- Open Access
Incorporation of podoplanin into HIV released from HEK-293T cells, but not PBMC, is required for efficient binding to the attachment factor CLEC-2
- Chawaree Chaipan†1, 2,
- Imke Steffen†3,
- Theodros Solomon Tsegaye†3,
- Stephanie Bertram3,
- Ilona Glowacka3,
- Yukinari Kato4,
- Jan Schmökel5,
- Jan Münch5,
- Graham Simmons6,
- Rita Gerardy-Schahn7 and
- Stefan Pöhlmann1, 2, 3Email author
© Chaipan et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2010
- Received: 11 December 2009
- Accepted: 19 May 2010
- Published: 19 May 2010
Platelets are associated with HIV in the blood of infected individuals and might modulate viral dissemination, particularly if the virus is directly transmitted into the bloodstream. The C-type lectin DC-SIGN and the novel HIV attachment factor CLEC-2 are expressed by platelets and facilitate HIV transmission from platelets to T-cells. Here, we studied the molecular mechanisms behind CLEC-2-mediated HIV-1 transmission.
Binding studies with soluble proteins indicated that CLEC-2, in contrast to DC-SIGN, does not recognize the viral envelope protein, but a cellular factor expressed on kidney-derived 293T cells. Subsequent analyses revealed that the cellular mucin-like membranous glycoprotein podoplanin, a CLEC-2 ligand, was expressed on 293T cells and incorporated into virions released from these cells. Knock-down of podoplanin in 293T cells by shRNA showed that virion incorporation of podoplanin was required for efficient CLEC-2-dependent HIV-1 interactions with cell lines and platelets. Flow cytometry revealed no evidence for podoplanin expression on viable T-cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Podoplanin was also not detected on HIV-1 infected T-cells. However, apoptotic bystander cells in HIV-1 infected cultures reacted with anti-podoplanin antibodies, and similar results were obtained upon induction of apoptosis in a cell line and in PBMCs suggesting an unexpected link between apoptosis and podoplanin expression. Despite the absence of detectable podoplanin expression, HIV-1 produced in PBMC was transmitted to T-cells in a CLEC-2-dependent manner, indicating that T-cells might express an as yet unidentified CLEC-2 ligand.
Virion incorporation of podoplanin mediates CLEC-2 interactions of HIV-1 derived from 293T cells, while incorporation of a different cellular factor seems to be responsible for CLEC-2-dependent capture of PBMC-derived viruses. Furthermore, evidence was obtained that podoplanin expression is connected to apoptosis, a finding that deserves further investigation.
- Human Immunodeficiency Virus
- 293T Cell
- Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection
- Podoplanin Expression
- Snake Venom Toxin
The envelope protein (Env) of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), a heavily glycosylated type I transmembrane protein, mediates infectious viral entry into target cells . This process depends on the interactions of Env with proteins displayed at the surface of host cells. All primary HIV-1 isolates characterized to date engage the CD4 protein as receptor for infectious entry [2, 3]. Upon binding to CD4, a coreceptor binding site is generated or exposed in Env, which allows engagement of the chemokine coreceptors CCR5 and CXCR4. The interactions of Env with CD4 and coreceptor are essential for infectious entry, and the interacting surfaces are key targets for preventive and therapeutic approaches [2, 3]. For instance, a small molecule inhibitor of Env binding to CCR5, maraviroc, blocks spread of CCR5-tropic HIV and is used as salvage therapy for patients who do not respond to conventional HIV therapy [4, 5].
Receptor expression levels can limit HIV entry into host cells [6, 7], and this limitation can be overcome by concentrating virions onto target cells by, for example, centrifugation or polybrene treatment . A constantly accumulating body of evidence suggests that certain host cell factors can also promote viral attachment to cells and can thereby increase infection efficiency [9, 10]. A striking example is the interaction of HIV with a semen-derived fragment of prostatic acidic phosphatase, termed SEVI (for Semen Enhancer of Virus Infection) . SEVI, an amyloidogenic peptide, forms fibrils in human semen which capture HIV and concentrate virions onto target cells . As a consequence, SEVI boosts viral infectivity and might increase the risk of acquiring HIV infection upon sexual intercourse. Incorporation of host cell factors into the HIV envelope can also increase viral infectivity. The augmentation of infectivity is due to the interaction of the virion-incorporated factors with their cognate receptors on HIV target cells, as exemplified by the up to 100-fold increased infectivity of ICAM-1-bearing viruses for LFA-1 positive target cells [12, 13]. Finally, attachment of HIV to dendritic cells can also promote HIV infection of adjacent T-cells [14, 15], and this property has been associated with the expression of DC-SIGN , a calcium-dependent (C-type) lectin which recognizes mannose-rich carbohydrates on the HIV Env protein [17–19]. Engineered expression of DC-SIGN on certain cell lines promotes receptor-dependent infection of these cells (termed infection in cis)  or of adjacent target cells (termed infection in trans, or transmission) , and it has been suggested that DC-SIGN might promote HIV spread in and between individuals . However, this hypothesis is intensely debated [21–25]. In fact, several lines of evidence suggest that DC-SIGN might mainly function as a pathogen recognition receptor, which promotes HIV uptake for MHC presentation and thereby exerts a protective function against HIV infection [23–27].
We and others have previously shown that apart from dendritic cells, platelets also express DC-SIGN and that these cell fragments bind to HIV in a mainly DC-SIGN-dependent manner [28, 29]. However, the HIV binding activity of platelets could be partially inhibited by antisera specific for the newly identified HIV attachment factor CLEC-2 , indicating that CLEC-2 contributes to HIV capture by platelets. CLEC-2 is a lectin-like protein, and its putative carbohydrate recognition sequence contains 17 amino acid residues highly conserved between C-type lectins . Binding of the snake venom toxin rhodocytin to CLEC-2 triggers Syk-dependent signalling in platelets which causes platelet degranulation [31, 32]. Residues in CLEC-2 which are required for binding to rhodocytin have been defined [33, 34]. However, it is at present unclear how CLEC-2 interacts with HIV.
Here, we report that CLEC-2, unlike DC-SIGN, does not bind to the viral Env protein, but to a cellular factor incorporated into the viral envelope. For viruses produced in the kidney-derived cell line 293T, this factor was found to be podoplanin (also termed aggrus), a cellular mucin-like glycoprotein expressed by kidney podocytes (which are known to be susceptible to HIV infection ) and lymphatic endothelium [36–38]. Podoplanin expression was not detected on viable, but on apoptotic T-cells and on apoptotic peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). However, apoptosis of HIV infected T-cells was not associated with podoplanin expression. Nevertheless, CLEC-2 mediated trans-infection of HIV generated in PBMCs, indicating that these cells might express a so far unidentified CLEC-2-ligand which can facilitate CLEC-2-dependent HIV capture.
Cell culture and transfection
293T, 293 T-REx , GP2 293 (Clontech, California, USA) and CHO cells were maintained in Dulbecco's modified Eagle medium (DMEM) supplemented with 10% fetal calf serum (FCS, Biochrom, Germany), penicillin and streptomycin. In addition, blasticidin and zeocin were used for selection of 293 T-REx cells expressing CLEC-2 upon induction with doxycycline (Sigma, Germany). CHO Lec1 and CHO Lec2 cells [39–41] were cultured in αMEM (PAA, Germany), supplemented with 10% FCS and antibiotics. B-THP, B-THP DC-SIGN, B-THP CLEC-2 (Raji B cells that were engineered to express DC-SIGN , CLEC-2  or empty vector), C8166-SEAP cells  and CEM×174 5.25 M7 (abbreviated CEM×174 R5) cells , the latter expressing exogenous CCR5, were cultured in RPMI 1640 medium (PAA, Germany) in the presence of antibiotics and 10% FCS. All cells were cultured at 37°C and 5% CO2. Highly purified platelets were obtained from the "Transfusionsmedizinische und Hämostaseologische Abteilung" of the University Hospital Erlangen. Alternatively, platelets were prepared from whole blood by centrifugation at 1200 rpm at RT. The upper platelet-rich plasma was collected and centrifuged at 4000 rpm for 20 min at RT. Subsequently, the supernatant was removed, and platelets were resuspended in RPMI 1640 medium supplemented with 10% FCS and antibiotics. PBMCs were isolated from whole blood or leukocyte filters by centrifugation through a Ficoll gradient and either cultured in RMPI 1640 medium supplemented with 10% FCS and antibiotics or stimulated with PHA (Sigma) at a concentration of 5 μg/ml and IL-2 (Roche) at a concentration of 10 U/ml.
The NL4-3-based reporter virus bearing EGFP in place of nef was generated by splice overlap extension (SOE) PCR. Briefly, a NL4-3 env fragment was amplified using oligonucleotides pJM206 (binding upstream of the singular HpaI restriction site in env), and pJM394 (binding to the 3' end of env and also containing the first three triplets of EGFP) and pBRNL4-3  as template. EGFP was amplified from pEGFP-C1 (Clontech) using primers JM395 (binding to EGFP start sequences) and JM396 (introducing a MluI site downstream of the EGFP stop codon). Both PCR fragments were fused by SOE PCR using primers pJM206 and pJM396. The resulting env-EGFP fragment was cloned via HpaI and MluI into pBRNL4-3_nef+ Δ1Δ2  resulting in the generation of pBRNL4-3-EGFP in which nef was replaced by EGFP. Oligonucleotide sequences (env sequences in bold; EGFP sequences in italics, MluI restriction site underlined): pJM206 5'-TGGAACTTCTGGGACGCAGG-3'; pJM394 5'-GCTCACCAT CTTA TAGCAAAATCC;JM395 GCTATA AGATGGTGAGCAAGGGCG-3';JM396 5'-CGTACGCGTTACTTGTACAGC-3'. The gp120-Fc-IgG1 construct  was generated by amplifying a codon-optimized gp120 (JRFL)  with primers gp120_BamHI 5'-GAGTGGATCCCTTATCGTCGTCATCCTTGTAATCC-3' (sense) and gp120_HindIII 5'-GTACGAAGCTTGTGGAGAAGCTGTGGGTGAC-3' (antisense), followed by insertion of the PCR fragment in the BamHI and HindIII restriction sites of the Fc-IgG1 encoding plasmid pAB61 . For generating the CLEC-2-Fc-IgG1 fusion construct, sense primer 5'-GTACGAAGCTTTGCAGCCCCTGTGACACAAAC-3'and antisense primer 5'-GAGTGGATCCAGGTAGTTTCCACCTTGG-3' were used for PCR amplification, and the product was cloned into pAB61 using the HindIII and BamHI restriction sites. CLEC-2 mutants bearing single amino acid changes were generated by overlap extension PCR. The oligonucleotides 5'-GCCGGATCCACCATGCAGGATGAAGATGGATACATC-3' (sense) and GCCGAATTCTTAAGGTAGTTGGTCCACCTTGG (antisense) were used as outer primers and combined with the following inner primers:5'-GATGGAAAAGGAGCCATGAATTGTGC-3' (sense) and 5'-AGCACAATTCATGGCTCCTTTTCCAT-3' (antisense) for generation of mutant CLEC-2 N192A, 5'-TTGAGTTTTTGGCCGATGGAAAAGG-3' (sense) and 5'-TCCTTTTCCATCGGCCAAAAACTCA-3' (antisense) for mutant CLEC-2 E187A, 5'-GTTTTTGGAAGATGGAGCCGGAAATATGAATTGTG-3' (sense) and 5'-AATTCATATTTCCGGCTCCATCTTCCAAAA-3' (antisense) for mutant CLEC-2 K190A, 5'-GCAACATTGTGGAATATATTGCGGCGCGCACCCATCTGATTC-3' (sense) and 5'-GCGCCGCAATATATTCCACAATG-3' (antisense) for mutant CLEC-2 K150A. For generation of DC-SIGN-Fc-IgG1, primers 5'-GTACGAAGCTTGAACGCCTGTGCCACCCCTG-3' (sense) and 5'-GAGTGGATCCCGCAGGAGGGGGGTTTGGGG-3' (antisense) were used. The resulting PCR fragment was cloned into pAB61, using the HindIII and BamHI restriction sites. A PCR fragment encoding the extracellular domain of podoplanin fused to the Fc portion of human immunoglobulin was generated as described above, employing primers 5'-GCCAAGCTTGCCAGCACAGGCCAGCCAGAAGATG-3' (sense) and 5'-GCGGGATCCTGTTGACAAACCATCTTTCTCAAC-3' (antisense) and inserted into the pAB61 plasmid via the HindIII and BamHI restriction sites (italics). The identity of all PCR amplified sequences was confirmed by sequencing with an ABI3700 genetic analyzer (Applied Biosystems) according to the manufacturer's instructions. The plasmid used for transient expression of podoplanin (podoplanin in pcDNA3) has been previously described .
Viruses and transmission analyses
Replication-competent HIV-1 NL4-3, NL4-3 luc  and NL4-3 EGFP were generated as described elsewhere . Briefly, 293T cells were transfected with plasmids encoding proviral DNA, and culture medium was changed 12 h post transfection. Culture supernatants were harvested at 48 h post transfection and filtered through a 0.45 μm filter, aliquoted and stored at -80°C. Transmission analyses were carried out as described . Briefly, B-THP control cells, B-THP-DC-SIGN and B-THP-CLEC-2 cells [29, 42] or platelets were incubated with virus for 3 h at 37°C, and unbound virus was removed by washing with fresh culture medium. Cells were then incubated with CEM×174 R5 target cells and luciferase activities in cellular lysates were determined three days after the start of the cocultivation by employing a commercially available system (Promega, Germany).
Binding studies with soluble proteins
For generating soluble Zaire Ebolavirus glycoprotein (ZEBOV-GP)-Fc- , DC-SIGN-Fc-, CLEC-2-Fc- and Podoplanin-Fc-fusion proteins, 293T cells were calcium phosphate-transfected with the respective plasmids or pAB61 control plasmid encoding only the Fc-portion of IgG1. For transfection of CHO and mutant cell lines, Lipofectamine 2000 transfection reagent (Invitrogen, Germany) was used according to the manufacturer's protocol. The cells were washed with PBS and the culture medium was replaced by FCS-free medium at 12 h post-transfection and supernatants were harvested 48 h post-transfection. Subsequently, supernatants were concentrated using Centricon Plus-20 size-exclusion centrifugal filters (Millipore, Germany; centrifugation at 4000 g for 15 minutes), aliquoted, and stored at -80°C. To employ comparable amounts of soluble proteins for binding studies, Fc-fusion protein preparations were normalized by Western blot, employing an anti-human IgG-horseradish peroxidase conjugate for detection (Dianova, Germany). To assess binding, 5 × 105 cells were incubated with Fc-fusion proteins and Fc-control protein at 4°C for 45 minutes. Subsequently, the cells were washed with FACS buffer and stained with Cy5-conjugated anti-human IgG secondary antibody for 30 minutes at 4°C. Cell-staining was then analyzed by flow cytometry, employing a Cytomics FC500 flow cytometer (Beckman-Coulter, Florida, USA), and data were analyzed with FCS Express FACS analysis software (De Novo Software, Los Angeles, USA).
Analysis of podoplanin surface expression
Analyses of podoplanin surface expression were performed by flow cytometry, using the podoplanin specific antibodies NZ-1 or 18H5 (Acris, Germany) in combination with secondary anti rat/mouse antibody coupled to Cy5 (Dianova, Germany). Cells were incubated with 10 μg/ml antibody in PBS supplemented with 5% FCS for 30 minutes at 4°C. Subsequently, PBS supplemented with 5% FCS was added, and the cells were pelleted by centrifugation (1200 rpm, 4°C for 5 minutes). Finally, cells were resuspended in fixans (1.5% paraformaldehyde) and incubated for 30 minutes at 4°C before staining was analyzed by flow cytometry. For all measurements 20,000 gated events were collected.
Knock-down of podoplanin expression by shRNA
For stable knock-down of podoplanin in 293T cells, shRNAs were constructed by using shRNA Hairpin Oligonucleotide Sequence Designer Tool (Clontech, California, USA). The podoplanin specific shRNA 137 contained the target shRNA sequence, a hairpin loop region "TTCAAGAGA" and an antisense shRNA sequence followed by a pol III terminator sequence. The shRNA was constructed by annealing shRNA137sense_BamHI: 5'GATCCGCGAAGATGATGTGGTGACTTTCAAGAGAAGTCACCACATCATCTTCGTTTTTTACGCGTG3' and shRNA137antisense_EcoRI: 5'AATTCACGCGTAAAAAACGAAGATGATGTGGTGACTTCTCTTGAAAGTCACCACATCATCTTCGCG3' followed by insertion of the double stranded fragment into the retroviral vector pSIREN-IRES-EGFP-RetroQ , using restriction enzymes BamHI and EcoRI, respectively. This vector allows stable expression of small hairpin RNAs in transduced cells, which can be readily identified and selected due to vector encoded genes for puromycin resistance and EGFP (enhanced green fluorescence protein) expression. Retroviral transduction was performed by transient expression of the shRNA constructs and VSV-G in the packaging cell line GP2-293 (Clontech, California, USA). At 48 h post transfection, cell supernatants were harvested, and viruses were concentrated by ultracentrifugation for 2 h at 4°C. Pelleted virions were resuspended in 2 ml medium containing 2 μg/ml polybrene (Sigma-Aldrich, Germany) and were used for transduction of 1 × 106 293T cells. At 24 h post transduction, cells were washed and incubated for 3 days. Subsequently, transduced cells were selected in medium containing 10 μg/ml puromycin (Sigma-Aldrich, Germany).
For apoptosis induction cells were incubated with 1 μM staurosporine (New England Biolabs, Germany), 25 μg/ml cycloheximide (Sigma-Aldrich, Germany) or 0.1% DMSO as a control in culture medium for 14 h unless otherwise stated. Cells were stained for apoptosis with PE-conjugated annexin V (R&D Systems, Minnesota, USA) and for necrosis with 7-aminoactinomycin D (7-AAD, Sigma, Germany). Specifically, cells were incubated with 5 μl annexin V or 7-AAD for 20 min at room temperature and then washed with PBS supplemented with 5% FCS. Subsequently, cells were fixed in 1.5% paraformaldehyde for 30 minutes at 4°C. Staining was analyzed within 30 minutes after completion of fixation by flow cytometry. For all measurements 20,000 gated events were collected.
Inhibition of antibody binding by soluble podoplanin
The podoplanin specific antibodies 18H5 and NZ-1 (Acris, Germany) were pre-incubated with concentrated, soluble podoplanin-Fc fusion protein for 30 minutes at 4°C before staining of apoptotic cells for subsequent FACS analysis.
Statistical significance was determined by employing a two-tailed student's t-test for paired samples.
Efficient binding of soluble CLEC-2 to 293T cells does not require expression of the HIV-1 envelope protein
Podoplanin, a recently identified CLEC-2 ligand, is expressed on 293T cells
Glycosylation of podoplanin is required for efficient binding to CLEC-2
Podoplanin is incorporated into virions produced in 293T cells and virion incorporation is essential for CLEC-2-dependent HIV-1 interactions with cell lines and platelets
Reactivity of apoptotic cells with podoplanin-specific antibodies
Podoplanin is not expressed on HIV-1 infected T-cells
Viruses generated in PBMCs are transmitted by CLEC-2
Several cellular lectins interact with the highly glycosylated HIV Env protein [16, 25, 65–67], and virus capture by these factors has been suggested to impact HIV spread in and between individuals [15, 16, 68]. We have previously reported that platelets, anucleated cell fragments which play an essential role in hemostasis, express the HIV attachment promoting proteins DC-SIGN and CLEC-2 . Here, we show that DC-SIGN and CLEC-2 employ fundamentally different strategies to capture HIV. DC-SIGN binds to the HIV Env protein, while CLEC-2 recognizes (a) cellular factor(s) incorporated into HIV particles. The cellular mucin-like glycoprotein podoplanin was identified as such a factor, at least for virions generated in the widely used kidney-derived cell line 293T. Podoplanin was not expressed on viable T-cells, the major HIV target cell, and might thus be of minor importance for viral spread in vivo. Nevertheless, virions generated in PBMCs, which were found to be podoplanin negative, were transmitted to T-cells in a CLEC-2-dependent fashion, suggesting that PBMC-derived particles might harbour a so far undiscovered CLEC-2 ligand. Finally, a potential link between podoplanin expression and apoptosis was discovered which merits further investigation.
DC-SIGN recognizes mannose-rich carbohydrates on the surface of the HIV Env protein and requires Ca++ ions for its structural integrity [16–19]. Consequently, DC-SIGN bound to soluble Env, binding of soluble DC-SIGN to 293T cells was strongly enhanced by expression of HIV Env, and ligand binding to DC-SIGN was prevented by the mannose-polymer mannan and chelators like EDTA (Fig. 1). In contrast, CLEC-2 did not recognize soluble HIV Env, binding of soluble CLEC-2 to 293T cells was not augmented by expression of HIV Env, and mannan and EDTA did not interfere with ligand binding to CLEC-2 (Fig. 1). These findings confirm our previous results obtained with virus-particles  and suggest that CLEC-2 does not recognize Env, but a host cell factor which is expressed on 293T cells. They also indicate that CLEC-2 is neither mannose-specific nor calcium-dependent. Thus, DC-SIGN and CLEC-2 differ profoundly in their mechanisms of ligand binding and in their ligand specificities.
The discovery of Suzuki-Inoue and colleagues  that podoplanin, a cellular mucin expressed on kidney podocytes , type I alveolar cells and lymphoid endothelial cells , binds to CLEC-2 and activates CLEC-2-dependent signalling, suggested that podoplanin might be the elusive CLEC-2 ligand on 293T cells. Indeed, FACS analysis revealed robust and homogenous podoplanin expression on 293T cells (Fig. 2), in agreement with recently published reports [69, 70], and binding studies with soluble proteins confirmed that CLEC-2 and podoplanin interact (Fig. 2). Watson and colleagues previously defined amino acids in CLEC-2, which are important for the interaction with the snake venom component rhodocytin, and suggested that CLEC-2 binding to ligands might be carbohydrate-independent [33, 34]. Notably, none of the amino acid residues important for rhodocytin binding was critical for efficient binding to podoplanin, while the presence of sialylated glycotopes on podoplanin was indispensable (Fig. 3), in agreement with previous results [54, 71]. Rhodocytin and podoplanin might therefore engage CLEC-2 differentially, and a potential lectin-activity of CLEC-2 requires further investigation.
The endogenous expression of podoplanin on 293T cells and the specific interaction of podoplanin with CLEC-2 raised the questions if podoplanin was incorporated into virions produced in 293T cells, and if incorporation of podoplanin was required for CLEC-2 binding of these virions. Western blot analysis and knock-down of podoplanin expression by shRNA provided affirmative answers to both questions: Podoplanin depletion reduced CLEC-2-, but not DC-SIGN-, dependent HIV-1 transmission by B-THP cells, and diminished transmission by platelets by about 50% (Fig. 4). The latter finding is in agreement with our previous observation that CLEC-2-specific antiserum reduced HIV-1 transmission by platelets by about half . Podoplanin therefore joins the list of host factors which can be incorporated into the HIV-1 envelope and impact HIV-1 infection by interacting with their cognate ligands [9, 10]. A prominent example for such a factor is ICAM-1 which was found to be incorporated into the viral membrane, and to facilitate HIV-1 infection by binding to its ligand LFA-1 on T-cells .
The potential relevance of podoplanin incorporation for HIV spread in infected individuals is critically determined by the overlap of the podoplanin expression pattern with the cellular tropism of HIV. Analysis of T-cell lines and PBMCs for podoplanin expression yielded negative results (Fig. 5), at least when viable cells were analyzed (see below), indicating that HIV particles generated in patients might not harbour podoplanin. The exception might be viruses released from kidney podocytes which have been documented to express podoplanin  and to be susceptible to HIV infection . However, the biological relevance of this process is questionable. In this context, it also needs to be noted that podoplanin expression is up-regulated in many tumours including Kaposi sarcoma [72, 73]. Podoplanin/CLEC-2-dependent platelet stimulation by tumour cells promotes hematogenous tumour metastasis [71, 74], possibly by inducing growth factor secretion by platelets and by promoting formation of a "platelet cap", which protects the tumour from mechanical forces. Thus, podoplanin might play a role in the development of the AIDS-associated Kaposi sarcoma, but is unlikely to modulate HIV spread in patients. Nevertheless, HIV-1 produced in PBMCs was transmitted to target cells in a CLEC-2-dependent fashion (Fig. 7), suggesting that primary T-cells might express a so far unrecognized CLEC-2 ligand (a hypothesis also raised by others ), which is incorporated into the viral envelope and which facilitates HIV transmission by CLEC-2. Our ongoing studies are devoted to the identification of this factor.
Podoplanin was not detected on viable CEM×174 cells (a T/B cell hybrid) and PBMCs, as determined by our gating strategy and by co-staining with the apoptosis and necrosis markers annexin V and 7-AAD, respectively (Fig. 5 and Additional file 1). In contrast, we observed efficient reactivity of two different podoplanin antibodies with non-viable cells, raising the intriguing possibility that podoplanin might be expressed at the cell surface in the context of apoptosis. Apoptosis can indeed alter expression of surface markers [57, 58, 76] but might also modulate antibody reactivity of cells , making the analyses of podoplanin expression by apoptotic cells a technically challenging task. Our findings that two antibodies, 18H5 and NZ-1, which were generated in different species and recognize different but overlapping epitopes in podoplanin , both specifically bind to apoptotic cells (Fig. 5 and data not shown), and that this reactivity depends on the availability of the antigen-binding site (Fig. 5C) suggests to us that binding is most likely specific. Furthermore, nested RT-PCR detected podoplanin message in CEM×174 cells (data not shown), suggesting low levels of podoplanin expression in these cells. Importantly, the podoplanin message did not appreciably increase upon apoptosis induction, and treatment with cycloheximide did not block specific staining of apoptotic cells with podoplanin antibodies (data not shown). Therefore, one must assume that podoplanin protein (or an antigenically related protein) is present within CEM×174 cells and other cell types, and that the protein becomes accessible to antibody staining only upon induction of apoptosis. If the latter process is due to specific transport of podoplanin to the cell surface or to membrane disintegration during apoptosis could not be conclusively determined. Regardless of the mechanism underlying reactivity of apoptotic cells with podoplanin-specific antibodies, podoplanin was not detected on HIV infected viable and apoptotic cells (Fig. 6), indicating that podoplanin expression is not altered in the context of HIV infection.
Collectively, our data help to understand how HIV interacts with CLEC-2, an HIV attachment factor on platelets. Several lines of evidence suggest that this interaction could impact HIV spread in infected patients. For one, thrombocytopenia (reduced platelet count) is frequent in HIV/AIDS patients , and it is conceivable that CLEC-2-dependent binding of HIV to platelets results in platelet clearance and thus contributes to reduced platelet counts. In addition, the interaction of HIV with CLEC-2 on platelets might induce platelet activation, which was found to be associated with HIV infection . Moreover, CLEC-2-dependent HIV binding to platelets might result in trans-infection or virus degradation [28, 29], and both processes could impact viral load and disease development. Finally, it is worth noting that liver sinusoidal endothelial cells and megakaryocytes also express CLEC-2  and that both cell types are susceptible to HIV infection [79–81], which might be modulated by CLEC-2. In summary, CLEC-2 is expressed on several cell types exposed to HIV in patients and thus has the potential to modulate viral spread.
Our results highlight that incorporation of cellular factors can alter HIV attachment to cells and cell to cell transmission. While podoplanin is unlikely to be incorporated into HIV particles produced in infected patients, our results indicate that HIV might incorporate a functional analogue of podoplanin in vivo, and that this process might promote virus binding to CLEC-2 positive cells. The identification of the respective factor and the clarification of the potential connection between podoplanin expression and apoptosis are interesting tasks for future research.
We would like to thank B. Fleckenstein, K. von der Mark and T.F. Schulz for support. This work was supported by the DFG (grants GK 1071 and SFB466 to SP), BMBF (to SP), the MD/PhD program Molecular Medicine (to TST), and the Center for Infection Biology (to I.S.)
- Pöhlmann S, Reeves JD: Cellular entry of HIV: Evaluation of therapeutic targets. Curr Pharm Des. 2006, 12: 1963-1973. 10.2174/138161206777442155.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Alkhatib G, Berger EA: HIV coreceptors: from discovery and designation to new paradigms and promise. Eur J Med Res. 2007, 12: 375-384.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Moore JP, Klasse PJ: HIV-1 pathogenesis: the complexities of the CCR5-CCL3L1 complex. Cell Host Microbe. 2007, 2: 281-283. 10.1016/j.chom.2007.10.005.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Fatkenheuer G, Nelson M, Lazzarin A, Konourina I, Hoepelman AI, Lampiris H, Hirschel B, Tebas P, Raffi F, Trottier B, Bellos N, Saag M, Cooper DA, Westby M, Tawadrous M, Sullivan JF, Ridgway C, Dunne MW, Felstead S, Mayer H, van der Ryst E: Subgroup analyses of maraviroc in previously treated R5 HIV-1 infection. N Engl J Med. 2008, 359: 1442-1455. 10.1056/NEJMoa0803154.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Gulick RM, Lalezari J, Goodrich J, Clumeck N, DeJesus E, Horban A, Nadler J, Clotet B, Karlsson A, Wohlfeiler M, Montana JB, McHale M, Sullivan J, Ridgway C, Felstead S, Dunne MW, van der Ryst E, Mayer H: Maraviroc for previously treated patients with R5 HIV-1 infection. N Engl J Med. 2008, 359: 1429-1441. 10.1056/NEJMoa0803152.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Bannert N, Schenten D, Craig S, Sodroski J: The level of CD4 expression limits infection of primary rhesus monkey macrophages by a T-tropic simian immunodeficiency virus and macrophagetropic human immunodeficiency viruses. J Virol. 2000, 74: 10984-10993. 10.1128/JVI.74.23.10984-10993.2000.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Lee B, Sharron M, Montaner LJ, Weissman D, Doms RW: Quantification of CD4, CCR5, and CXCR4 levels on lymphocyte subsets, dendritic cells, and differentially conditioned monocyte-derived macrophages. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 1999, 96: 5215-5220. 10.1073/pnas.96.9.5215.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- O'Doherty U, Swiggard WJ, Malim MH: Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 spinoculation enhances infection through virus binding. J Virol. 2000, 74: 10074-10080. 10.1128/JVI.74.21.10074-10080.2000.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ugolini S, Mondor I, Sattentau QJ: HIV-1 attachment: another look. Trends Microbiol. 1999, 7: 144-149. 10.1016/S0966-842X(99)01474-2.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Cantin R, Methot S, Tremblay MJ: Plunder and stowaways: incorporation of cellular proteins by enveloped viruses. J Virol. 2005, 79: 6577-6587. 10.1128/JVI.79.11.6577-6587.2005.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Münch J, Rucker E, Ständker L, Adermann K, Goffinet C, Schindler M, Wildum S, Chinnadurai R, Rajan D, Specht A, Gimenez-Gallego G, Sanchez PC, Fowler DM, Koulov A, Kelly JW, Mothes W, Grivel JC, Margolis L, Keppler OT, Forssmann WG, Kirchhoff F: Semen-derived amyloid fibrils drastically enhance HIV infection. Cell. 2007, 131: 1059-1071. 10.1016/j.cell.2007.10.014.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Fortin JF, Cantin R, Lamontagne G, Tremblay M: Host-derived ICAM-1 glycoproteins incorporated on human immunodeficiency virus type 1 are biologically active and enhance viral infectivity. J Virol. 1997, 71: 3588-3596.PubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Pöhlmann S, Tremblay M: Attachment of human immunodeficiency virus to cells and its inhibition. Entry Inhibitors in HIV Therapy. Edited by: Reeves JD, Derdeyn CA. 2007, Basel: Birkhäuser Verlag, 31-47. full_text.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Cameron PU, Freudenthal PS, Barker JM, Gezelter S, Inaba K, Steinman RM: Dendritic cells exposed to human immunodeficiency virus type-1 transmit a vigorous cytopathic infection to CD4+ T cells. Science. 1992, 257: 383-387. 10.1126/science.1352913.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Wu L, KewalRamani VN: Dendritic-cell interactions with HIV: infection and viral dissemination. Nat Rev Immunol. 2006, 6: 859-868. 10.1038/nri1960.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Geijtenbeek TB, Kwon DS, Torensma R, Van Vliet, van SJ, Duijnhoven GC, Middel J, Cornelissen IL, Nottet HS, KewalRamani VN, Littman DR, Figdor CG, van Kooyk Y: DC-SIGN, a dendritic cell-specific HIV-1-binding protein that enhances trans-infection of T cells. Cell. 2000, 100: 587-597. 10.1016/S0092-8674(00)80694-7.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Appelmelk BJ, Van D I, Van Vliet SJ, Vandenbroucke-Grauls CM, Geijtenbeek TB, van Kooyk Y: Cutting edge: carbohydrate profiling identifies new pathogens that interact with dendritic cell-specific ICAM-3-grabbing nonintegrin on dendritic cells. J Immunol. 2003, 170: 1635-1639.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Feinberg H, Mitchell DA, Drickamer K, Weis WI: Structural basis for selective recognition of oligosaccharides by DC-SIGN and DC-SIGNR. Science. 2001, 294: 2163-2166. 10.1126/science.1066371.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Lin G, Simmons G, Pöhlmann S, Baribaud F, Ni H, Leslie GJ, Haggarty BS, Bates P, Weissman D, Hoxie JA, Doms RW: Differential N-linked glycosylation of human immunodeficiency virus and Ebola virus envelope glycoproteins modulates interactions with DC-SIGN and DC-SIGNR. J Virol. 2003, 77: 1337-1346. 10.1128/JVI.77.2.1337-1346.2003.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Lee B, Leslie G, Soilleux E, O'Doherty U, Baik S, Levroney E, Flummerfelt K, Swiggard W, Coleman N, Malim M, Doms RW: cis Expression of DC-SIGN allows for more efficient entry of human and simian immunodeficiency viruses via CD4 and a coreceptor. J Virol. 2001, 75: 12028-12038. 10.1128/JVI.75.24.12028-12038.2001.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Boggiano C, Manel N, Littman DR: Dendritic cell-mediated trans-enhancement of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infectivity is independent of DC-SIGN. J Virol. 2007, 81: 2519-2523. 10.1128/JVI.01661-06.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Gummuluru S, Rogel M, Stamatatos L, Emerman M: Binding of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 to immature dendritic cells can occur independently of DC-SIGN and mannose binding C-type lectin receptors via a cholesterol-dependent pathway. J Virol. 2003, 77: 12865-12874. 10.1128/JVI.77.23.12865-12874.2003.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Martin MP, Lederman MM, Hutcheson HB, Goedert JJ, Nelson GW, van Kooyk Y, Detels R, Buchbinder S, Hoots K, Vlahov D, O'Brien SJ, Carrington M: Association of DC-SIGN promoter polymorphism with increased risk for parenteral, but not mucosal, acquisition of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection. J Virol. 2004, 78: 14053-14056. 10.1128/JVI.78.24.14053-14056.2004.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Moris A, Pajot A, Blanchet F, Guivel-Benhassine F, Salcedo M, Schwartz O: Dendritic cells and HIV-specific CD4+ T cells: HIV antigen presentation, T-cell activation, and viral transfer. Blood. 2006, 108: 1643-1651. 10.1182/blood-2006-02-006361.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Turville SG, Santos JJ, Frank I, Cameron PU, Wilkinson J, Miranda-Saksena M, Dable J, Stossel H, Romani N, Piatak M, Lifson JD, Pope M, Cunningham AL: Immunodeficiency virus uptake, turnover, and 2-phase transfer in human dendritic cells. Blood. 2004, 103: 2170-2179. 10.1182/blood-2003-09-3129.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Moris A, Nobile C, Buseyne F, Porrot F, Abastado JP, Schwartz O: DC-SIGN promotes exogenous MHC-I-restricted HIV-1 antigen presentation. Blood. 2004, 103: 2648-2654. 10.1182/blood-2003-07-2532.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Sakuntabhai A, Turbpaiboon C, Casademont I, Chuansumrit A, Lowhnoo T, Kajaste-Rudnitski A, Kalayanarooj SM, Tangnararatchakit K, Tangthawornchaikul N, Vasanawathana S, Chaiyaratana W, Yenchitsomanus PT, Suriyaphol P, Avirutnan P, Chokephaibulkit K, Matsuda F, Yoksan S, Jacob Y, Lathrop GM, Malasit P, Despres P, Julier C: A variant in the CD209 promoter is associated with severity of dengue disease. Nat Genet. 2005, 37: 507-513. 10.1038/ng1550.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Boukour S, Masse JM, Benit L, Dubart-Kupperschmitt A, Cramer EM: Lentivirus degradation and DC-SIGN expression by human platelets and megakaryocytes. J Thromb Haemost. 2006, 4: 426-435. 10.1111/j.1538-7836.2006.01749.x.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Chaipan C, Soilleux EJ, Simpson P, Hofmann H, Gramberg T, Marzi A, Geier M, Stewart EA, Eisemann J, Steinkasserer A, Suzuki-Inoue K, Fuller GL, Pearce AC, Watson SP, Hoxie JA, Baribaud F, Pöhlmann S: DC-SIGN and CLEC-2 mediate human immunodeficiency virus type 1 capture by platelets. J Virol. 2006, 80: 8951-8960. 10.1128/JVI.00136-06.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Colonna M, Samaridis J, Angman L: Molecular characterization of two novel C-type lectin-like receptors, one of which is selectively expressed in human dendritic cells. Eur J Immunol. 2000, 30: 697-704. 10.1002/1521-4141(200002)30:2<697::AID-IMMU697>3.0.CO;2-M.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Suzuki-Inoue K, Fuller GL, Garcia A, Eble JA, Pöhlmann S, Inoue O, Gartner TK, Hughan SC, Pearce AC, Laing GD, Theakston RD, Schweighoffer E, Zitzmann N, Morita T, Tybulewicz VL, Ozaki Y, Watson SP: A novel Syk-dependent mechanism of platelet activation by the C-type lectin receptor CLEC-2. Blood. 2006, 107: 542-549. 10.1182/blood-2005-05-1994.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Fuller GL, Williams JA, Tomlinson MG, Eble JA, Hanna SL, Pöhlmann S, Suzuki-Inoue K, Ozaki Y, Watson SP, Pearce AC: The C-type lectin receptors CLEC-2 and Dectin-1, but not DC-SIGN, signal via a novel YXXL-dependent signaling cascade. J Biol Chem. 2007, 282: 12397-12409. 10.1074/jbc.M609558200.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Watson AA, O'Callaghan CA: Crystallization and X-ray diffraction analysis of human CLEC-2. Acta Crystallogr Sect F Struct Biol Cryst Commun. 2005, 61: 1094-1096. 10.1107/S1744309105037991.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Watson AA, Brown J, Harlos K, Eble JA, Walter TS, O'Callaghan CA: The crystal structure and mutational binding analysis of the extracellular domain of the platelet-activating receptor CLEC-2. J Biol Chem. 2007, 282: 3165-3172. 10.1074/jbc.M610383200.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Lu TC, He JC, Klotman PE: Podocytes in HIV-associated nephropathy. Nephron Clin Pract. 2007, 106: c67-c71. 10.1159/000101800.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Zimmer G, Oeffner F, Von MV, Tschernig T, Groness HJ, Klenk HD, Herrler G: Cloning and characterization of gp36, a human mucin-type glycoprotein preferentially expressed in vascular endothelium. Biochem J. 1999, 341 (Pt 2): 277-284. 10.1042/0264-6021:3410277.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Breiteneder-Geleff S, Matsui K, Soleiman A, Meraner P, Poczewski H, Kalt R, Schaffner G, Kerjaschki D: Podoplanin, novel 43-kd membrane protein of glomerular epithelial cells, is down-regulated in puromycin nephrosis. Am J Pathol. 1997, 151: 1141-1152.PubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kato Y, Fujita N, Kunita A, Sato S, Kaneko M, Osawa M, Tsuruo T: Molecular identification of Aggrus/T1alpha as a platelet aggregation-inducing factor expressed in colorectal tumors. J Biol Chem. 2003, 278: 51599-51605. 10.1074/jbc.M309935200.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Eckhardt M, Muhlenhoff M, Bethe A, Koopman J, Frosch M, Gerardy-Schahn R: Molecular characterization of eukaryotic polysialyltransferase-1. Nature. 1995, 373: 715-718. 10.1038/373715a0.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Eckhardt M, Muhlenhoff M, Bethe A, Gerardy-Schahn R: Expression cloning of the Golgi CMP-sialic acid transporter. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 1996, 93: 7572-7576. 10.1073/pnas.93.15.7572.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Puthalakath H, Burke J, Gleeson PA: Glycosylation defect in Lec1 Chinese hamster ovary mutant is due to a point mutation in N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase I gene. J Biol Chem. 1996, 271: 27818-27822. 10.1074/jbc.271.44.27818.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Wu L, Martin TD, Carrington M, KewalRamani VN: Raji B cells, misidentified as THP-1 cells, stimulate DC-SIGN-mediated HIV transmission. Virology. 2004, 318: 17-23. 10.1016/j.virol.2003.09.028.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Means RE, Greenough T, Desrosiers RC: Neutralization sensitivity of cell culture-passaged simian immunodeficiency virus. J Virol. 1997, 71: 7895-7902.PubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Hsu M, Harouse JM, Gettie A, Buckner C, Blanchard J, Cheng-Mayer C: Increased mucosal transmission but not enhanced pathogenicity of the CCR5-tropic, simian AIDS-inducing simian/human immunodeficiency virus SHIV(SF162P3) maps to envelope gp120. J Virol. 2003, 77: 989-998. 10.1128/JVI.77.2.989-998.2003.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Adachi A, Gendelman HE, Koenig S, Folks T, Willey R, Rabson A, Martin MA: Production of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-associated retrovirus in human and nonhuman cells transfected with an infectious molecular clone. J Virol. 1986, 59: 284-291.PubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Munch J, Rajan D, Rucker E, Wildum S, Adam N, Kirchhoff F: The role of upstream U3 sequences in HIV-1 replication and CD4+ T cell depletion in human lymphoid tissue ex vivo. Virology. 2005, 341: 313-320. 10.1016/j.virol.2005.07.023.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Gramberg T, Zhu T, Chaipan C, Marzi A, Liu H, Wegele A, Andrus T, Hofmann H, Pöhlmann S: Impact of polymorphisms in the DC-SIGNR neck domain on the interaction with pathogens. Virology. 2006, 347: 354-363. 10.1016/j.virol.2005.11.033.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Andre S, Seed B, Eberle J, Schraut W, Bultmann A, Haas J: Increased immune response elicited by DNA vaccination with a synthetic gp120 sequence with optimized codon usage. J Virol. 1998, 72: 1497-1503.PubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Birkmann A, Mahr K, Ensser A, Yaguboglu S, Titgemeyer F, Fleckenstein B, Neipel F: Cell surface heparan sulfate is a receptor for human herpesvirus 8 and interacts with envelope glycoprotein K8.1. J Virol. 2001, 75: 11583-11593. 10.1128/JVI.75.23.11583-11593.2001.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Pöhlmann S, Baribaud F, Lee B, Leslie GJ, Sanchez MD, Hiebenthal-Millow K, Munch J, Kirchhoff F, Doms RW: DC-SIGN interactions with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and 2 and simian immunodeficiency virus. J Virol. 2001, 75: 4664-4672. 10.1128/JVI.75.10.4664-4672.2001.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Marzi A, Akhavan A, Simmons G, Gramberg T, Hofmann H, Bates P, Lingappa VR, Pöhlmann S: The signal peptide of the ebolavirus glycoprotein influences interaction with the cellular lectins DC-SIGN and DC-SIGNR. J Virol. 2006, 80: 6305-6317. 10.1128/JVI.02545-05.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Wies E, Mori Y, Hahn A, Kremmer E, Sturzl M, Fleckenstein B, Neipel F: The viral interferon-regulatory factor-3 is required for the survival of KSHV-infected primary effusion lymphoma cells. Blood. 2008, 111: 320-327. 10.1182/blood-2007-05-092288.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Suzuki-Inoue K, Kato Y, Inoue O, Kaneko MK, Mishima K, Yatomi Y, Yamazaki Y, Narimatsu H, Ozaki Y: Involvement of the snake toxin receptor CLEC-2, in podoplanin-mediated platelet activation, by cancer cells. J Biol Chem. 2007, 282: 25993-26001. 10.1074/jbc.M702327200.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kaneko M, Kato Y, Kunita A, Fujita N, Tsuruo T, Osawa M: Functional sialylated O-glycan to platelet aggregation on Aggrus (T1alpha/Podoplanin) molecules expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells. J Biol Chem. 2004, 279: 38838-38843. 10.1074/jbc.M407210200.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Rudensey LM, Papenhausen MD, Overbaugh J: Replication and persistence of simian immunodeficiency virus variants after passage in macaque lymphocytes and established human cell lines. J Virol. 1993, 67: 1727-1733.PubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Sei Y, Inoue M, Yokoyama MM, Bekesi JG, Arora PK: Characterization of human B cell (DK) and promonocyte (U937) clones after HIV-1 exposure: accumulation of viral reverse transcriptase activity in cells and early syncytia induction against SupT1 cells. Cell Immunol. 1990, 125: 1-13. 10.1016/0008-8749(90)90058-Y.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Franz S, Herrmann K, Furnrohr BG, Sheriff A, Frey B, Gaipl US, Voll RE, Kalden JR, Jack HM, Herrmann M: After shrinkage apoptotic cells expose internal membrane-derived epitopes on their plasma membranes. Cell Death Differ. 2007, 14: 733-742. 10.1038/sj.cdd.4402066.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Gardai SJ, McPhillips KA, Frasch SC, Janssen WJ, Starefeldt A, Murphy-Ullrich JE, Bratton DL, Oldenborg PA, Michalak M, Henson PM: Cell-surface calreticulin initiates clearance of viable or apoptotic cells through trans-activation of LRP on the phagocyte. Cell. 2005, 123: 321-l334. 10.1016/j.cell.2005.08.032.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Perfetto SP, Chattopadhyay PK, Roederer M: Seventeen-colour flow cytometry: unravelling the immune system. Nat Rev Immunol. 2004, 4: 648-655. 10.1038/nri1416.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kato Y, Kaneko MK, Kuno A, Uchiyama N, Amano K, Chiba Y, Hasegawa Y, Hirabayashi J, Narimatsu H, Mishima K, Osawa M: Inhibition of tumor cell-induced platelet aggregation using a novel anti-podoplanin antibody reacting with its platelet-aggregation-stimulating domain. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2006, 349: 1301-1307. 10.1016/j.bbrc.2006.08.171.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ogasawara S, Kaneko MK, Price JE, Kato Y: Characterization of anti-podoplanin monoclonal antibodies: critical epitopes for neutralizing the interaction between podoplanin and CLEC-2. Hybridoma (Larchmt). 2008, 27: 259-267. 10.1089/hyb.2008.0017.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Noble ME, Endicott JA, Johnson LN: Protein kinase inhibitors: insights into drug design from structure. Science. 2004, 303: 1800-1805. 10.1126/science.1095920.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Cossarizza A: Apoptosis and HIV infection: about molecules and genes. Curr Pharm Des. 2008, 14: 237-244. 10.2174/138161208783413293.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Bolton DL, Hahn BI, Park EA, Lehnhoff LL, Hornung F, Lenardo MJ: Death of CD4(+) T-cell lines caused by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 does not depend on caspases or apoptosis. J Virol. 2002, 76: 5094-5107. 10.1128/JVI.76.10.5094-5107.2002.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Bashirova AA, Wu L, Cheng J, Martin TD, Martin MP, Benveniste RE, Lifson JD, KewalRamani VN, Hughes A, Carrington M: Novel member of the CD209 (DC-SIGN) gene family in primates. J Virol. 2003, 77: 217-227. 10.1128/JVI.77.1.217-227.2003.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Gramberg T, Soilleux E, Fisch T, Lalor PF, Hofmann H, Wheeldon S, Cotterill A, Wegele A, Winkler T, Adams DH, Pöhlmann S: Interactions of LSECtin and DC-SIGN/DC-SIGNR with viral ligands: Differential pH dependence, internalization and virion binding. Virology. 2008, 373: 189-201. 10.1016/j.virol.2007.11.001.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Pöhlmann S, Soilleux EJ, Baribaud F, Leslie GJ, Morris LS, Trowsdale J, Lee B, Coleman N, Doms RW: DC-SIGNR, a DC-SIGN homologue expressed in endothelial cells, binds to human and simian immunodeficiency viruses and activates infection in trans. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2001, 98: 2670-2675. 10.1073/pnas.051631398.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Piguet V, Steinman RM: The interaction of HIV with dendritic cells: outcomes and pathways. Trends Immunol. 2007, 28: 503-510. 10.1016/j.it.2007.07.010.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Christou CM, Pearce AC, Watson AA, Mistry AR, Pollitt AY, Fenton-May AE, Johnson LA, Jackson DG, Watson SP, O'Callaghan CA: enal cells activate the platelet receptor CLEC-2 through podoplanin. Biochem J. 2008, 411: 133-140. 10.1042/BJ20071216.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Suzuki H, Kato Y, Kaneko MK, Okita Y, Narimatsu H, Kato M: Induction of podoplanin by transforming growth factor-beta in human fibrosarcoma. FEBS Lett. 2008, 582: 341-345. 10.1016/j.febslet.2007.12.028.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kato Y, Kaneko MK, Kunita A, Ito H, Kameyama A, Ogasawara S, Matsuura N, Hasegawa Y, Suzuki-Inoue K, Inoue O, Ozaki Y, Narimatsu H: Molecular analysis of the pathophysiological binding of the platelet aggregation-inducing factor podoplanin to the C-type lectin-like receptor CLEC-2. Cancer Sci. 2008, 99: 54-61.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kalof AN, Cooper K: D2-40 immunohistochemistry--so far!. Adv Anat Pathol. 2009, 16: 62-64. 10.1097/PAP.0b013e3181915e94.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Gessain A, Duprez R: Spindle cells and their role in Kaposi's sarcoma. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2005, 37: 2457-2465. 10.1016/j.biocel.2005.01.018.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kunita A, Kashima TG, Morishita Y, Fukayama M, Kato Y, Tsuruo T, Fujita N: The platelet aggregation-inducing factor aggrus/podoplanin promotes pulmonary metastasis. Am J Pathol. 2007, 170: 1337-1347. 10.2353/ajpath.2007.060790.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ozaki Y, Suzuki-Inoue K, Inoue O: Novel interactions in platelet biology: CLEC-2/podoplanin and laminin/GPVI. J Thromb Haemost. 2009, 191-194. 10.1111/j.1538-7836.2009.03372.x. 7 Suppl 1Google Scholar
- Batisse C, Marquet J, Greffard A, Fleury-Feith J, Jaurand MC, Pilatte Y: Lectin-based three-color flow cytometric approach for studying cell surface glycosylation changes that occur during apoptosis. Cytometry A. 2004, 62: 81-88. 10.1002/cyto.a.20094.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Scaradavou A: HIV-related thrombocytopenia. Blood Rev. 2002, 16: 73-76. 10.1054/blre.2001.0188.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Shen YM, Frenkel EP: Thrombosis and a hypercoagulable state in HIV-infected patients. Clin Appl Thromb Hemost. 2004, 10: 277-280. 10.1177/107602960401000311.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Steffan AM, Lafon ME, Gendrault JL, Schweitzer C, Royer C, Jaeck D, Arnaud JP, Schmitt MP, Aubertin AM, Kirn A: Primary cultures of endothelial cells from the human liver sinusoid are permissive for human immunodeficiency virus type 1. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 1992, 89: 1582-1586. 10.1073/pnas.89.5.1582.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Zucker-Franklin D, Cao YZ: Megakaryocytes of human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals express viral RNA. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 1989, 86: 5595-5599. 10.1073/pnas.86.14.5595.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Zucker-Franklin D, Seremetis S, Zheng ZY: Internalization of human immunodeficiency virus type I and other retroviruses by megakaryocytes and platelets. Blood. 1990, 75: 1920-1923.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Bailey D, Baumal R, Law J, Sheldon K, Kannampuzha P, Stratis M, Kahn H, Marks A: Production of a monoclonal antibody specific for seminomas and dysgerminomas. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 1986, 83: 5291-5295. 10.1073/pnas.83.14.5291.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.