV-1 Tat and rev mRNA production by coordination of hnRNP A1 cooperative binding. J Mol Biol. 2002;323:629–52.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Lassen KG, Ramyar KX, Bailey JR, Zhou Y, Siliciano RF. Nuclear retention of multiply spliced HIV-1 RNA in resting CD4+ T cells. PLoS Pathog. 2006;2:0650–61.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Ja J. Caputi M. Role of cellular RNA processing factors in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 mRNA metabolism, replication, and infectivity. J Virol. 2009;83:981–92.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Yukl SA, Kaiser P, Kim P, Telwatte S, Joshi SK, Vu M, Lampiris H, Wong JK. HIV latency in isolated patient CD4+ T cells may be due to blocks in HIV transcriptional elongation, completion, and splicing. Sci Transl Med. 2018;10:eaa9927.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Fischer M, Joos B, Hirschel B, Bleiber G, Weber R, Günthard HF. Cellular viral rebound after cessation of potent antiretroviral therapy predicted by levels of multiply spliced HIV-1 RNA encoding nef. J Infect Dis. 2004;190:1979–88.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Conrad RJ, Fozouni P, Thomas S, Sy H, Zhang Q, Zhou MM, Ott M. The short isoform of BRD4 promotes HIV-1 latency by engaging repressive SWI/SNF chromatin-remodeling complexes. Mol Cell. 2017;67(1001–1012):e6.Google Scholar
- Zhu J, Gaiha GD, John SP, Pertel T, Chin CR, Gao G, Qu H, Walker BD, Elledge SJ, Brass AL. Reactivation of Latent HIV-1 by Inhibition of BRD4. Cell Rep. 2012;2:807–16.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Laird GM, Bullen CK, Rosenbloom DIS, Martin AR, Hill AL, Durand CM, Siliciano JD, Siliciano RF. Ex vivo analysis identifies effective HIV-1 latency: reversing drug combinations. J Clin Invest. 2015;125:1901–12.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Huang H, Liu S, Jean M, Simpson S, Huang H, Merkley M, Hayashi T, Kong W, Rodríguez-Sánchez I, Zhang X, et al. A novel bromodomain inhibitor reverses HIV-1 latency through specific binding with BRD4 to promote Tat and P-TEFb association. Front Microbiol. 2017;8:1035.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Lu P, Qu X, Shen Y, Jiang Z, Wang P, Zeng H, Ji H, Deng J, Yang X, Li X, et al. The BET inhibitor OTX015 reactivates latent HIV-1 through P-TEFb. Sci Rep. 2016;6:24100.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Williams SA, Chen LF, Kwon H, Ruiz-Jarabo CM, Verdin E, Greene WC. NF-κB p50 promotes HIV latency through HDAC recruitment and repression of transcriptional initiation. EMBO J. 2006;25:139–49.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Zhong H, May MJ, Jimi E, Ghosh S. The phosphorylation status of nuclear NF-κB determines its association with CBP/p300 or HDAC-1. Mol Cell. 2002;9:625–36.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Cho S, Schroeder S, Kaehlcke K, Kwon HS, Pedal A, Herker E, Schnoelzer M, Ott M. Acetylation of cyclin T1 regulates the equilibrium between active and inactive P-TEFb in cells. EMBO J. 2009;28:1407–17.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Chiang K, Sung T-L, Rice AP. Regulation of cyclin T1 and HIV-1 replication by MicroRNAs in resting CD4+ T lymphocytes. J Virol. 2012;86:3244–52.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Contreras X, Schweneker M, Chen C-S, McCune JM, Deeks SG, Martin J, Peterlin BM. Suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid reactivates HIV from latently infected cells. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:6782–9.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Barboric M, Yik JHN, Czudnochowski N, Yang Z, Chen R, Contreras X, Geyer M, Peterlin BM, Zhou Q. Tat competes with HEXIM1 to increase the active pool of P-TEFb for HIV-1 transcription. Nucleic Acids Res. 2007;35:2003–12.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar