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  1. Content type: Research

    Despite the durable viral suppression afforded by antiretroviral therapy, HIV-1 eradication will require strategies to target latently infected cells that persist in infected individuals. Protein kinase C (PKC...

    Authors: Adam M. Spivak, Erin T. Larragoite, McKenna L. Coletti, Amanda B. Macedo, Laura J. Martins, Alberto Bosque and Vicente Planelles

    Citation: Retrovirology 2016 13:88

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  2. Content type: Research

    Although next generation sequencing (NGS) offers the potential for studying virus populations in unprecedented depth, PCR error, amplification bias and recombination during library construction have limited it...

    Authors: Valerie F. Boltz, Jason Rausch, Wei Shao, Junko Hattori, Brian Luke, Frank Maldarelli, John W. Mellors, Mary F. Kearney and John M. Coffin

    Citation: Retrovirology 2016 13:87

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  3. Content type: Review

    Current antiretroviral therapies have improved the duration and quality of life of people living with HIV-1. However, viral reservoirs impede complete eradication of the virus. Although there are many strategi...

    Authors: Abraham Joseph Kandathil, Sho Sugawara and Ashwin Balagopal

    Citation: Retrovirology 2016 13:86

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    The Erratum to this article has been published in Retrovirology 2017 14:11

  4. Content type: Research

    CCR5-coreceptor antagonists can be used for treating HIV-2 infected individuals. Before initiating treatment with coreceptor antagonists, viral coreceptor usage should be determined to ensure that the virus ca...

    Authors: Matthias Döring, Pedro Borrego, Joachim Büch, Andreia Martins, Georg Friedrich, Ricardo Jorge Camacho, Josef Eberle, Rolf Kaiser, Thomas Lengauer, Nuno Taveira and Nico Pfeifer

    Citation: Retrovirology 2016 13:85

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  5. Content type: Short report

    The replication of HBV involves the production of covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) from the HBV genome through the repair of virion relaxed circular DNA (rcDNA) in the virion. As cccDNA is the transcrip...

    Authors: Rodolphe Suspène, Valérie Thiers, Jean-Pierre Vartanian and Simon Wain-Hobson

    Citation: Retrovirology 2016 13:84

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  6. Content type: Research

    Monocytes, the primary myeloid cell-type in peripheral blood, are resistant to HIV-1 infection as a result of the lentiviral restriction factor SAMHD1. Toll-like receptors recognize microbial pathogen componen...

    Authors: Henning Hofmann, Bénédicte Vanwalscappel, Nicolin Bloch and Nathaniel R. Landau

    Citation: Retrovirology 2016 13:83

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  7. Content type: Research

    Vaccination with inactivated (killed) whole-virus particles has been used to prevent a wide range of viral diseases. However, for an HIV vaccine this approach has been largely negated due to inherent safety c...

    Authors: Eunsil Choi, Chad J. Michalski, Seung Ho Choo, Gyoung Nyoun Kim, Elizabeth Banasikowska, Sangkyun Lee, Kunyu Wu, Hwa-Yong An, Anthony Mills, Stefan Schneider, U. Fritz Bredeek, Daniel R. Coulston, Shilei Ding, Andrés Finzi, Meijuan Tian, Katja Klein…

    Citation: Retrovirology 2016 13:82

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  8. Content type: Research

    Antigenicity of HIV-1 envelope proteins (Envs) of both lab-adapted and primary isolates expressed on the cell surface rarely match with in vitro neutralization of viruses, pseudo-typed with corresponding Envs....

    Authors: Supratik Das, Saikat Boliar, Nivedita Mitra, Sweety Samal, Manish Bansal, Wayne C. Koff and Bimal K. Chakrabarti

    Citation: Retrovirology 2016 13:81

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  9. Content type: Research

    The dimer initiation site/dimer linkage sequence (DIS/DLS) region of HIV is located on the 5′ end of the viral genome and suggested to form complex secondary/tertiary structures. Within this structure, stem-lo...

    Authors: Sayuri Sakuragi, Masaru Yokoyama, Tatsuo Shioda, Hironori Sato and Jun-ichi Sakuragi

    Citation: Retrovirology 2016 13:79

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  10. Content type: Review

    Natural killer (NK) cells belong to the innate immune system and protect against cancers and a variety of viruses including retroviruses by killing transformed or infected cells. They express activating and in...

    Authors: Elisabeth Littwitz-Salomon, Ulf Dittmer and Kathrin Sutter

    Citation: Retrovirology 2016 13:77

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  11. Content type: Research

    Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC), which mainly mediated by natural killer (NK) cells, may play a critical role in slowing human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) disease progression and prot...

    Authors: Xueying Fan, Liyan Zhu, Hua Liang, Zhe Xie, Xiangbo Huang, Shuo Wang and Tao Shen

    Citation: Retrovirology 2016 13:76

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  12. Content type: Research

    Entry of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) into cells involves the interaction of the viral gp120 envelope glycoproteins (Env) with cellular CD4 and a secondary coreceptor, which is typically one of ...

    Authors: Katharina Borm, Martin R. Jakobsen, Kieran Cashin, Jacqueline K. Flynn, Paula Ellenberg, Lars Ostergaard, Benhur Lee, Melissa J. Churchill, Michael Roche and Paul R. Gorry

    Citation: Retrovirology 2016 13:74

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  13. Content type: Research

    Several members of the TRIM family have been implicated in antiviral defense. Our previous report showed that human TRIM11 potently inhibited HIV-1 transduction by reducing the viral reverse transcripts. These...

    Authors: Ting Yuan, Weitong Yao, Kenzo Tokunaga, Rongge Yang and Binlian Sun

    Citation: Retrovirology 2016 13:72

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  14. Content type: Research

    HIV-1 integrase is the target for three FDA-approved drugs, raltegravir, elvitegravir, and dolutegravir. All three drugs bind at the active site of integrase and block the strand transfer step of integration....

    Authors: Janani Varadarajan, Mary Jane McWilliams, Bryan T. Mott, Craig J. Thomas, Steven J. Smith and Stephen H. Hughes

    Citation: Retrovirology 2016 13:71

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  15. Content type: Research

    HIV-1 typically develops resistance to any single antiretroviral agent. Combined anti-retroviral therapy to reduce drug-resistance development is necessary to control HIV-1 infection. Here, to assess the utili...

    Authors: Muntasir Alam, Takeo Kuwata, Kazuya Shimura, Masaru Yokoyama, Kristel Paola Ramirez Valdez, Kazuki Tanaka, Yasuhiro Maruta, Shinya Oishi, Nobutaka Fujii, Hironori Sato, Masao Matsuoka and Shuzo Matsushita

    Citation: Retrovirology 2016 13:70

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  16. Content type: Meeting abstracts

    Oral presentations

    Authors: Irena Zurnic, Sylvia Hütter, Ute Lehmann, Nicole Stanke, Juliane Reh, Tobias Kern, Fabian Lindel, Gesche Gerresheim, Martin Hamann, Erik Müllers, Paul Lesbats, Peter Cherepanov, Erik Serrao, Alan Engelman, Dirk Lindemann, Claire Da Silva Santos…

    Citation: Retrovirology 2016 13(Suppl 1):68

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    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 13 Supplement 1

  17. Content type: Research

    Human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) are ancient sequences integrated in the germ line cells and vertically transmitted through the offspring constituting about 8 % of our genome. In time, HERVs accumulated m...

    Authors: Nicole Grandi, Marta Cadeddu, Jonas Blomberg and Enzo Tramontano

    Citation: Retrovirology 2016 13:67

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  18. Content type: Short report

    The latent HIV-1 reservoir represents the primary barrier to the eradication of HIV-1 infection. The design of novel reservoir-clearance strategies, however, is impeded in part by the inability to distinguish...

    Authors: Nischal Ranganath, Teslin S. Sandstrom, Saleh Fadel, Sandra C. Côté and Jonathan B. Angel

    Citation: Retrovirology 2016 13:66

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  19. Content type: Research

    In contrast to adult HIV infection, where slow disease progression is strongly linked to immune control of HIV mediated by protective HLA class I molecules such as HLA-B*81:01, the mechanisms by which a minori...

    Authors: M.-H. Tsai, M. Muenchhoff, E. Adland, A. Carlqvist, J. Roider, D. K. Cole, A. K. Sewell, J. Carlson, T. Ndung’u and P. J. R. Goulder

    Citation: Retrovirology 2016 13:65

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  20. Content type: Research

    The p6 region of the HIV-1 structural precursor polyprotein, Gag, contains two motifs, P7TAP11 and L35YPLXSL41, designated as late (L) domain-1 and -2, respectively. These motifs bind the ESCRT-I factor Tsg101 an...

    Authors: Susan M. Watanabe, Viviana Simon, Natasha D. Durham, Brittney R. Kemp, Satoshi Machihara, Kimdar Sherefa Kemal, Binshan Shi, Brian Foley, Hongru Li, Benjamin K. Chen, Barbara Weiser, Harold Burger, Kathryn Anastos, Chaoping Chen and Carol A. Carter

    Citation: Retrovirology 2016 13:64

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  21. Content type: Research

    Patients of African ancestry with untreated HIV-1 infection and carrying the G1 or G2 kidney disease risk variants (Vs) at the APOL1 gene have a tenfold higher risk of developing HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVA...

    Authors: Joanna Mikulak, Ferdinando Oriolo, Federica Portale, Paolo Tentorio, Xiqian Lan, Moin A. Saleem, Karl Skorecki, Pravin C. Singhal and Domenico Mavilio

    Citation: Retrovirology 2016 13:63

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  22. Content type: Research

    Mucosal HIV-1 transmission predominantly results in a single transmitted/founder (T/F) virus establishing infection in the new host despite the generally high genetic diversity of the transmitter virus populat...

    Authors: Corinna S. Oberle, Beda Joos, Peter Rusert, Nottania K. Campbell, David Beauparlant, Herbert Kuster, Jacqueline Weber, Corinne D. Schenkel, Alexandra U. Scherrer, Carsten Magnus, Roger Kouyos, Philip Rieder, Barbara Niederöst, Dominique L. Braun, Jovan Pavlovic, Jürg Böni…

    Citation: Retrovirology 2016 13:62

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  23. Content type: Research

    Follicular dendritic cells (FDCs) are important components in the organization of germinal centers in lymphoid tissue where, following antigen presentation, B cells differentiate into memory B cells. The possi...

    Authors: Farideh Sabri, Alejandro Prados, Raquel Muñoz-Fernández, Rebecka Lantto, Pablo Fernandez-Rubio, Aikaterini Nasi, Sylvie Amu, Jan Albert, Enrique Garcia Olivares and Francesca Chiodi

    Citation: Retrovirology 2016 13:61

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  24. Content type: Short report

    The glycan supersite centered on N332 in the V3 base of the HIV-1 envelope (Env) is a target for broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) such as PGT121 and PGT128. In this study, we examined the basis of resis...

    Authors: Suprit Deshpande, Shilpa Patil, Rajesh Kumar, Tandile Hermanus, Kailapuri G. Murugavel, Aylur K. Srikrishnan, Suniti Solomon, Lynn Morris and Jayanta Bhattacharya

    Citation: Retrovirology 2016 13:60

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  25. Content type: Research

    Th17 cells are permissive to HIV-1 infection and their depletion from the gut of infected individuals leads to microbial translocation, a major cause for non-AIDS co-morbidities. Most recent evidence supports ...

    Authors: Vanessa Sue Wacleche, Jean-Philippe Goulet, Annie Gosselin, Patricia Monteiro, Hugo Soudeyns, Rémi Fromentin, Mohammad-Ali Jenabian, Shant Vartanian, Steven G. Deeks, Nicolas Chomont, Jean-Pierre Routy and Petronela Ancuta

    Citation: Retrovirology 2016 13:59

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  26. Content type: Research

    Foamy viruses (FVs) of the Spumaretrovirinae subfamily are distinct retroviruses, with many features of their molecular biology and replication strategy clearly different from those of the Orthoretroviruses, such...

    Authors: Yang Liu, Matthew J. Betts, Janet Lei, Guochao Wei, Qiuying Bao, Timo Kehl, Robert B. Russell and Martin Löchelt

    Citation: Retrovirology 2016 13:57

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  27. Content type: Research

    Virus transmission from various wild and domestic animals contributes to an increased risk of emerging infectious diseases in human populations. HTLV-1 is a human retrovirus associated with acute T-cell leukem...

    Authors: Yoshimi Enose-Akahata, Breanna Caruso, Benjamin Haner, Emily Charlip, Govind Nair, Raya Massoud, Bridgette J. Billioux, Joan Ohayon, William M. Switzer and Steven Jacobson

    Citation: Retrovirology 2016 13:56

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  28. Content type: Correspondence

    8E5/LAV cells harbor a single HIV provirus, and are used frequently to generate standards for HIV genome quantification. Using flow cytometry-based in situ mRNA hybridization validated by qPCR, we find that di...

    Authors: Kaley M. Wilburn, Henry C. Mwandumba, Kondwani C. Jambo, Saikat Boliar, Sabrina Solouki, David G. Russell and David W. Gludish

    Citation: Retrovirology 2016 13:55

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  29. Content type: Research

    In HIV-1 infected cells, the integrated viral DNA is transcribed by the host cell machinery to generate the full length HIV-1 RNA (FL RNA) that serves as mRNA encoding for the Gag and GagPol precursors. Virion...

    Authors: Hala El Mekdad, Emmanuel Boutant, Hassan Karnib, Marina E. Biedma, Kamal Kant Sharma, Iuliia Malytska, Géraldine Laumond, Marion Roy, Eléonore Réal, Jean-Christophe Paillart, Christiane Moog, Jean Luc Darlix, Yves Mély and Hugues de Rocquigny

    Citation: Retrovirology 2016 13:54

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  30. Content type: Research

    In most patients, current antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimens can rapidly reduce plasma viral load. However, even after years of effective treatment, a significant proportion of patients show residual plasma...

    Authors: Maria C. Puertas, Marc Noguera-Julian, Marta Massanella, Christian Pou, Maria J. Buzon, Bonaventura Clotet, Mario Stevenson, Roger Paredes, Julià Blanco and Javier Martinez-Picado

    Citation: Retrovirology 2016 13:51

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  31. Content type: Research

    Covariation is an essential process that leads to coevolution of parts of proteins and genomes. In organisms subject to strong selective pressure, coevolution is central to keep the balance between the opposit...

    Authors: Romain Gasser, Meriem Hamoudi, Martina Pellicciotta, Zhicheng Zhou, Clara Visdeloup, Philippe Colin, Martine Braibant, Bernard Lagane and Matteo Negroni

    Citation: Retrovirology 2016 13:50

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  32. Content type: Research

    Eradication of HIV cannot be achieved with combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) because of the persistence of long-lived latently infected resting memory CD4+ T cells. We previously reported that HIV latenc...

    Authors: Suha Saleh, Hao K. Lu, Vanessa Evans, David Harisson, Jingling Zhou, Anthony Jaworowski, Georgina Sallmann, Karey Y. Cheong, Talia M. Mota, Surekha Tennakoon, Thomas A. Angelovich, Jenny Anderson, Andrew Harman, Anthony Cunningham, Lachlan Gray, Melissa Churchill…

    Citation: Retrovirology 2016 13:49

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  33. Content type: Research

    Current HIV-1 immunogens are unable to induce antibodies that can neutralize a broad range of HIV-1 (broadly neutralizing antibodies; bNAbs). However, such antibodies are elicited in 10–30 % of HIV-1 infected ...

    Authors: Tom L. G. M. van den Kerkhof, Steven W. de Taeye, Brigitte D. Boeser-Nunnink, Dennis R. Burton, Neeltje A. Kootstra, Hanneke Schuitemaker, Rogier W. Sanders and Marit J. van Gils

    Citation: Retrovirology 2016 13:48

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  34. Content type: Short report

    The NCI Retrovirus Integration Database is a MySql-based relational database created for storing and retrieving comprehensive information about retroviral integration sites, primarily, but not exclusively, HIV...

    Authors: Wei Shao, Jigui Shan, Mary F. Kearney, Xiaolin Wu, Frank Maldarelli, John W. Mellors, Brian Luke, John M. Coffin and Stephen H. Hughes

    Citation: Retrovirology 2016 13:47

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  35. Content type: Research

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is a global pathogen of Felidae species and a model system for Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-induced AIDS. In felids such as the domestic cat (Felis catus), APOBEC3 (A3) g...

    Authors: Zeli Zhang, Qinyong Gu, Ananda Ayyappan Jaguva Vasudevan, Anika Hain, Björn-Philipp Kloke, Sascha Hasheminasab, Daniel Mulnaes, Kei Sato, Klaus Cichutek, Dieter Häussinger, Ignacio G. Bravo, Sander H. J. Smits, Holger Gohlke and Carsten Münk

    Citation: Retrovirology 2016 13:46

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  36. Content type: Short report

    Humans encode seven APOBEC3 proteins (A–H), with A3G, 3F and 3H as the major factors restricting HIV-1 replication. HIV-1, however, encodes Vif, which counteracts A3 proteins by chaperoning them to the proteasome...

    Authors: Cristhian Cadena, Spyridon Stavrou, Tomaz Manzoni, Shilpa S. Iyer, Frederic Bibollet-Ruche, Weiyu Zhang, Beatrice H. Hahn, Edward P. Browne and Susan R. Ross

    Citation: Retrovirology 2016 13:45

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  37. Content type: Research

    A persistent immune activation is observed in gut during HIV-1 infection, which is not completely reversed by a combined antiretroviral therapy (cART). The impact of the time of cART initiation may highly infl...

    Authors: Anne-Emmanuelle Depincé-Berger, Delphine Vergnon-Miszczycha, Alexandre Girard, Anne Frésard, Elisabeth Botelho-Nevers, Claude Lambert, Emilie Del Tedesco, Christian Genin, Bruno Pozzetto, Frédéric Lucht, Xavier Roblin, Thomas Bourlet and Stéphane Paul

    Citation: Retrovirology 2016 13:44

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  38. Content type: Short report

    Primary CD4+ T cells and cell lines differ in their permissiveness to HIV infection. Impaired innate immunity may contribute to this different phenotype.

    Authors: Antonio Rausell, Miguel Muñoz, Raquel Martinez, Thierry Roger, Amalio Telenti and Angela Ciuffi

    Citation: Retrovirology 2016 13:43

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  39. Content type: Research

    Broadly neutralizing antibodies to HIV-1 elicited in infected individuals evolves through shifts in their molecular specificities to viral envelope (Env) in the disease course. Recently, we showed that resista...

    Authors: Suprit Deshpande, Shilpa Patil, Rajesh Kumar, Tripti Shrivastava, Aylur K. Srikrishnan, Kailapuri G. Murugavel, Wayne C. Koff, Bimal K. Chakrabarti and Jayanta Bhattacharya

    Citation: Retrovirology 2016 13:41

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  40. Content type: Research

    Accumulating data suggest that immune effector functions mediated through the Fc portion of HIV-1-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) are a key component of HIV-1 protective immunity, affecting both disease progre...

    Authors: Ria Lassaunière, Alfred Musekiwa, Glenda E. Gray, Louise Kuhn and Caroline T. Tiemessen

    Citation: Retrovirology 2016 13:40

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  41. Content type: Research

    Although combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) has saved millions of lives, it is incapable of full immune reconstitution and virus eradication. The transactivator of transcription (Tat) protein is a key hum...

    Authors: Barbara Ensoli, Maphoshane Nchabeleng, Fabrizio Ensoli, Antonella Tripiciano, Stefania Bellino, Orietta Picconi, Cecilia Sgadari, Olimpia Longo, Lara Tavoschi, Daniel Joffe, Aurelio Cafaro, Vittorio Francavilla, Sonia Moretti, Maria Rosaria Pavone Cossut, Barbara Collacchi, Angela Arancio…

    Citation: Retrovirology 2016 13:34

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