- Open Access
Hypericin-photodynamic therapy inhibits the growth of adult T-cell leukemia cells through induction of apoptosis and suppression of viral transcription
- Lingling Xu†1,
- Xueqing Zhang†1,
- Wenzhao Cheng1, 2,
- Yong Wang1,
- Kaining Yi1,
- Zhilong Wang1,
- Yiling Zhang1,
- Linxiang Shao1 and
- Tiejun Zhao1Email authorView ORCID ID profile
© The Author(s) 2019
- Received: 10 September 2018
- Accepted: 10 February 2019
- Published: 19 February 2019
Adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) is an aggressive neoplasm caused by human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1). ATL carries a poor prognosis due to chemotherapy resistance. Thus, it is urgent to develop new treatment strategies. Hypericin (HY) is a new-type of photosensitizer in the context of photodynamic therapy (PDT) due to its excellent photosensitizing properties and anti-tumor activities.
In the present study, we investigated the efficacy of hypericin in ATL cells. Clinically achievable concentrations of hypericin in association with PDT induced the inhibition of cell proliferation in ATL cell lines with minimal effect on peripheral blood CD4+ T lymphocytes. Moreover, hypericin-PDT treatment caused apoptosis and G2/M phase cell cycle arrest in leukemic cells. Western blot analyses revealed that hypericin-PDT treatment resulted in downregulation of Bcl-2 and enhanced the expression of Bad, cytochrome C, and AIF. Cleavage of caspases-3/-7/-9/-8, Bid, and PARP was increased in hypericin-PDT-treated ATL cells. In a luciferase assay, hypericin-PDT treatment was able to activate the promoter activity of Bax and p53, resulting in enhanced expression of Bax and p53 proteins. Finally, hypericin-PDT treatment suppressed the expression of viral protein HBZ and Tax by blocking the promoter activity via HTLV-1 5′LTR and 3′LTR.
Our results revealed that hypericin-PDT is highly effective against ATL cells by induction of apoptosis and suppression of viral transcription. These studies highlight the promising use of hypericin-PDT as a targeted therapy for ATL.
- Photodynamic therapy
Adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) is an aggressive malignancy of CD4+ T lymphocytes in which the human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) has been recognized as the etiologic agent . HTLV-1 encodes two oncogenic factors, Tax and human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 bZIP factor (HBZ), in the sense and antisense strands of provirus, respectively, and these two factors are thought to play indispensable roles in the oncogenic process of ATL [2, 3].
ATL develops after a long latency period, and the prognosis of ATL patients is still poor due to its resistance to chemotherapy and immunodeficiency [4–6]. Some reports have shown the efficiency of combination therapy of zidovudine and interferon alpha (AZT/IFN) for treatment of ATL, even though little is known about underlying mechanism of AZT/IFN therapy [7–9]. In addition, allogeneic stem cell transplantation is effective in some ATL cases, with remarkable reductions in proviral load to undetectable levels, suggesting that enhancement of the immune response to HTLV-1 is a possible strategy for treatment of HTLV-1-associated human diseases [10, 11]. Unfortunately, most of the patients relapse, stressing the need for alternative or complementary therapies.
Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a clinical example in which optical illumination selectively activates light-sensitive drugs, termed photosensitizers, and destroys malignant cells with only mild side effects associated with systemic treatments, such as chemotherapy . The use of PDT as an anti-cancer therapy has gained momentum over the past decade, with a number of reports revealing its efficacy with respect to cancers of the head and neck, brain, lung, pancreas, intraperitoneal cavity, breast, prostate and skin [13–16]. Known mechanisms of anti-tumor activity of PDT have been extensively studied. In addition to destroying tumor tissue by a process that can produce cellular necrosis and apoptosis, PDT produces acute inflammation and attracts leukocytes to the treated tumors [17, 18].
Hypericin (HY), a natural polycyclic quinone, is mainly extracted from St John’s Wort (Hypericum perforatum L.) . In the context of PDT, hypericin is a promising photosensitizer due to its excellent photosensitizing properties, tumoritropic characteristics, low cytotoxicity, and antiviral activity [19–21]. Hypericin-mediated PDT has gained increasing interest as a potential treatment for various cancers . Investigation of the molecular mechanisms underlying hypericin photocytotoxicity in cancer cells have revealed that this photosensitizer can induce both apoptosis and necrosis in a concentration and light dose-dependent fashion [21, 23]. Moreover, PDT with hypericin results in the activation of multiple pathways that can either promote or counteract the cell death program . Investigations of the molecular mechanisms underlying hypericin photocytotoxicity in cancer cells have revealed that this photosensitizer can induce apoptosis in a dose-dependent fashion. However, very soon after irradiation, JNK1 and p38 MAPK are activated. Inhibitor and transfection studies revealed that these responses increase the cellular resistance against hypericin-induced apoptosis in a caspase-independent manner, which allow the cells to cope with the damage caused by the insult . In addition, hypericin also has been investigated as a powerful photosensitizer for inactivation of DNA and RNA viruses including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and herpes simplex virus (HSV) [25–28]. However, the mechanisms by which photoactivated hypericin interferes with and inactivates viruses has been not clarified yet.
In this study, we investigated the efficacy of hypericin-PDT in ATL cells. We show that hypericin, in the context of PDT, inhibits the ATL cell growth by induction of apoptosis and suppression of viral transcription, indicating that hypericin is a promising drug for its characteristic of light-dependent antitumor and antiviral activity in ATL-targeted therapy.
Photoactivated hypericin inhibits the proliferation of ATL cells
Hypericin-PDT induces apoptosis of ATL cells
Taken together, these observations demonstrated that the inhibitory effect on proliferation induced by hypericin-PDT was due to the promotion of apoptosis.
Hypericin-PDT induces caspase dependent and independent apoptosis
Hypericin-PDT causes G2/M cell cycle arrest in ATL cells
Hypericin-PDT suppresses viral gene expression and viral transcription
Taken together, the results suggest that hypericin-PDT impairs the HTLV-1 viral transcription through 5′LTR and 3′LTR, resulting in reduction of HBZ and Tax gene expression.
After the identification of adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) as a discrete clinical entity, much progress has been made in the treatment of the disease. Encouraging advances in treating ATL are coming from the effectiveness of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and new molecular-targeted drugs [4, 6, 30]. However, current therapeutic regimens fail to improve the survival of ATL patients, stressing the need for alternative or complementary therapies. The ability of photodynamic therapy (PDT) to specifically recognize and destroy cancer cells is considered to be a milestone groundbreaking development . In recent years, increased interest in hypericin (HY) as a potential clinical anti-tumor photosensitizer agent has arisen since several studies established its powerful antineoplastic and antiviral activities [19, 22]. Investigations of the molecular mechanisms underlying hypericin photocytotoxicity in cancer cells have revealed that this photosensitizer can induce both apoptosis and necrosis in a high-quantum yields and a low cytotoxicity fashion [21, 23]. It is demonstrated that the apoptosis induced by hypericin-mediated PDT is involved with plasma membrane death receptors, mitochondria, lysosomes and ER, caspases, and Bcl-2 family proteins . Mitochondrial damage has been identified as one of the main events during PDT with hypericin . Moreover, PDT with hypericin results in the activation of multiple pathways that can either promote or counteract the cell death program . We are the first to present evidence that hypericin suppressed the proliferation of ATL cells mainly through mitochondrial dependent apoptotic signaling. In HTLV-1 infected cells, p53 checkpoint is ineffective in ATL; owing to Tax-mediated inactivation . Our finding that hypericin-induced apoptosis of ATL cells is associated with the upregulation of p53 prompted us to investigate the involvement of p53 signaling activation in hypericin-induced apoptosis. Luciferase assay demonstrated that hypericin could enhance p53 pathway, indicating that p53-mediated apoptotic singling is essential for the treatment of ATL by hypericin-PDT. Further studies are necessary to clarify the mechanism by which hypericin enhances the expression of p53 in ATL cells.
It is well known that vigorously proliferating cells were more sensitive to natural product drugs or cytotoxic chemicals than nonproliferating/quiescent cells . One possible reason for this is that most cytotoxic drugs targeted replicated DNA easily. Consistently, we showed in this study that hypericin-PDT treatment inhibited the growth of highly proliferating ATL cells, and suppressed DNA binding capability of HTLV-1 Tax protein. PBMCs which are nonproliferating cells don’t show any sensitivity to the photo-toxic effects of hypericin.
Accumulating evidence has shown that hypericin is a virucidal agent that effectively targets a broad range of enveloped viruses and retroviruses, including human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-l), hepatitis C virus (HCV), herpes simplex virus (HSV), influenza A (influenza virus type A), murine Friend leukemia virus, Rauscher leukemia virus, murine immunodeficiency virus, and duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV) [25–28]. Hypericin has been shown to associate with virions and their replication cycles [26, 28]. Meruelo et al. reported that hypericin prevents viral budding and shedding from cells by interfering with the proper assembly and maturation of viral cores of budding particles [34, 36]. Moreover, hypericin induced inactivation of HIV-1 is characterized by photochemical alteration of the HIV major capsid protein p24 and the p24-containing gag precursor, and it suppressed reverse transcriptase-activity from the treated virions . The HCV genome encodes nonstructural protein 3 (NS3) helicase, which is essential for viral replication. Hypericin, which has hydroxyanthraquinone-like moieties, can inhibit NS3 helicase . In vitro tests have shown that hypericin is effective in inactivating viruses endowed with lipid coats, while it is ineffective against non-enveloped viruses, suggesting that inactivation might depend on the presence of a viral lipid membrane . HTLV-1 is an enveloped retrovirus that contains an outer envelope containing protruding viral glycoproteins and reverse transcriptase activity . We have shown here that hypericin-PDT treatment suppresses the proliferation of HTLV-1 infected T cells. It is thus likely that hypericin-PDT may target envelope protein and reverse transcriptase of HTLV-1, and it suppressed viral transmission and viral genome replication.
HTLV-1 encodes Tax and HBZ genes, which regulate transcription from HTLV-1 long terminal repeats and various types of cellular promoters [39, 40]. Counteracting the function of Tax and HBZ might have prophylactic and therapeutic benefits. Treatment strategies targeting viral LTR and Tax protein has been reported [4, 6, 30]. Resveratrol, is a natural compound found in the skin of red grapes, abrogated Tax-mediated LTR transactivation. The administration of resveratrol also decreased the production of cell-free HTLV-1 virions. Treatment with resveratrol prevented the interaction of Tax with CREB and the recruitment of CREB, CRTC1, and p300 to Tax-responsive elements in the LTR . In addition, a synthetic adamantly retinoid ST1926 induced growth inhibition in primary ATL cells and decreased the levels of Tax expression in vitro and in vivo. Hence, ST1926 is a promising synthetic retinoid in ATL-targeted therapy . The present study indicates that HTLV-1 infected cells are sensitive to hypericin-PDT treatment, which may be due to hypericin-PDT-induced suppression of Tax and HBZ expression. Previous reports have shown that hypericin could inference the phosphorylation of CREB protein and dysregulate a variety of gene promoters including VEGF, GLUT1, IL-6, and IL-2 [43–45]. CREB plays a critical role in Tax-mediated HTLV-1 transcription by forming a complex with Tax that binds to viral cyclic AMP-response elements (CREs) located within the viral promoter . Thus, we speculated that hypericin-PDT may also interfere the LTR activity of HTLV through dysregulating CREB, and lead to the suppression of Tax and HBZ expression. Our work reveals the interplay between hypericin and Tax, HBZ, thereby provides a new regulatory mechanism in HTLV-1 transcription, a control step in disease development. Our findings on hypericin may also guide future development of new anti-HTLV-1 agents for prevention and intervention against ATL and HAM/TSP.
Since all the blood cells, including leukemia cells, flow within a closed vascular system in the body and cannot be irradiated directly, many researchers have proposed to insert an optical fiber into the tail vein of an animal for the implementation of intravascular PDT . Moreover, nontoxic and nonaggregating calcium phosphosilicate nanoparticles (CPSNPs) encapsulating the near-infrared fluoroprobe indocyanine green (ICG) were recently developed for diagnostic imaging and drug delivery as well as for PDT of solid tumors [48, 49]. ICG-loaded CPSNPs were evaluated as photosensitizers for PDT of leukemia . Using a novel bioconjugation approach to specifically target CD117 or CD96, surface features enhanced on leukemia stem cells, in vitro ICG-CPSNP PDT of a human leukemia samples were dramatically improved . Furthermore, the in vivo efficacy of PDT was dramatically enhanced in a murine leukemia model by utilizing CD117-targeted ICG-CPSNPs, resulting in 29% disease-free survival . Thus, we believe that hypericin, with the application of in vivo photodynamic therapy, offers the promise to effectively treat ATL and to improve the life of leukemia patients.
We showed that hypericin-mediated photodynamic therapy (PDT) suppressed the proliferation of ATL cells mainly through mitochondrial dependent apoptotic signaling. Moreover, hypericin-PDT impaired the HTLV-1 viral transcription through 5′LTR and 3′LTR, resulting in reduction of HBZ and Tax gene expression.
HTLV-1-infected T-cell lines (HPB-ATL-T, MT-2, C8166, and TL-Om1), and HTLV-1-negative T-cell lines (CEM-T4 and Jurkat) were cultured in RPMI 1640 supplemented with 10% FBS and antibiotics. 293FT cells were cultured in Dulbecco modified Eagle medium (DMEM) supplemented with 10% FBS and 500 μg/mL G418. Human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated from healthy HTLV-1-negative donors. CD4+ T cells were isolated by human naive CD4 T-cell enrichment set (BD Biosciences) according to the manufacturer’s instructions. To obtain activated CD4+ T cells, CD4+ T cells were stimulated by 10 μg/mL phytohemagglutinin (PHA) (Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO, USA).
A stock solution of 1 mg/mL hypericin (Santa Cruz, CA, USA) was prepared with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO; Sigma-Aldrich, St Louis, MO). The working solution of hypericin was diluted in RPMI1640 medium without serum. The final concentrations of DMSO never exceeded 0.1%, which showed no effect on the proliferation of all tested cells. z-VAD-fmk caspase inhibitor was purchased from Selleck Chemicals (Houston, TX).
The 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay
Cells were treated with indicated concentrations of hypericin for 16 h in the dark. Subsequently, the cells were illuminated under the lighting conditions (520–750 nm, 11.28 J/cm2) for 30 min. Following irradiation, the cells were further incubated for 24 h in the dark. Cell growth were assessed by measuring the 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) dye absorbance of the cells. Jurkat were transfected with pX1MT-M plasmid by electroporation using Neon (Life technologies). Cells were treated with the indicated concentration of hypericin with or without light irradiation for 24 h. Cell growth was analyzed by MTT assay.
Cells were labeled with 10 μM BrdU in culture medium for 30 min. After trypsinization and PBS wash, BrdU incorporation in ATL cells was detected using FITC BrdU Flow Kits (BD Pharmingen) according to the manufacturer’s instructions.
Colony formation assay
HPB-ATL-T cells were treated in line with the experimental design. HPB-ATL-T cells were plated on 6-well plates at 300 cells per well, and kept in complete medium for 12 days. Colonies were fixed with methanol and stained with methylene blue. Colony formation was determined by counting the number of stained colonies. Triplicate wells were measured in each group.
Light and fluorescence microscopy
After hypericin-PDT treatment, cells were collected for the following morphological analysis. Some cells were collected for acridine orange/ethidium bromide (AO/EB) co-staining, then examined under a fluorescence confocal microscopy (Leica TCS SP5 AOBS).
Measurement of apoptotic cell death and cell cycle analysis
For detection of apoptosis, the Annexin V-binding capacities of the treated cells were examined by flow cytometry using an Annexin V-FITC Apoptosis Detection Kit (MultiSciences, Zhejiang, China). Cell cycle analysis was performed using propidium iodide (PI) (50 μg/mL) (Sigma) staining and a FACS scan flow cytometer (Partec, Berlin, German).
Cell lysates were collected and subjected to standard Western blot analysis as described previously with antibodies against caspase-3, -7, -8, -9, Bax, Bcl-2, Bad, Cyt-C, Bid, p53, PARP, AIF, CyclinB1, Tax, and GAPDH (Cell Signaling Technology, Beverly, MA, USA).
Jurkat cells were transfected with the indicated plasmids using Lipofectamin LTX Reagent (Invitrogen). Luciferase activity was measured 48 h after transfection using the Dual-Luciferase Reporter Assay System (Promega, Madison, WI).
The 5, 5′, 6, 6′-tetrachloro-1, 1′, 3, 3′-tetraethylbenzimidazolyl-carbocyanine iodide (JC-1) staining
The collapse of the mitochondrial membrane was measured using a mitochondrial membrane potential assay kit with JC-1 (Beyotime Institute of Biotechnology, China). After JC-1 staining, cells were analyzed by flow cytometry.
Quantitative real-time PCR
Total RNA was isolated using Trizol Reagent (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA, USA). Complementary DNA was synthesized using the SuperScript III reverse transcriptase (Life Technologies, Grand Island, NY, USA). Quantitative PCR (qPCR) was carried out using Power SYBR Green PCR Master Mix and StepOnePlus Real Time PCR System (Thermo Fisher Scientific, Waltham, MA, USA). Sequences for the primer set can be found in Additional file 1: Table S1.
Chromatin immunoprecipitation assay
293FT cells were transfected with the indicated plasmids. At 48 h after transfection, a ChIP assay was done according to the protocol recommended by Upstate Biotechnology. Precipitated DNA was amplified by PCR using primers specific for the WT-Luc or 3′LTR-Luc respectively. Sequences for the primer set can be found in Additional file 1: Table S1.
HTLV-1 transmission assay
HPB-ATL-T cells were treated with 50 ng/mL hypericin in association with PDT. After 16 h, HPB-ATL-T cells were pretreated with 10 μg/mL mitomycin C (MMC) (Sigma-Aldrich) for 1 h. HTLV-1 transmission assay was performed by coculturing WT-Luc transfected Jurkat cells with hypericin-PDT treated HPB-ATL-T cells at a 2.5:1 ratio for 36 h. Jurkat cells were harvested for a dual-luciferase assay, and supernatant was collected for detecting HTLV-1 p19 protein using HTLV p19 Antigen ELISA Kit (Zeptometrix, Buffalo, NY).
Statistical analyses were performed using the unpaired Student t test.
This study was designed by LX, XZ, LS, and TZ. Laboratory analysis was performed by LX, XZ, WC, YW, KY, ZW, YZ, and TZ. Data analysis was performed by LX, XZ, WC, YW, KY, ZW, YZ, and TZ. LX and TZ wrote the paper. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
This work was supported by a Grant from National Natural Science Foundation of China to TZ (Nos. 31470262, 31200128); a Grant from the Science Technology Department of Zhejiang Province (China) (No. 2015C33149).
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
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