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  1. A reservoir of replication-competent but latent virus is the main obstacle to a cure for HIV-1 infection. Much of this reservoir resides in memory CD4 T cells. We hypothesized that these cells can be reactivat...

    Authors: Thomas Vollbrecht, Aaron O. Angerstein, Bryson Menke, Nikesh M. Kumar, Michelli Faria de Oliveira, Douglas D. Richman and John C. Guatelli
    Citation: Retrovirology 2020 17:36
  2. HIV associated neurocognitive disorders cause significant morbidity and mortality despite the advent of highly active antiretroviral therapy. A deeper understanding of fundamental mechanisms underlying HIV inf...

    Authors: Mohammad A. Rai, Jason Hammonds, Mario Pujato, Christopher Mayhew, Krishna Roskin and Paul Spearman
    Citation: Retrovirology 2020 17:35
  3. Koalas are infected with the koala retrovirus (KoRV) that exists as exogenous or endogenous viruses. KoRV is genetically diverse with co-infection with up to ten envelope subtypes (A-J) possible; KoRV-A is the...

    Authors: HaoQiang Zheng, Yi Pan, Shaohua Tang, Geoffrey W. Pye, Cynthia K. Stadler, Larry Vogelnest, Kimberly Vinette Herrin, Bruce A. Rideout and William M. Switzer
    Citation: Retrovirology 2020 17:34
  4. The development of pretreatment drug resistance (PDR) is becoming an obstacle to the success of antiretroviral therapy (ART). Besides, data from developing settings including Ethiopia is still limited. Therefo...

    Authors: Mulugeta Kiros, Dawit Hailu Alemayehu, Eleni Geberekidan, Adane Mihret, Melanie Maier, Woldaregay Erku Abegaz and Andargachew Mulu
    Citation: Retrovirology 2020 17:33
  5. As HIV has fueled a global resurgence of tuberculosis over the last several decades, there is a growing awareness that HIV-mediated impairments in both innate and adaptive immunity contribute to the heightened...

    Authors: Sara C. Auld and Bashar S. Staitieh
    Citation: Retrovirology 2020 17:32
  6. A protein exhibiting more than one biochemical function is termed a moonlighting protein. Glycolytic enzymes are typical moonlighting proteins, and these enzymes control the infection of various viruses. Previ...

    Authors: Naoki Kishimoto, Kengo Yamamoto, Nozomi Iga, Chie Kirihara, Towa Abe, Nobutoki Takamune and Shogo Misumi
    Citation: Retrovirology 2020 17:31
  7. Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) infects primarily CD4+ T-lymphocytes and evoques severe diseases, predominantly Adult T-Cell Leukemia/ Lymphoma (ATL/L) and HTLV-1-associated Myelopathy/ Tropical Spast...

    Authors: Sebastian Millen, Lina Meretuk, Tim Göttlicher, Sarah Schmitt, Bernhard Fleckenstein and Andrea K. Thoma-Kress
    Citation: Retrovirology 2020 17:30
  8. Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is the etiological agent of HTLV associated myelopathy/ Tropical Spastic Paraparesis (HAM/TSP) and Adult T cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL), in around 2–5% of the i...

    Authors: Paula Benencio, Sindy A. Fraile Gonzalez, Nicolás Ducasa, Kimberly Page, Carolina A. Berini and Mirna M. Biglione
    Citation: Retrovirology 2020 17:29
  9. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) can mitigate the morbidity and mortality caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Successful development of ART can be accelerated by accurate structural and biochemical d...

    Authors: Grant Eilers, Kushol Gupta, Audrey Allen, Jeffrey Zhou, Young Hwang, Michael B. Cory, Frederic D. Bushman and Gregory Van Duyne
    Citation: Retrovirology 2020 17:28
  10. Adult T-cell leukemia lymphoma (ATLL) is a chemotherapy-resistant malignancy with a median survival of less than one year that will afflict between one hundred thousand and one million individuals worldwide wh...

    Authors: Daniel A. Rauch, Sydney L. Olson, John C. Harding, Hemalatha Sundaramoorthi, Youngsoo Kim, Tianyuan Zhou, A. Robert MacLeod, Grant Challen and Lee Ratner
    Citation: Retrovirology 2020 17:27
  11. The reliable diagnosis of human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) infection is important, particularly as it can be vertically transmitted by breast feeding mothers to their infants. However, current diagn...

    Authors: Kazu Okuma, Madoka Kuramitsu, Toshihiro Niwa, Tomokuni Taniguchi, Yumiko Masaki, Gohzoh Ueda, Chieko Matsumoto, Rieko Sobata, Yasuko Sagara, Hitomi Nakamura, Masahiro Satake, Kiyonori Miura, Naoki Fuchi, Hideaki Masuzaki, Akihiko Okayama, Kazumi Umeki…
    Citation: Retrovirology 2020 17:26
  12. Alternative splicing is a key step in Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1 (HIV-1) replication that is tightly regulated both temporally and spatially. More than 50 different transcripts can be generated from a...

    Authors: Nam Nguyen Quang, Sophie Goudey, Emmanuel Ségéral, Ammara Mohammad, Sophie Lemoine, Corinne Blugeon, Margaux Versapuech, Jean-Christophe Paillart, Clarisse Berlioz-Torrent, Stéphane Emiliani and Sarah Gallois-Montbrun
    Citation: Retrovirology 2020 17:25
  13. HIV-1 infects a wide range of CD4+ T cells with different phenotypic properties and differing expression levels of entry coreceptors. We sought to determine the viral tropism of subtype C (C-HIV) Envelope (Env) c...

    Authors: Matthew J. Gartner, Paul R. Gorry, Carolin Tumpach, Jingling Zhou, Ashanti Dantanarayana, J. Judy Chang, Thomas A. Angelovich, Paula Ellenberg, Annemarie E. Laumaea, Molati Nonyane, Penny L. Moore, Sharon R. Lewin, Melissa J. Churchill, Jacqueline K. Flynn and Michael Roche
    Citation: Retrovirology 2020 17:24
  14. An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via the original article.

    Authors: Belete Ayele Desimmie, Caroline Weydert, Rik Schrijvers, Sofie Vets, Jonas Demeulemeester, Paul Proost, Igor Paron, Jan De Rijck, Jan Mast, Norbert Bannert, Rik Gijsbers, Frauke Christ and Zeger Debyser
    Citation: Retrovirology 2020 17:23

    The original article was published in Retrovirology 2015 12:16

  15. An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via the original article.

    Authors: Belete Ayele Desimmie, Rik Schrijvers, Jonas Demeulemeester, Doortje Borrenberghs, Caroline Weydert, Wannes Thys, Sofie Vets, Barbara Van Remoortel, Johan Hofkens, Jan De Rijck, Jelle Hendrix, Norbert Bannert, Rik Gijsbers, Frauke Christ and Zeger Debyser
    Citation: Retrovirology 2020 17:22

    The original article was published in Retrovirology 2013 10:57

  16. HIV-1 promotes the formation of tunneling nanotubes (TNTs) that connect distant cells, aiding cell-to-cell viral transmission between macrophages. Our recent study suggests that the cellular protein M-Sec play...

    Authors: Sameh Lotfi, Hesham Nasser, Osamu Noyori, Masateru Hiyoshi, Hiroaki Takeuchi, Yoshio Koyanagi and Shinya Suzu
    Citation: Retrovirology 2020 17:20
  17. Tripartite Motif Containing 5 alpha (TRIM5α), a restriction factor produced ubiquitously in cells and tissues of the body plays an important role in the immune response against HIV. TRIM5α targets the HIV caps...

    Authors: Sharon Bright Amanya, Brian Nyiro, Francis Waswa, Bonniface Obura, Rebecca Nakaziba, Eva Nabulime, Ashaba Fred Katabazi, Rose Nabatanzi, Alice Bayiyana, Gerald Mboowa, Alex Kayongo, Misaki Wayengera and Obondo J. Sande
    Citation: Retrovirology 2020 17:19
  18. Some multifunctional cellular proteins, as the monocyte chemotactic protein-induced protein 1 (ZC3H12A/MCPIP1) and the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor CDKN1A/p21, are able to modulate the cellular susceptibi...

    Authors: Suwellen S. D. de Azevedo, Marcelo Ribeiro-Alves, Fernanda H. Côrtes, Edson Delatorre, Lucia Spangenberg, Hugo Naya, Leonardo N. Seito, Brenda Hoagland, Beatriz Grinsztejn, Valdilea G. Veloso, Mariza G. Morgado, Thiago Moreno L. Souza and Gonzalo Bello
    Citation: Retrovirology 2020 17:18
  19. Heterosexual transmission remains the main route of HIV-1 transmission and female genital tract (FGT) inflammation increases the risk of infection. However, the mechanism(s) by which inflammation facilitates i...

    Authors: Evelyn Ngwa Lumngwena, Simon Metenou, Lindi Masson, Claudia Cicala, James Arthos and Zenda Woodman
    Citation: Retrovirology 2020 17:17
  20. The human myxovirus resistance 2 (Mx2/MxB) protein was originally found to regulate cytoplasmic-nuclear transport but was recently reported to restrict HIV-1 replication by binding to HIV-1 capsid (CA), preven...

    Authors: Linlin Xie, Lang Chen, Chaojie Zhong, Ting Yu, Zhao Ju, Meirong Wang, Hairong Xiong, Yan Zeng, Jianhua Wang, Haitao Hu, Wei Hou and Yong Feng
    Citation: Retrovirology 2020 17:16
  21. Simian T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (STLV-1) is disseminated among various non-human primate species and is closely related to human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1), the causative agent of adult T-cell l...

    Authors: Megumi Murata, Jun-ichirou Yasunaga, Ayaka Washizaki, Yohei Seki, Madoka Kuramitsu, Wei Keat Tan, Anna Hu, Kazu Okuma, Isao Hamaguchi, Takuo Mizukami, Masao Matsuoka and Hirofumi Akari
    Citation: Retrovirology 2020 17:15
  22. Patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are more prone to systemic inflammation and pathological clotting, and many may develop deep vein thrombosis (DVT) as a result of this dysregulated...

    Authors: Brandon S. Jackson, Julien Nunes Goncalves and Etheresia Pretorius
    Citation: Retrovirology 2020 17:14
  23. HIV-1 can develop resistance to antiretroviral drugs, mainly through mutations within the target regions of the drugs. In HIV-1 protease, a majority of resistance-associated mutations that develop in response ...

    Authors: Tomas Bastys, Vytautas Gapsys, Hauke Walter, Eva Heger, Nadezhda T. Doncheva, Rolf Kaiser, Bert L. de Groot and Olga V. Kalinina
    Citation: Retrovirology 2020 17:13
  24. Human T cell leukemia virus type-1 (HTLV-1) was the first retrovirus found to cause cancer in humans, but the mechanisms that drive the development of leukemia and other diseases associated with HTLV-1 infecti...

    Authors: Maria Omsland, Micol Silic-Benussi, Ramona Moles, Sarkis Sarkis, Damian F. J. Purcell, David Yurick, Georges Khoury, Donna M. D’Agostino, Vincenzo Ciminale and Genoveffa Franchini
    Citation: Retrovirology 2020 17:11
  25. Human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs), suspected to be transposition-defective, may reshape the transcriptional network of the human genome by regulatory elements distributed in their long terminal repeats (LT...

    Authors: Bei Xue, Tiansheng Zeng, Lisha Jia, Dongsheng Yang, Stanley L. Lin, Leonardo A. Sechi and David J. Kelvin
    Citation: Retrovirology 2020 17:10
  26. The development of safe and effective combination antiretroviral therapies for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection over the past several decades has significantly reduced HIV-associated morbidity and ...

    Authors: Yash Agarwal, Cole Beatty, Shivkumar Biradar, Isabella Castronova, Sara Ho, Kevin Melody and Moses Turkle Bility
    Citation: Retrovirology 2020 17:8
  27. HIV-1 does not encode a helicase and hijacks those of the cell for efficient replication. We and others previously showed that the DEAD box helicase, DDX5, is an essential HIV dependency factor. DDX5 was recen...

    Authors: Nyaradzai Sithole, Claire A. Williams, Truus E. M. Abbink and Andrew M. L. Lever
    Citation: Retrovirology 2020 17:6
  28. Adult T-cell leukemia-lymphoma (ATL) is an aggressive mature lymphoid proliferation associated with poor prognosis. Standard of care includes chemotherapy and/or the combination of zidovudine and interferon-al...

    Authors: Ambroise Marçais, Lucy Cook, Aviva Witkover, Vahid Asnafi, Véronique Avettand-Fenoel, Richard Delarue, Morgane Cheminant, David Sibon, Laurent Frenzel, Hugues de Thé, Charles R. M. Bangham, Ali Bazarbachi, Olivier Hermine and Felipe Suarez
    Citation: Retrovirology 2020 17:5
  29. HTLV-1 was the first described human retrovirus and was soon found to be associated with severe clinical diseases, including a devastating lymphoma/leukemia and other inflammatory diseases. Although HTLV-2 is ...

    Authors: Ricardo Ishak, Marluísa de Oliveira Guimarães Ishak and Antonio Carlos R. Vallinoto
    Citation: Retrovirology 2020 17:4
  30. The HIV accessory protein Nef downregulates the viral entry receptor CD4, the Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA)-A and -B molecules, the Serine incorporator 5 (SERINC5) protein and other molecules from the infected...

    Authors: Hanwei Sudderuddin, Natalie N. Kinloch, Steven W. Jin, Rachel L. Miller, Bradley R. Jones, Chanson J. Brumme, Jeffrey B. Joy, Mark A. Brockman and Zabrina L. Brumme
    Citation: Retrovirology 2020 17:3
  31. Human T cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) causes adult T-cell leukemia-lymphoma (ATL) and inflammatory diseases. The HTLV-1 bZIP factor (HBZ) gene is constantly expressed in HTLV-1 infected cells and ATL cel...

    Authors: Masao Matsuoka and Jean-Michel Mesnard
    Citation: Retrovirology 2020 17:2
  32. Human T-lymphotropic virus 1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) is a progressive disease of the central nervous system that significantly affected spinal cord, nevertheless, the patho...

    Authors: Sayed-Hamidreza Mozhgani, Mehran Piran, Mohadeseh Zarei-Ghobadi, Mohieddin Jafari, Seyed-Mohammad Jazayeri, Talat Mokhtari-Azad, Majid Teymoori-Rad, Narges Valizadeh, Hamid Farajifard, Mehdi Mirzaie, Azam Khamseh, Houshang Rafatpanah, Seyed-Abdolrahim Rezaee and Mehdi Norouzi
    Citation: Retrovirology 2019 16:46
  33. Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is the etiologic agent of adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) and the neurological disorder HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). The...

    Authors: Michael P. Martinez, Xiaogang Cheng, Ancy Joseph, Jacob Al-Saleem, Amanda R. Panfil, Marilly Palettas, Wessel P. Dirksen, Lee Ratner and Patrick L. Green
    Citation: Retrovirology 2019 16:44
  34. The human T cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTVL-1), first reported in 1980 by Robert Gallo’s group, is the etiologic agent of both cancer and inflammatory diseases. Despite approximately 40 years of investigation...

    Authors: Sarkis Sarkis, Veronica Galli, Ramona Moles, David Yurick, Georges Khoury, Damian F. J. Purcell, Genoveffa Franchini and Cynthia A. Pise-Masison
    Citation: Retrovirology 2019 16:43
  35. The extraordinarily high prevalence of HTLV-1 subtype C (HTLV-1C) in some isolated indigenous communities in Oceania and the severity of the health conditions associated with the virus impress the great need f...

    Authors: Ramona Moles, Sarkis Sarkis, Veronica Galli, Maria Omsland, Damian F. J. Purcell, David Yurick, Georges Khoury, Cynthia A. Pise-Masison and Genoveffa Franchini
    Citation: Retrovirology 2019 16:42
  36. Few years after HTLV-1 identification and isolation in humans, STLV-1, its simian counterpart, was discovered. It then became clear that STLV-1 is present almost in all simian species. Subsequent molecular epi...

    Authors: Brice Jégado, Fatah Kashanchi, Hélène Dutartre and Renaud Mahieux
    Citation: Retrovirology 2019 16:41
  37. The HERV-K (HML-2) viruses are the youngest of the human endogenous retroviruses. They are present as several almost complete proviral copies and numerous fragments in the human genome. Many HERV-K proviruses ...

    Authors: Laurie R. Gray, Rachel E. Jackson, Patrick E. H. Jackson, Stefan Bekiranov, David Rekosh and Marie-Louise Hammarskjöld
    Citation: Retrovirology 2019 16:40
  38. Human T cell leukaemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is a retrovirus associated with human diseases such as adult T-cell leukaemia/lymphoma and HTLV-1 associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis. In contrast to...

    Authors: Paola Miyazato, Misaki Matsuo, Benjy J. Y. Tan, Michiyo Tokunaga, Hiroo Katsuya, Saiful Islam, Jumpei Ito, Yasuhiro Murakawa and Yorifumi Satou
    Citation: Retrovirology 2019 16:38
  39. Life expectancy is increasing in the HIV-positive population and age-related non-communicable diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, (CVD) are seen more frequently. This study investigated to what extent HI...

    Authors: Alinda G. Vos, Klariska Hoeve, Roos E. Barth, Joyce Peper, Michelle Moorhouse, Nigel J. Crowther, Willem D. F. Venter, Diederick E. Grobbee, Michiel L. Bots and Kerstin Klipstein-Grobusch
    Citation: Retrovirology 2019 16:37
  40. Peptides corresponding to N- and C-terminal heptad repeat regions (HR1 and HR2, respectively) of gp41 can inhibit HIV-1 infection in a dominant negative manner by interfering with refolding of the viral HR1 an...

    Authors: Chen Yuan, Jia-Ye Wang, Hai-Jiao Zhao, Yan Li, Di Li, Hong Ling and Min Zhuang
    Citation: Retrovirology 2019 16:36
  41. Immunity against pathogens evolved through complex mechanisms that only for sake of simplicity are defined as innate immunity and adaptive immunity. Indeed innate and adaptive immunity are strongly intertwined...

    Authors: Greta Forlani, Mariam Shallak, Elise Ramia, Alessandra Tedeschi and Roberto S. Accolla
    Citation: Retrovirology 2019 16:34
  42. The Deltaretrovirus genus of retroviruses (family Retroviridae) includes the human T cell leukemia viruses and bovine leukemia virus (BLV). Relatively little is known about the biology and evolution of these viru...

    Authors: Tomáš Hron, Daniel Elleder and Robert J. Gifford
    Citation: Retrovirology 2019 16:33

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