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  1. Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is the etiologic agent of adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) and the neurological disorder HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). The...

    Authors: Michael P. Martinez, Xiaogang Cheng, Ancy Joseph, Jacob Al-Saleem, Amanda R. Panfil, Marilly Palettas, Wessel P. Dirksen, Lee Ratner and Patrick L. Green
    Citation: Retrovirology 2019 16:44
  2. The human T cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTVL-1), first reported in 1980 by Robert Gallo’s group, is the etiologic agent of both cancer and inflammatory diseases. Despite approximately 40 years of investigation...

    Authors: Sarkis Sarkis, Veronica Galli, Ramona Moles, David Yurick, Georges Khoury, Damian F. J. Purcell, Genoveffa Franchini and Cynthia A. Pise-Masison
    Citation: Retrovirology 2019 16:43
  3. The extraordinarily high prevalence of HTLV-1 subtype C (HTLV-1C) in some isolated indigenous communities in Oceania and the severity of the health conditions associated with the virus impress the great need f...

    Authors: Ramona Moles, Sarkis Sarkis, Veronica Galli, Maria Omsland, Damian F. J. Purcell, David Yurick, Georges Khoury, Cynthia A. Pise-Masison and Genoveffa Franchini
    Citation: Retrovirology 2019 16:42
  4. Few years after HTLV-1 identification and isolation in humans, STLV-1, its simian counterpart, was discovered. It then became clear that STLV-1 is present almost in all simian species. Subsequent molecular epi...

    Authors: Brice Jégado, Fatah Kashanchi, Hélène Dutartre and Renaud Mahieux
    Citation: Retrovirology 2019 16:41
  5. The HERV-K (HML-2) viruses are the youngest of the human endogenous retroviruses. They are present as several almost complete proviral copies and numerous fragments in the human genome. Many HERV-K proviruses ...

    Authors: Laurie R. Gray, Rachel E. Jackson, Patrick E. H. Jackson, Stefan Bekiranov, David Rekosh and Marie-Louise Hammarskjöld
    Citation: Retrovirology 2019 16:40
  6. Human T cell leukaemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is a retrovirus associated with human diseases such as adult T-cell leukaemia/lymphoma and HTLV-1 associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis. In contrast to...

    Authors: Paola Miyazato, Misaki Matsuo, Benjy J. Y. Tan, Michiyo Tokunaga, Hiroo Katsuya, Saiful Islam, Jumpei Ito, Yasuhiro Murakawa and Yorifumi Satou
    Citation: Retrovirology 2019 16:38
  7. Life expectancy is increasing in the HIV-positive population and age-related non-communicable diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, (CVD) are seen more frequently. This study investigated to what extent HI...

    Authors: Alinda G. Vos, Klariska Hoeve, Roos E. Barth, Joyce Peper, Michelle Moorhouse, Nigel J. Crowther, Willem D. F. Venter, Diederick E. Grobbee, Michiel L. Bots and Kerstin Klipstein-Grobusch
    Citation: Retrovirology 2019 16:37
  8. Peptides corresponding to N- and C-terminal heptad repeat regions (HR1 and HR2, respectively) of gp41 can inhibit HIV-1 infection in a dominant negative manner by interfering with refolding of the viral HR1 an...

    Authors: Chen Yuan, Jia-Ye Wang, Hai-Jiao Zhao, Yan Li, Di Li, Hong Ling and Min Zhuang
    Citation: Retrovirology 2019 16:36
  9. Immunity against pathogens evolved through complex mechanisms that only for sake of simplicity are defined as innate immunity and adaptive immunity. Indeed innate and adaptive immunity are strongly intertwined...

    Authors: Greta Forlani, Mariam Shallak, Elise Ramia, Alessandra Tedeschi and Roberto S. Accolla
    Citation: Retrovirology 2019 16:34
  10. The Deltaretrovirus genus of retroviruses (family Retroviridae) includes the human T cell leukemia viruses and bovine leukemia virus (BLV). Relatively little is known about the biology and evolution of these viru...

    Authors: Tomáš Hron, Daniel Elleder and Robert J. Gifford
    Citation: Retrovirology 2019 16:33
  11. HIV-infected cell lines are widely used to study latent HIV infection, which is considered the main barrier to HIV cure. We hypothesized that these cell lines differ from each other and from cells from HIV-inf...

    Authors: Sushama Telwatte, Sara Morón-López, Dvir Aran, Peggy Kim, Christine Hsieh, Sunil Joshi, Mauricio Montano, Warner C. Greene, Atul J. Butte, Joseph K. Wong and Steven A. Yukl
    Citation: Retrovirology 2019 16:32
  12. The existing repertoire of HIV-1 patient derived broadly neutralising antibodies (bNAbs) that target the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env) present numerous and exciting opportunities for immune-based therapeut...

    Authors: Tumelo Moshoette, Stuart Alvaro Ali, Maria Antonia Papathanasopoulos and Mark Andrew Killick
    Citation: Retrovirology 2019 16:31
  13. HIV-1 integration results in genomic DNA gaps that are repaired by cellular DNA repair pathways. This step of the lentiviral life cycle remains poorly understood despite its crucial importance for successful r...

    Authors: Ekaterina Knyazhanskaya, Andrey Anisenko, Olga Shadrina, Anastasia Kalinina, Timofei Zatsepin, Arthur Zalevsky, Dmitriy Mazurov and Marina Gottikh
    Citation: Retrovirology 2019 16:30
  14. Terminally differentiated/nondividing macrophages, a key target cell type of HIV-1, harbor extremely low dNTP concentrations established by a host dNTP triphosphohydrolase, SAM domain and HD domain containing ...

    Authors: Caitlin Shepard, Joella Xu, Jessica Holler, Dong-Hyun Kim, Louis M. Mansky, Raymond F. Schinazi and Baek Kim
    Citation: Retrovirology 2019 16:29
  15. PIE12-trimer is a highly potent d-peptide HIV-1 entry inhibitor that broadly targets group M isolates. It specifically binds the three identical conserved hydrophobic pockets at the base of the gp41 N-trimer with...

    Authors: Amanda R. Smith, Matthew T. Weinstock, Amanda E. Siglin, Frank G. Whitby, J. Nicholas Francis, Christopher P. Hill, Debra M. Eckert, Michael J. Root and Michael S. Kay
    Citation: Retrovirology 2019 16:28
  16. Arawete and Asurini Indian tribes were revisited after a 36-year follow-up in search of HTLV infections. 46 persons (23 from each tribe) were tested for HTLV-1/2 antibodies and viral DNA. None were positive; t...

    Authors: Antonio C. R. Vallinoto, Mateus I. Otake, Paulo V. N. R. Sousa, Felipe T. Lopes, Eliene R. P. Sacuena, Maria A. F. Queiroz, Greice L. C. Costa, Marluísa O. G. Ishak, Izaura M. V. Cayres-Vallinoto, João F. Guerreiro and Ricardo Ishak
    Citation: Retrovirology 2019 16:27
  17. Vaccination against retroviruses is a challenge because of their ability to stably integrate into the host genome, undergo long-term latency in a proportion of infected cells and thereby escape immune response...

    Authors: Alejandro Abdala, Irene Alvarez, Hélène Brossel, Luis Calvinho, Hugo Carignano, Lautaro Franco, Hélène Gazon, Christelle Gillissen, Malik Hamaidia, Clotilde Hoyos, Jean-Rock Jacques, Thomas Joris, Florent Laval, Marcos Petersen, Florent Porquet, Natalia Porta…
    Citation: Retrovirology 2019 16:26
  18. Human T-cell leukemia virus type-1 (HTLV-1) causes adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL), HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP), and other inflammatory diseases. There is no diseas...

    Authors: Mari Kannagi, Atsuhiko Hasegawa, Yoshiko Nagano, Shuichi Kimpara and Youko Suehiro
    Citation: Retrovirology 2019 16:23
  19. Authors: Monsef Benkirane, Ben Berkhout, Persephone Borrow, Ariberto Fassati, Masahiro Fujii, J. Victor Garcia-Martinez, D. Margolis, Monique Nijhuis, Leslie Parent, Klaus Strebel, François Venter, Frank Kirchhoff, Andrew Lever, Susan Ross and Johnson Mak
    Citation: Retrovirology 2019 16:22
  20. Human T cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) was the first discovered human retrovirus and the etiologic agent of adult T-cell leukemia and HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis. Shortly aft...

    Authors: Michael P. Martinez, Jacob Al-Saleem and Patrick L. Green
    Citation: Retrovirology 2019 16:21
  21. Following publication of their article [1], the authors realized that they inadvertently omitted the contribution of Dr. Li Wu (Ohio State University) who commented on the manuscript at the early stage of the ...

    Authors: Qiaoqiao Xiao, Shuliang Chen, Qiankun Wang, Zhepeng Liu, Shuai Liu, Huan Deng, Wei Hou, Dongcheng Wu, Yong Xiong, Jiafu Li and Deyin Guo
    Citation: Retrovirology 2019 16:20

    The original article was published in Retrovirology 2019 16:15

  22. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) can effectively suppress ongoing HIV replication and block disease progression, but the infection is never cured due to the persistence of a small pool of latently infected cells h...

    Authors: Atze T. Das, Alexander O. Pasternak and Ben Berkhout
    Citation: Retrovirology 2019 16:19
  23. Nef is a multifunctional accessory protein encoded by HIV-1, HIV-2 and SIV that plays critical roles in viral pathogenesis, contributing to viral replication, assembly, budding, infectivity and immune evasion,...

    Authors: Elodie Mailler, Abdul A. Waheed, Sang-Yoon Park, David C. Gershlick, Eric O. Freed and Juan S. Bonifacino
    Citation: Retrovirology 2019 16:18
  24. Current efforts towards HIV-1 eradication focus on the reactivation and elimination of the latent viral reservoir, so-called shock and kill therapy. However, work from several groups indicates that infected ce...

    Authors: Benjamin Trinité, Hongtao Zhang and David N. Levy
    Citation: Retrovirology 2019 16:17
  25. The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) cell reservoir is currently a main obstacle towards complete eradication of the virus. This infected pool is refractory to anti-viral therapy and harbors integrated provi...

    Authors: Simona Krasnopolsky, Lital Marom, Rachel A. Victor, Alona Kuzmina, Jacob C. Schwartz, Koh Fujinaga and Ran Taube
    Citation: Retrovirology 2019 16:16
  26. The chemokine receptor CCR5, which belongs to the superfamily of G protein-coupled receptors, is the major co-receptor for HIV-1 entry. Individuals with a homozygous CCR5Δ32 mutation have a long lasting and incre...

    Authors: Qiaoqiao Xiao, Shuliang Chen, Qiankun Wang, Zhepeng Liu, Shuai Liu, Huan Deng, Wei Hou, Dongcheng Wu, Yong Xiong, Jiafu Li and Deyin Guo
    Citation: Retrovirology 2019 16:15

    The Correction to this article has been published in Retrovirology 2019 16:20

  27. Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) causes enzootic bovine leukosis and is closely related to the human T-lymphotropic virus. Bovine major histocompatibility complex (BoLAs) are used extensively as markers of disease ...

    Authors: Shin-nosuke Takeshima, Ayumu Ohno and Yoko Aida
    Citation: Retrovirology 2019 16:14
  28. HIV-1 patients receiving combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) survive infection but require life-long adherence at high expense. In chronic cART-treated patients with undetectable viral titers, cell-assoc...

    Authors: Daniel O. Pinto, Tristan A. Scott, Catherine DeMarino, Michelle L. Pleet, Thy T. Vo, Mohammed Saifuddin, Dmytro Kovalskyy, James Erickson, Maria Cowen, Robert A. Barclay, Chen Zeng, Marc S. Weinberg and Fatah Kashanchi
    Citation: Retrovirology 2019 16:13
  29. The different interactions between viral proteins and cellular host proteins are required for efficient replication of HIV-1. Various reports implicated host cellular proteins as a key factor that either inter...

    Authors: Pooja Yadav, Souvik Sur, Dipen Desai, Smita Kulkarni, Vartika Sharma and Vibha Tandon
    Citation: Retrovirology 2019 16:12
  30. Reverse transcription (RT) of HIV and SIV is initiated by the binding of the acceptor stem of tRNALys3 to the primer binding site (PBS) of the viral RNA genome. Previous studies have suggested that this tRNALys3 ...

    Authors: Christine M. Fennessey, Celine Camus, Taina T. Immonen, Carolyn Reid, Frank Maldarelli, Jeffrey D. Lifson and Brandon F. Keele
    Citation: Retrovirology 2019 16:11
  31. Efficient HIV-1 replication depends on interaction of the viral capsid with the host protein cyclophilin A (CypA). CypA, a peptidylprolyl isomerase, binds to an exposed loop in the viral CA protein via the enz...

    Authors: Wang Peng, Jiong Shi, Chantal L. Márquez, Derrick Lau, James Walsh, K. M. Rifat Faysal, Chang H. Byeon, In-Ja L. Byeon, Christopher Aiken and Till Böcking
    Citation: Retrovirology 2019 16:10
  32. We previously showed that the gM of HSV-1 could restrict the release of infectious HIV-1 from cells. In this study, we analyzed if the four HSV-1 glycoproteins (gD, gB, and gH/gL), which are the minimum glycop...

    Authors: Sachith Polpitiya Arachchige, Wyatt Henke, Maria Kalamvoki and Edward B. Stephens
    Citation: Retrovirology 2019 16:9
  33. Persistence of latent, replication-competent provirus is the main impediment towards the cure of HIV infection. One of the critical questions concerning HIV latency is the role of integration site selection in...

    Authors: Gerlinde Vansant, Lenard S. Vranckx, Irena Zurnic, Dominique Van Looveren, Paulien Van de Velde, Christopher Nobles, Rik Gijsbers, Frauke Christ and Zeger Debyser
    Citation: Retrovirology 2019 16:8
  34. Vertebrate genomes contain a record of retroviruses that invaded the germlines of ancestral hosts and are passed to offspring as endogenous retroviruses (ERVs). ERVs can impact host function since they contain...

    Authors: Julia V. Halo, Amanda L. Pendleton, Abigail S. Jarosz, Robert J. Gifford, Malika L. Day and Jeffrey M. Kidd
    Citation: Retrovirology 2019 16:6
  35. Adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) is an aggressive neoplasm caused by human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1). ATL carries a poor prognosis due to chemotherapy resistance. Thus, it is urgent to develop new treat...

    Authors: Lingling Xu, Xueqing Zhang, Wenzhao Cheng, Yong Wang, Kaining Yi, Zhilong Wang, Yiling Zhang, Linxiang Shao and Tiejun Zhao
    Citation: Retrovirology 2019 16:5
  36. Latently infected CD4 lymphocytes preclude cure of HIV infection, even with the most effective antiretroviral therapy. The replication competent latent HIV reservoir has been quantified with the terminal dilut...

    Authors: Douglas D. Richman, Karissa Huang, Steven M. Lada, Xiaoying Sun, Sonia Jain, Marta Massanella and Bryson Menke
    Citation: Retrovirology 2019 16:4
  37. Mammalian cells harbour RNA quality control and degradative machineries such as nonsense-mediated mRNA decay that target cellular mRNAs for clearance from the cell to avoid aberrant gene expression. The role o...

    Authors: Shringar Rao, Raquel Amorim, Meijuan Niu, Yann Breton, Michel J. Tremblay and Andrew J. Mouland
    Citation: Retrovirology 2019 16:3
  38. HIV infection is enhanced by cell adhesions that form between infected and uninfected T cells called virological synapses (VS). VS are initiated by an interaction between Env and CD4 on cell surfaces and resul...

    Authors: Lili Wang, Sudeh Izadmehr, Edwin Kamau, Xiang-Peng Kong and Benjamin K. Chen
    Citation: Retrovirology 2019 16:2
  39. The large and constantly evolving HIV-1 pandemic has led to an increasingly complex diversity. Because of some taxonomic difficulties among the most diverse HIV-1 subtypes, and taking advantage of the large am...

    Authors: Nathalie Désiré, Lorenzo Cerutti, Quentin Le Hingrat, Marine Perrier, Stefan Emler, Vincent Calvez, Diane Descamps, Anne-Geneviève Marcelin, Stéphane Hué and Benoit Visseaux
    Citation: Retrovirology 2018 15:80
  40. The APOBEC3 (A3) family of DNA cytosine deaminases provides an innate barrier to infection by retroviruses including HIV-1. A total of five enzymes, A3C, A3D, A3F, A3G and A3H, are degraded by the viral access...

    Authors: Brett D. Anderson, Terumasa Ikeda, Seyed Arad Moghadasi, Amber St. Martin, William L. Brown and Reuben S. Harris
    Citation: Retrovirology 2018 15:78
  41. HIV infection and antiretroviral treatment are associated with changes in lipid levels, insulin resistance and risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). We investigated these changes in the first 96 weeks of treat...

    Authors: Alinda G. Vos, Matthew F. Chersich, Kerstin Klipstein-Grobusch, Peter Zuithoff, Michelle A. Moorhouse, Samanta T. Lalla-Edward, Andrew Kambugu, N. Kumarasamy, Diederick E. Grobbee, Roos E. Barth and Willem D. Venter
    Citation: Retrovirology 2018 15:77
  42. To investigate the impact of early combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) on inflammation biomarkers and immune activation during acute and early chronic HIV-1 infection.

    Authors: Hury Hellen Souza de Paula, Ana Cristina Garcia Ferreira, Diogo Gama Caetano, Edson Delatorre, Sylvia Lopes Maia Teixeira, Lara Esteves Coelho, Eduarda Grinsztejn João, Michelle Morata de Andrade, Sandra Wagner Cardoso, Beatriz Grinsztejn, Valdilea Gonçalves Veloso, Mariza Gonçalves Morgado, Monick Lindenmeyer Guimarães and Fernanda Heloise Côrtes
    Citation: Retrovirology 2018 15:76
  43. Host genetic factors such as MBL2 gene polymorphisms cause defects in the polymerization of MBL protein and result in a functional deficiency and/or in low serum levels that can influence susceptibility to variou...

    Authors: Viviane Martha Santos de Morais, Elker Lene Santos de Lima, Georgea Gertrudes de Oliveira Mendes Cahú, Thaisa Regina Rocha Lopes, Juliana Prado Gonçales, Maria Tereza Cartaxo Muniz and Maria Rosângela Cunha Duarte Coêlho
    Citation: Retrovirology 2018 15:75

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