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  1. Content type: Short report

    Simian immunodeficiency virus of chimpanzees (SIVcpz), the progenitor of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), is associated with increased mortality and AIDS-like immunopathology in wild-living chimpan...

    Authors: Hannah J. Barbian, Raven Jackson-Jewett, Corrine S. Brown, Frederic Bibollet-Ruche, Gerald H. Learn, Timothy Decker, Edward F. Kreider, Yingying Li, Thomas N. Denny, Paul M. Sharp, George M. Shaw, Jeffrey Lifson, Edward P. Acosta, Michael S. Saag, Katharine J. Bar and Beatrice H. Hahn

    Citation: Retrovirology 2017 14:35

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  2. Content type: Research

    Retroviral vectors are derived from wild-type retroviruses, can be used to study retrovirus-host interactions and are effective tools in gene and cell therapy. However, numerous cell types are resistant or les...

    Authors: Franziska K. Geis, Melanie Galla, Dirk Hoffmann, Johannes Kuehle, Daniela Zychlinski, Tobias Maetzig, Juliane W. Schott, Adrian Schwarzer, Christine Goffinet, Stephen P. Goff and Axel Schambach

    Citation: Retrovirology 2017 14:34

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    The Correction to this article has been published in Retrovirology 2017 14:48

  3. Content type: Research

    Parent-offspring (PO) regression is a central tool to determine the heritability of phenotypic traits; i.e., the relative extent to which those traits are controlled by genetic factors. The applicability of PO...

    Authors: Nadine Bachmann, Teja Turk, Claus Kadelka, Alex Marzel, Mohaned Shilaih, Jürg Böni, Vincent Aubert, Thomas Klimkait, Gabriel E. Leventhal, Huldrych F. Günthard and Roger Kouyos

    Citation: Retrovirology 2017 14:33

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  4. Content type: Review

    Apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme catalytic polypeptide-like 3 (APOBEC3) proteins are mammalian-specific cellular deaminases and have a robust ability to restrain lentivirus replication. To antagonize APOBE...

    Authors: Yusuke Nakano, Hirofumi Aso, Andrew Soper, Eri Yamada, Miyu Moriwaki, Guillermo Juarez-Fernandez, Yoshio Koyanagi and Kei Sato

    Citation: Retrovirology 2017 14:31

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  5. Content type: Editorial

    Authors: Monsef Benkirane, Ben Berkhout, Persephone Borrow, Ariberto Fassati, Masahiro Fujii, J. Victor Garcia, Paul Gorry, Andrew Lever, Johnson Mak, Monique Nijhuis, Klaus Strebel, Francois Venter and Robin Weiss

    Citation: Retrovirology 2017 14:30

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  6. Content type: Research

    Ongoing intra-host HIV-1 evolution has been shown in individuals that naturally suppress the viremia to low levels (HIV controllers) by the analysis of the RNA in plasma compartment. Detection of evolution at ...

    Authors: Suwellen S. D. de Azevedo, Diogo Gama Caetano, Fernanda H. Côrtes, Sylvia L. M. Teixeira, Karina dos Santos Silva, Brenda Hoagland, Beatriz Grinsztejn, Valdilea G. Veloso, Mariza G. Morgado and Gonzalo Bello

    Citation: Retrovirology 2017 14:29

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  7. Content type: Short report

    Retroviral envelope (Env) proteins are known to exhibit immunosuppressive properties, which become apparent not only in retroviral infections, but also in gene-based immunizations using retroviral immunogens, ...

    Authors: Nadine Bongard, Dennis Lapuente, Sonja Windmann, Ulf Dittmer, Matthias Tenbusch and Wibke Bayer

    Citation: Retrovirology 2017 14:28

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  8. Content type: Research

    Human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs), the remnants of ancient retroviral infections, constitute approximately 8% of human genomic DNA. Since HERV-K Gag expression is induced by HIV-1 Tat in T cells, induced H...

    Authors: Kazuaki Monde, Hiromi Terasawa, Yusuke Nakano, Ferri Soheilian, Kunio Nagashima, Yosuke Maeda and Akira Ono

    Citation: Retrovirology 2017 14:27

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  9. Content type: Research

    Although human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) infection is a prerequisite for the development of HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP), specific provirus mutations in HAM/TS...

    Authors: Satoshi Nozuma, Eiji Matsuura, Daisuke Kodama, Yuichi Tashiro, Toshio Matsuzaki, Ryuji Kubota, Shuji Izumo and Hiroshi Takashima

    Citation: Retrovirology 2017 14:26

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  10. Content type: Short report

    APOBEC3/Rfv3 restricts acute Friend retrovirus (FV) infection and promotes virus-specific neutralizing antibody (NAb) responses. Classical Rfv3 studies utilized FV stocks containing lactate-dehydrogenase eleva...

    Authors: Bradley S. Barrett, Michael S. Harper, Sean T. Jones, Kejun Guo, Karl J. Heilman, Ross M. Kedl, Kim J. Hasenkrug and Mario L. Santiago

    Citation: Retrovirology 2017 14:25

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  11. Content type: Short report

    Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is the causative agent of enzootic bovine leukosis, a malignant B cell lymphoma that has spread worldwide and causes serious problems for the cattle industry. The BLV proviral load,...

    Authors: Shin-nosuke Takeshima, Shinji Sasaki, Polat Meripet, Yoshikazu Sugimoto and Yoko Aida

    Citation: Retrovirology 2017 14:24

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  12. Content type: Commentary

    It is well established that most new systemic infections of HIV-1 can be traced back to one or a limited number of founder viruses. Usually, these founders are more closely related to minor HIV-1 populations i...

    Authors: Samuel Mundia Kariuki, Philippe Selhorst, Kevin K. Ariën and Jeffrey R. Dorfman

    Citation: Retrovirology 2017 14:22

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  13. Content type: Research

    Human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) are genomic sequences of retroviral origin which were believed to be integrated into germline chromosomes millions of years ago and account for nearly 8% of the human geno...

    Authors: Richa Tyagi, Wenxue Li, Danelvis Parades, Mario A. Bianchet and Avindra Nath

    Citation: Retrovirology 2017 14:21

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  14. Content type: Research

    Syncytin-1 and 2, human fusogenic glycoproteins encoded by the env genes of the endogenous retroviral loci ERVWE1 and ERVFRDE1, respectively, contribute to the differentiation of multinucleated syncytiotropho...

    Authors: Martina Benešová, Kateřina Trejbalová, Denisa Kovářová, Zdenka Vernerová, Tomáš Hron, Dana Kučerová and Jiří Hejnar

    Citation: Retrovirology 2017 14:20

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  15. Content type: Research

    HIV-1 Vif interacts with the cellular core-binding factor β (CBFβ) and counteracts the protective roles of certain human APOBEC3 (A3) proteins by targeting them for proteasomal degradation. Previous studies ha...

    Authors: Belete A. Desimmie, Jessica L. Smith, Hiroshi Matsuo, Wei-Shau Hu and Vinay K. Pathak

    Citation: Retrovirology 2017 14:19

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  16. Content type: Research

    Despite improved clinical outcomes seen following antiretroviral therapy (ART), resting CD4+ T cells continue to harbor latent human immunodeficiency virus type one (HIV-1). However, such cells are not likely ...

    Authors: Mariluz Araínga, Benson Edagwa, R. Lee Mosley, Larisa Y. Poluektova, Santhi Gorantla and Howard E. Gendelman

    Citation: Retrovirology 2017 14:17

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  17. Content type: Short report

    Prototype foamy virus (PFV) is a member of the Spumaretrovirinae subfamily of retroviruses, which maintains lifelong latent infection while being nonpathogenic to their natural hosts. Autophagy is a cell-progr...

    Authors: Peipei Yuan, Lanlan Dong, Qingqing Cheng, Shuang Wang, Zhi Li, Yan Sun, Song Han, Jun Yin, Biwen Peng, Xiaohua He and Wanhong Liu

    Citation: Retrovirology 2017 14:16

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  18. Content type: Correspondence

    Recently, Oberle et al. published a paper in Retrovirology evaluating the question of whether selection plays a role in HIV transmission. The Oberle study found no obvious genotypic or phenotypic differences betw...

    Authors: Mileidy Gonzalez, Anthony L. DeVico and John L. Spouge

    Citation: Retrovirology 2017 14:13

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  19. Content type: Research

    Characterizing HIV-1 transmission networks can be important in understanding the evolutionary patterns and geospatial spread of the epidemic. We reconstructed the broad molecular epidemiology of HIV from indiv...

    Authors: Antoine Chaillon, Asma Essat, Pierre Frange, Davey M. Smith, Constance Delaugerre, Francis Barin, Jade Ghosn, Gilles Pialoux, Olivier Robineau, Christine Rouzioux, Cécile Goujard, Laurence Meyer and Marie-Laure Chaix

    Citation: Retrovirology 2017 14:15

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  20. Content type: Research

    A20-binding inhibitor of NF-κB activation (ABIN1), an important immune regulator, was previously shown to be involved in HIV-1 replication. However, the reported studies done with overexpressed ABIN1 provided ...

    Authors: Shiyou Chen, Xiaodan Yang, Weijia Cheng, Yuhong Ma, Yafang Shang, Liu Cao, Shuliang Chen, Yu Chen, Min Wang and Deyin Guo

    Citation: Retrovirology 2017 14:12

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  21. Content type: Research

    Multiple toll-like receptors (TLRs) are expressed in cells of the monocytic lineage, including microglia, which constitute the major reservoir for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in the brain. We ...

    Authors: David Alvarez-Carbonell, Yoelvis Garcia-Mesa, Stephanie Milne, Biswajit Das, Curtis Dobrowolski, Roxana Rojas and Jonathan Karn

    Citation: Retrovirology 2017 14:9

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  22. Content type: Research

    The foamy viral genome encodes four central purine-rich elements localized in the integrase-coding region of pol. Previously, we have shown that the first two of these RNA elements (A and B) are required for prot...

    Authors: Rebecca Moschall, Sarah Denk, Steffen Erkelenz, Christian Schenk, Heiner Schaal and Jochen Bodem

    Citation: Retrovirology 2017 14:10

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  23. Content type: Research

    In the Friend retrovirus mouse model we developed potent adenovirus-based vaccines that were designed to induce either strong Friend virus GagL85–93-specific CD8+ T cell or antibody responses, respectively. To op...

    Authors: Meike Kaulfuß, Ina Wensing, Sonja Windmann, Camilla Patrizia Hrycak and Wibke Bayer

    Citation: Retrovirology 2017 14:8

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  24. Content type: Research

    Mother-to-child transmission of human immunodeficiency virus-type 1 (HIV-1) poses a serious health threat in developing countries, and adequate interventions are as yet unrealized. HIV-1 infection is frequentl...

    Authors: Kyle J. Nakamura, Laura Heath, Edwin R. Sobrera, Thomas A. Wilkinson, Katherine Semrau, Chipepo Kankasa, Nicole H. Tobin, Nicholas E. Webb, Benhur Lee, Donald M. Thea, Louise Kuhn, James I. Mullins and Grace M. Aldrovandi

    Citation: Retrovirology 2017 14:6

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  25. Content type: Research

    HIV-1 replication is critically dependent upon controlled processing of its RNA and the activities provided by its encoded regulatory factors Tat and Rev. A screen of small molecule modulators of RNA processin...

    Authors: Ahalya Balachandran, Raymond Wong, Peter Stoilov, Sandy Pan, Benjamin Blencowe, Peter Cheung, P. Richard Harrigan and Alan Cochrane

    Citation: Retrovirology 2017 14:7

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  26. Content type: Research

    HIV-1 hijacks host cell machinery to ensure successful replication, including cytoskeletal components for intracellular trafficking, nucleoproteins for pre-integration complex import, and the ESCRT pathway for...

    Authors: Mark B. Lucera, Zach Fleissner, Caroline O. Tabler, Daniela M. Schlatzer, Zach Troyer and John C. Tilton

    Citation: Retrovirology 2017 14:4

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  27. Content type: Research

    Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV) causes a contagious lung cancer in sheep and goats that can be transmitted by aerosols produced by infected animals. Virus entry into cells is initiated by binding of the vir...

    Authors: A. Dusty Miller, Marcelo De las Heras, Jingyou Yu, Fushun Zhang, Shan-Lu Liu, Andrew E. Vaughan, Thomas L. Vaughan, Raul Rosadio, Stefano Rocca, Giuseppe Palmieri, James J. Goedert, Junya Fujimoto and Ignacio I. Wistuba

    Citation: Retrovirology 2017 14:3

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  28. Content type: Research

    Due to the prevalence of HIV-1 group M and the endemicity of HIV-1 group O infections in Cameroon, patients may be infected with both viruses and/or with HIV-1/MO recombinant forms. Such atypical infections m...

    Authors: Fabienne De Oliveira, Thomas Mourez, Aurélia Vessiere, Paul-Alain Ngoupo, Elodie Alessandri-Gradt, François Simon, Dominique Rousset and Jean-Christophe Plantier

    Citation: Retrovirology 2017 14:1

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  29. Content type: Research

    Assessing the location and frequency of HIV integration sites in latently infected cells can potentially inform our understanding of how HIV persists during combination antiretroviral therapy. We developed a n...

    Authors: Jori Symons, Abha Chopra, Eva Malatinkova, Ward De Spiegelaere, Shay Leary, Don Cooper, Chike O. Abana, Ajantha Rhodes, Simin D. Rezaei, Linos Vandekerckhove, Simon Mallal, Sharon R. Lewin and Paul U. Cameron

    Citation: Retrovirology 2017 14:2

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    The Erratum to this article has been published in Retrovirology 2017 14:23

  30. Content type: Research

    The nucleocapsid (NC) domain of HIV-1 Gag is responsible for specific recognition and packaging of genomic RNA (gRNA) into new viral particles. This occurs through specific interactions between the Gag NC doma...

    Authors: Klara Post, Erik D. Olson, M. Nabuan Naufer, Robert J. Gorelick, Ioulia Rouzina, Mark C. Williams, Karin Musier-Forsyth and Judith G. Levin

    Citation: Retrovirology 2016 13:89

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  31. Content type: Research

    Although next generation sequencing (NGS) offers the potential for studying virus populations in unprecedented depth, PCR error, amplification bias and recombination during library construction have limited it...

    Authors: Valerie F. Boltz, Jason Rausch, Wei Shao, Junko Hattori, Brian Luke, Frank Maldarelli, John W. Mellors, Mary F. Kearney and John M. Coffin

    Citation: Retrovirology 2016 13:87

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  32. Content type: Research

    Despite the durable viral suppression afforded by antiretroviral therapy, HIV-1 eradication will require strategies to target latently infected cells that persist in infected individuals. Protein kinase C (PKC...

    Authors: Adam M. Spivak, Erin T. Larragoite, McKenna L. Coletti, Amanda B. Macedo, Laura J. Martins, Alberto Bosque and Vicente Planelles

    Citation: Retrovirology 2016 13:88

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  33. Content type: Review

    Current antiretroviral therapies have improved the duration and quality of life of people living with HIV-1. However, viral reservoirs impede complete eradication of the virus. Although there are many strategi...

    Authors: Abraham Joseph Kandathil, Sho Sugawara and Ashwin Balagopal

    Citation: Retrovirology 2016 13:86

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    The Erratum to this article has been published in Retrovirology 2017 14:11

  34. Content type: Research

    CCR5-coreceptor antagonists can be used for treating HIV-2 infected individuals. Before initiating treatment with coreceptor antagonists, viral coreceptor usage should be determined to ensure that the virus ca...

    Authors: Matthias Döring, Pedro Borrego, Joachim Büch, Andreia Martins, Georg Friedrich, Ricardo Jorge Camacho, Josef Eberle, Rolf Kaiser, Thomas Lengauer, Nuno Taveira and Nico Pfeifer

    Citation: Retrovirology 2016 13:85

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  35. Content type: Short report

    The replication of HBV involves the production of covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) from the HBV genome through the repair of virion relaxed circular DNA (rcDNA) in the virion. As cccDNA is the transcrip...

    Authors: Rodolphe Suspène, Valérie Thiers, Jean-Pierre Vartanian and Simon Wain-Hobson

    Citation: Retrovirology 2016 13:84

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  36. Content type: Research

    Monocytes, the primary myeloid cell-type in peripheral blood, are resistant to HIV-1 infection as a result of the lentiviral restriction factor SAMHD1. Toll-like receptors recognize microbial pathogen componen...

    Authors: Henning Hofmann, Bénédicte Vanwalscappel, Nicolin Bloch and Nathaniel R. Landau

    Citation: Retrovirology 2016 13:83

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  37. Content type: Research

    Vaccination with inactivated (killed) whole-virus particles has been used to prevent a wide range of viral diseases. However, for an HIV vaccine this approach has been largely negated due to inherent safety c...

    Authors: Eunsil Choi, Chad J. Michalski, Seung Ho Choo, Gyoung Nyoun Kim, Elizabeth Banasikowska, Sangkyun Lee, Kunyu Wu, Hwa-Yong An, Anthony Mills, Stefan Schneider, U. Fritz Bredeek, Daniel R. Coulston, Shilei Ding, Andrés Finzi, Meijuan Tian, Katja Klein…

    Citation: Retrovirology 2016 13:82

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  38. Content type: Research

    Antigenicity of HIV-1 envelope proteins (Envs) of both lab-adapted and primary isolates expressed on the cell surface rarely match with in vitro neutralization of viruses, pseudo-typed with corresponding Envs....

    Authors: Supratik Das, Saikat Boliar, Nivedita Mitra, Sweety Samal, Manish Bansal, Wayne C. Koff and Bimal K. Chakrabarti

    Citation: Retrovirology 2016 13:81

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  39. Content type: Research

    The dimer initiation site/dimer linkage sequence (DIS/DLS) region of HIV is located on the 5′ end of the viral genome and suggested to form complex secondary/tertiary structures. Within this structure, stem-lo...

    Authors: Sayuri Sakuragi, Masaru Yokoyama, Tatsuo Shioda, Hironori Sato and Jun-ichi Sakuragi

    Citation: Retrovirology 2016 13:79

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  40. Content type: Review

    Natural killer (NK) cells belong to the innate immune system and protect against cancers and a variety of viruses including retroviruses by killing transformed or infected cells. They express activating and in...

    Authors: Elisabeth Littwitz-Salomon, Ulf Dittmer and Kathrin Sutter

    Citation: Retrovirology 2016 13:77

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  41. Content type: Research

    Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC), which mainly mediated by natural killer (NK) cells, may play a critical role in slowing human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) disease progression and prot...

    Authors: Xueying Fan, Liyan Zhu, Hua Liang, Zhe Xie, Xiangbo Huang, Shuo Wang and Tao Shen

    Citation: Retrovirology 2016 13:76

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