Open Access

Whole genome sequencing of 51 breast cancers reveals that tumors are devoid of bovine leukemia virus DNA

Retrovirology201613:75

https://doi.org/10.1186/s12977-016-0308-3

Received: 8 September 2016

Accepted: 18 October 2016

Published: 4 November 2016

Abstract

Controversy exists regarding the association of bovine leukemia virus (BLV) and breast cancer. PCR-based experimental evidence indicates that BLV DNA is present in breast tissue and that as many as 37% of cancer cases may be attributable to viral exposure. Since this association might have major consequences for human health, we evaluated 51 whole genomes of breast cancer samples for the presence of BLV DNA. Among 32 billion sequencing reads retrieved from the NCBI database of genotype and phenotype, none mapped on different strains of the BLV genome. Controls for sequence divergence and proviral loads further validated the approach. This unbiased analysis thus excludes a clonal insertion of BLV in breast tumor cells and strongly argues against an association between BLV and breast cancer.

Keywords

Breast cancer Bovine leukemia virus BLV

Background

BLV naturally infects cattle, water buffalo, yak and zebu [14]. Sporadic infections with BLV have occasionally been reported in other species like alpaca [5]. Experimentally, BLV can also be transmitted to a number of species including sheep [6], goats [6], rats [7] and rabbits [8]. BLV infection causes B cell lymphocytosis, leukemia and/or lymphoma in natural and some experimental hosts [1]. There is also controversial evidence suggesting that BLV might infect humans: (1) antibodies against the BLV capsid were detected in 74% of human sera from the Berkeley Community, California [9], (2) BLV DNA was detected in breast tissues using PCR [1012]. Based on a positive correlation between the rates of BLV infection and tumor frequencies (36–59% compared to 29–45% in normal tissue), as many as 37% of breast cancer cases may be attributable to BLV exposure [12].

Although these observations initiated some skepticism within the scientific community [13], the potential consequences for human health clearly require further investigation.

Results and discussion

To avoid potential experimental artifacts associated with DNA amplification techniques, we directly analyzed whole genomes of breast tumors and adjacent tissues. After retrieval of raw DNA sequences from the NCBI dbGaP [14, 15], paired-reads were probed for alignment on different BLV strains using Bowtie2. As a positive control, a nuclear DNA fragment (chr12: 53,959,600–53,964,000) devoid of repeated sequences that would lead to an overestimation of aligned reads and set to 4.4 kb to fit with the monoploid 8.8 kb BLV genome was selected from the human genome. Alignment of 51 breast tumors genomes on the nuclear control sequence identified between 283 and 1287 paired-reads (illustrated on Fig. 1 and summarized on Table 1). In contrast, no homology was found with 5 different BLV subtypes (highlighted in blue on the phylogenic tree of Fig. 2a). In 19 biopsies adjacent to the breast tumors, 386–1197 paired-reads aligned onto the nuclear DNA sequence whereas none mapped on BLV (Table 1). All DNA samples contained extranuclear DNA as indicated by alignment of a control mitochondrial sequence (NC_012920) (Table 1).
Fig. 1

Representative alignment of dbGaP sequencing reads to human and BLV DNA. Breast cancer patients were BRC3 from USA (study phs000472), MEX-BR-15 from Mexico and SX1A2 from Vietnam (study phs000369). Aligned reads were visualized using integrative genomics viewer (IGV)

Table 1

Absence of BLV DNA in 51 whole genomes of breast tumors

Subject ID

Country

Age

Diagnosis

Sample type

Grade

HER2 status

ER status

PR status

Total no of reads

No. of reads that align on

Control DNA (nuclear)

Control DNA (mitochondrial)

BLV_AF033818

BLV_AF257515

BLV_D00647

BLV_K02021

BLV_LC080667

MEX-BR-106

Mexico

42

IDC

Tumor

II

+

+

583,906,975

669

396,239

0

0

0

0

0

MEX-BR-116

Mexico

92

IDC

Tumor

III

+

577,618,196

796

1,166,916

0

0

0

0

0

MEX-BR-15

Mexico

45

IDC

Tumor

II

+

+

571,043,227

652

1,167,672

0

0

0

0

0

MEX-BR-154

Mexico

52

IDC

Tumor

III

+

+

700,630,351

811

400,383

0

0

0

0

0

MEX-BR-165

Mexico

42

IDC

Tumor

II

+

+

757,323,566

737

742,646

0

0

0

0

0

MEX-BR-198

Mexico

44

IDC

Tumor

II

+

+

745,509,529

1019

1,264,555

0

0

0

0

0

MEX-BR-50

Mexico

47

IDC

Tumor

II

+

+

605,198,587

653

958,812

0

0

0

0

0

MEX-BR-82

Mexico

59

IDC

Tumor

II

+

681,881,066

687

547,863

0

0

0

0

0

BRC12

USA

81

IDC

Tumor

II

U

U

548,255,169

745

1,113,306

0

0

0

0

0

BRC13

USA

51

IDC

Tumor

III

7

U

587,461,482

686

1,106,780

0

0

0

0

0

BRC14

USA

86

IDC

Tumor

III

7

U

755,094,207

899

1,469,976

0

0

0

0

0

BRC15

USA

83

IDC

Tumor

II

7

U

758,784,262

934

2,327,824

0

0

0

0

0

BRC16

USA

61

IDC

Tumor

III

7

U

821,134,040

1287

2,084,782

0

0

0

0

0

BRC18

USA

85

IDC

Tumor

I

8

U

568,355,455

677

1,395,823

0

0

0

0

0

BRC19

USA

75

IDC

Tumor

II

8

U

596,337,842

747

1,648,870

0

0

0

0

0

BRC20

USA

61

IDC

Tumor

III

4

U

507,651,900

570

1,026,830

0

0

0

0

0

BRC21

USA

73

IDC

Tumor

I

7

U

719,742,122

817

1,710,010

0

0

0

0

0

BRC22

USA

64

ILC

Tumor

I

6

U

608,469,920

708

953,100

0

0

0

0

0

BRC23

USA

68

IDC

Tumor

I

7

U

613,481,215

687

1,272,519

0

0

0

0

0

BRC24

USA

51

IDC

Tumor

II

7

U

656,115,800

721

1,980,030

0

0

0

0

0

BRC25

USA

52

IDC

Tumor

II

5

U

583,560,227

712

580,203

0

0

0

0

0

BRC28

USA

52

IDC

Tumor

I

7

U

664,667,777

781

973,990

0

0

0

0

0

BRC29

USA

74

IDC

Tumor

III

6

U

785,019,563

596

2,085,482

0

0

0

0

0

BRC3

USA

62

IDC

Tumor

II

8

U

695,174,967

1026

3,134,341

0

0

0

0

0

BRC30

USA

60

ILC

Tumor

II

5

U

663,769,744

794

1,442,014

0

0

0

0

0

BRC31

USA

66

IDC

Tumor

II

6

U

734,384,352

1028

1,415,996

0

0

0

0

0

BRC32

USA

54

IDC

Tumor

I

7

U

643,884,178

703

1,404,436

0

0

0

0

0

BRC33

USA

83

IDC

Tumor

II

8

U

660,668,877

819

1,284,599

0

0

0

0

0

BRC34

USA

79

IDC

Tumor

I

7

U

572,861,930

704

1,499,414

0

0

0

0

0

BRC35

USA

76

IDC

Tumor

II

6

U

543,480,474

697

1,709,943

0

0

0

0

0

BRC36

USA

68

IDC

Tumor

II

7

U

706,448,348

804

1,501,763

0

0

0

0

0

BRC40

USA

66

IDC

Tumor

I

8

U

600,847,516

690

1,686,112

0

0

0

0

0

BRC41

USA

55

IDC

Tumor

II

8

U

689,312,217

812

3,735,591

0

0

0

0

0

BRC42

USA

74

IDC

Tumor

II

U

U

684,312,302

685

1,308,948

0

0

0

0

0

BRC44

USA

64

IDC

Tumor

II

7

U

717,390,251

891

1,430,064

0

0

0

0

0

BRC47

USA

54

IDC

Tumor

III

5

U

580,674,755

865

960,944

0

0

0

0

0

BRC48

USA

66

IDC

Tumor

II

6

U

782,262,353

783

1,236,102

0

0

0

0

0

BRC49

USA

56

IDC

Tumor

II

8

U

577,656,003

559

881,804

0

0

0

0

0

BRC5

USA

72

IDC

Tumor

II

7

U

762,026,860

1155

2,462,819

0

0

0

0

0

BRC50

USA

78

ILC

Tumor

I

4

U

661,525,693

792

357,915

0

0

0

0

0

BRC7

USA

78

IDC

Tumor

II

8

U

455,727,994

795

580,484

0

0

0

0

0

BRC8

USA

87

IDC

Tumor

I

8

U

518,548,285

628

1,394,439

0

0

0

0

0

BRC9

USA

65

ILC

Tumor

II

8

U

516,702,802

697

1,759,444

0

0

0

0

0

9DDA1

Vietnam

60

IDC

Tumor

III

U

U

U

706,450,950

759

1,109,340

0

0

0

0

0

9P4X9

Vietnam

54

IDC

Tumor

III

U

U

U

610,913,537

778

619,066

0

0

0

0

0

9YBUF

Vietnam

52

IDC

Tumor

III

U

U

U

595,959,881

616

788,058

0

0

0

0

0

CI5PD

Vietnam

51

IDC

Tumor

III

U

U

U

572,612,309

626

786,787

0

0

0

0

0

FYGW6

Vietnam

38

IDC

Tumor

III

U

U

U

238,201,059

282

221,942

0

0

0

0

0

GT33 V

Vietnam

52

IDC

Tumor

III

U

U

U

548,640,325

604

766,320

0

0

0

0

0

SX1A2

Vietnam

53

IDC

Tumor

III

U

+

+

598,405,143

693

1,002,577

0

0

0

0

0

UQWDS

Vietnam

35

IDC

Tumor

III

U

596,126,825

665

1,285,884

0

0

0

0

0

9DDA1

Vietnam

60

IDC

Normal

III

U

U

U

691,060,649

797

1,122,133

0

0

0

0

0

9P4X9

Vietnam

54

IDC

Normal

III

U

U

U

601,815,791

664

694,153

0

0

0

0

0

9YBUF

Vietnam

52

IDC

Normal

III

U

U

U

593,968,922

646

1,202,175

0

0

0

0

0

CI5PD

Vietnam

51

IDC

Normal

III

U

U

U

566,065,567

595

911,133

0

0

0

0

0

FYGW6

Vietnam

38

IDC

Normal

III

U

U

U

337,274,647

386

361,063

0

0

0

0

0

GT33 V

Vietnam

52

IDC

Normal

III

U

U

U

581,403,783

652

1,189,003

0

0

0

0

0

SX1A2

Vietnam

53

IDC

Normal

III

U

+

+

608,739,604

700

878,362

0

0

0

0

0

UQWDS

Vietnam

35

IDC

Normal

III

U

590,387,671

685

829,847

0

0

0

0

0

MEX-BR-106

Mexico

42

IDC

Normal

II

+

+

539,137,287

526

351,034

0

0

0

0

0

MEX-BR-116

Mexico

92

IDC

Normal

III

+

513,833,151

520

258,287

0

0

0

0

0

MEX-BR-123

Mexico

71

IDC

Normal

III

+

U

668,026,494

761

515,501

0

0

0

0

0

MEX-BR-15

Mexico

45

IDC

Normal

II

+

+

592,958,041

670

756,778

0

0

0

0

0

MEX-BR-154

Mexico

52

IDC

Normal

III

+

+

670,289,201

929

817,446

0

0

0

0

0

MEX-BR-165

Mexico

42

IDC

Normal

II

+

+

712,308,425

706

537,516

0

0

0

0

0

MEX-BR-198

Mexico

44

IDC

Normal

II

+

+

726,225,752

831

216,109

0

0

0

0

0

MEX-BR-200

Mexico

42

IDC

Normal

II

+

+

767,097,542

1197

279,031

0

0

0

0

0

MEX-BR-28

Mexico

79

MC

Normal

II

+

+

588,561,634

607

215,022

0

0

0

0

0

MEX-BR-50

Mexico

47

IDC

Normal

II

+

+

551,537,695

618

394,842

0

0

0

0

0

MEX-BR-82

Mexico

59

IDC

Normal

II

+

608,849,308

719

385,789

0

0

0

0

0

Whole genome sequencing data from 51 breast tumors and 19 normal adjacent breast tissues were downloaded from the NCBI dbGaP. Hundreds of millions of paired-reads per sample were probed for alignment on different BLV strains and on nuclear and mitochondrial human control sequences

IDC infiltrating ductal carcinoma, ILC infiltrating lobular carcinoma, MC mixed carcinoma, U unknown

Fig. 2

Analysis of sequence variation and proviral load in sequence alignments. a Neighbour-joining phylogenetic tree of BLV and HTLV-1 genomes. b Using the ART simulation tool (NIH), Illumina-like 100 bp paired-reads were generated in silico from the mutants. 880 simulated reads were probed for alignment on BLV AF033818 using Bowtie2 and visualized using IGV. c Correlation between proviral loads and predicted number of reads

Although no paired-read corresponding to five different BLV variants could be identified, the possibility remains that extensive sequence variability impaired detection. On average, the whole genome sequencing procedure generated 660 million reads per sample. Given that the BLV provirus length is 8.8 kb and that a normal human diploid genome is 6.6 billion base pairs, the average number of reads that would be generated by a 8.8 kb-long monoploid sequence is 880 (660,000,000/6600,000,000 × 8800). Providing that the BLV provirus is integrated in a single copy per cell, the whole genome sequencing procedure would thus generate 880 reads on average. If the strain in the sample diverges from the five reference sequences, a fraction of the reads would not be retrieved. Therefore, BLV variants were artificially generated in silico by introducing 2, 3, 6, 10 and 20% nucleotide changes in reference AF033818 (mutants 0.02, 0.03, 0.06, 0.10 and 0.20, respectively). Phylogenetic analysis of Fig. 2a illustrates that in silico generated divergence far exceeds the maximal natural sequence variations observed worldwide [16]. 880 Illumina-like reads were then simulated from these in silico variants using ART simulation tool and mapped on BLV genome AF033818. Most reads (818 of 880) generated from mutant 0.02 aligned on reference sequence AF033818 (Fig. 2b). Even the highly divergent mutant 0.10 still aligned 41% of its 880 reads on the reference. Up to 20% divergence in mutant 0.20 was required to significantly impair detection, although BLV specific reads were still identified (Fig. 2b).

Whole genome analysis thus excludes clonal integration of natural and highly divergent BLV strains in breast tumors. Since only a small proportion of cells may carry the provirus, the sensitivity of the analysis was correlated to the proviral loads. Any natural BLV variant that would infect 10% of the tumor cells is expected to generate about 100 reads (Fig. 2c, dotted blue line). The number of expected reads decreases along with the percentage of infected cells to reach approximately one read with a proviral load of 0.1% (Fig. 2c, dotted blue line). Considering a 59% prevalence of breast tumors positive for BLV [12], 30 samples out of our 51 should be positive. Even with an individual proviral load around 0.1%, this should make about 30 reads (on average one per patient) mapping on BLV, whereas none were found.

Using whole genome analysis, we concluded that there is no evidence for a single BLV-specific or even related sequence. The discrepancies and limitations of this report and others pertain to:
  1. 1.

    The origin of the samples It is indeed possible that tumor biopsies from previous studies originating from US [11, 12] and Colombia [10] significantly differ from those reported in the dbGaP NCBI database. Even if we restrict our observations on US originating samples (n = 35), the discrepancy remains highly significant. Indeed, Buehring reported 67 breast tumors positive for BLV over 114 cases [12] whereas we found none over 35 cases (the p value for fisher test is 1.12 × 10−6).

     
  2. 2.

    The DNA extraction technique In situ PCR suggested that BLV proviral DNA is localized in the cytoplasm [11, 12]. Analysis of mitochondria-specific sequences (Table 1) shows that dbGaP NCBI database includes reads corresponding to 16 kb-long, circular and extranuclear mitochondrial DNA.

     
  3. 3.

    The strain divergence Artificial in silico simulation of highly divergent mutants still identified BLV specific reads (Fig. 2b). Since nucleotide substitutions among BLV strains worldwide are limited to 2.3% [16], it remains questionable whether these mutants still belong to the same species. Further analysis show that breast tumor genomes do not map on HTLV-1 sequences (data not shown). Why BLV-conserved sequences were previously identified by PCR remains an enigma.

     
  4. 4.

    Viral expression Although BLV is expressed at trace levels in the bovine species, the p24 viral capsid protein was detected in 5% of breast tumors [12]. This observation is inconsistent with RNASeq analysis of 154.7 billion of transcriptome sequencing reads from The Cancer Genome Atlas Research Network [17, 18].

     

Our present study based on whole genome analysis excludes a clonal insertion of BLV in tumor cells and does not support converging lines of evidence which previously suggested an association between BLV infection and breast cancer.

Methods

Raw DNA sequences from whole genomes of breast tumors and normal breast tissues adjacent the tumor were retrieved from the NCBI database of genotype and phenotype (dbGaP). These sequences were extracted from two studies: (1) estrogen receptor positive breast cancer: aromatase inhibitor response study (accession number phs000472) [14] and (2) sequence analysis of mutations and translocations across breast cancer subtypes (accession number phs000369) [15]. Archive files were downloaded with prefetch v2.5.7 and sequencing reads were extracted with fastdump v2.5.7 using “split-3” option to separate paired reads and single reads (NCBI SRA Toolkit). Paired reads were probed for alignment on different BLV variants (accession numbers: AF033818, AF275515, D00647, K02120, LC080667) and, as positive control, on human genomic sequences using Bowtie2 (version 2.2.5). We used the “very-sensitive” option of Bowtie2 to maximize the likelihood of viral detection. Analyses were performed on computing cluster running on Linux OS. BLV divergent sequences were created in silico by introducing substitutions, deletions or insertions with equal probabilities in 2, 3, 6, 10 and 20% of the reference AF033818 (mutants 0.02, 0.03, 0.06, 0.10 and 0.20, respectively). Neighbor-joining phylogenetic tree was elaborated using Clustal Omega (EMBL-EBI) and visualized by Dendroscope 3. Illumina-like paired-reads were generated from the BLV sequence using the ART simulation tool (version GreatSmokyMountains-04-17-2016, NIH).

Declarations

Authors’ contributions

NAG and LW designed the experiment, analyzed the data and wrote the paper. Both authors read and approved the final manuscript.

Acknowledgements

We thank David Colignon from CECI (consortium of high-performance computing centres of UCL, ULB, ULg, UMons, and UNamur) and Wouter Coppieters from the GIGA-Genomics platform of the University of Liège for their advice on cluster computing. We are grateful to the NIH dbGaP for providing access to studies phs000369 and phs000472. We thank David Halzen for manuscript editing.

Competing interests

Both authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Availability of data and materials

The datasets analysed during the current study are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request.

Ethics approval and consent to participate

Human DNA sequences were retrieved from the NCBI database of Genotype and Phenotype and processed following the NIH Code of Conduct for Genomic Data Use.

Funding

This work received financial support of the “Fonds National de la Recherche Scientifique” (FNRS), the Télévie, the Interuniversity Attraction Poles (IAP) Program “Virus-host interplay at the early phases of infection” BELVIR initiated by the Belgian Science Policy Office, the Belgian Foundation against Cancer (FBC), the “Centre anticancéreux près ULg” (CAC) and the “Fonds Léon Fredericq” (FLF), the “AgricultureIsLife” project of Gembloux Agrobiotech (GxABT), the “ULg Fonds Spéciaux pour la Recherche”, the COFUND program, the ERA-IB Astinprod and the “Plan Cancer” of the “Service Public Fédéral”. NAG is supported by a grant of the Télévie. LW is a research director of the FNRS.

The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.

Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

Authors’ Affiliations

(1)
Molecular and Cellular Epigenetics, Interdisciplinary Cluster for Applied Genoproteomics (GIGA), University of Liège (ULg)
(2)
Molecular and Cellular Biology, Gembloux Agro-Bio TechUniversity of Liège (ULg)

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