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  1. Content type: Research

    The dimer initiation site/dimer linkage sequence (DIS/DLS) region of HIV is located on the 5′ end of the viral genome and suggested to form complex secondary/tertiary structures. Within this structure, stem-lo...

    Authors: Sayuri Sakuragi, Masaru Yokoyama, Tatsuo Shioda, Hironori Sato and Jun-ichi Sakuragi

    Citation: Retrovirology 2016 13:79

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  2. Content type: Review

    Natural killer (NK) cells belong to the innate immune system and protect against cancers and a variety of viruses including retroviruses by killing transformed or infected cells. They express activating and in...

    Authors: Elisabeth Littwitz-Salomon, Ulf Dittmer and Kathrin Sutter

    Citation: Retrovirology 2016 13:77

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  3. Content type: Research

    Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC), which mainly mediated by natural killer (NK) cells, may play a critical role in slowing human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) disease progression and prot...

    Authors: Xueying Fan, Liyan Zhu, Hua Liang, Zhe Xie, Xiangbo Huang, Shuo Wang and Tao Shen

    Citation: Retrovirology 2016 13:76

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  4. Content type: Research

    Entry of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) into cells involves the interaction of the viral gp120 envelope glycoproteins (Env) with cellular CD4 and a secondary coreceptor, which is typically one of ...

    Authors: Katharina Borm, Martin R. Jakobsen, Kieran Cashin, Jacqueline K. Flynn, Paula Ellenberg, Lars Ostergaard, Benhur Lee, Melissa J. Churchill, Michael Roche and Paul R. Gorry

    Citation: Retrovirology 2016 13:74

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  5. Content type: Research

    Several members of the TRIM family have been implicated in antiviral defense. Our previous report showed that human TRIM11 potently inhibited HIV-1 transduction by reducing the viral reverse transcripts. These...

    Authors: Ting Yuan, Weitong Yao, Kenzo Tokunaga, Rongge Yang and Binlian Sun

    Citation: Retrovirology 2016 13:72

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  6. Content type: Research

    HIV-1 integrase is the target for three FDA-approved drugs, raltegravir, elvitegravir, and dolutegravir. All three drugs bind at the active site of integrase and block the strand transfer step of integration....

    Authors: Janani Varadarajan, Mary Jane McWilliams, Bryan T. Mott, Craig J. Thomas, Steven J. Smith and Stephen H. Hughes

    Citation: Retrovirology 2016 13:71

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  7. Content type: Research

    HIV-1 typically develops resistance to any single antiretroviral agent. Combined anti-retroviral therapy to reduce drug-resistance development is necessary to control HIV-1 infection. Here, to assess the utili...

    Authors: Muntasir Alam, Takeo Kuwata, Kazuya Shimura, Masaru Yokoyama, Kristel Paola Ramirez Valdez, Kazuki Tanaka, Yasuhiro Maruta, Shinya Oishi, Nobutaka Fujii, Hironori Sato, Masao Matsuoka and Shuzo Matsushita

    Citation: Retrovirology 2016 13:70

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  8. Content type: Meeting abstracts

    Oral presentations

    Authors: Irena Zurnic, Sylvia Hütter, Ute Lehmann, Nicole Stanke, Juliane Reh, Tobias Kern, Fabian Lindel, Gesche Gerresheim, Martin Hamann, Erik Müllers, Paul Lesbats, Peter Cherepanov, Erik Serrao, Alan Engelman, Dirk Lindemann, Claire Da Silva Santos…

    Citation: Retrovirology 2016 13(Suppl 1):68

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    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 13 Supplement 1

  9. Content type: Research

    Human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) are ancient sequences integrated in the germ line cells and vertically transmitted through the offspring constituting about 8 % of our genome. In time, HERVs accumulated m...

    Authors: Nicole Grandi, Marta Cadeddu, Jonas Blomberg and Enzo Tramontano

    Citation: Retrovirology 2016 13:67

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  10. Content type: Short report

    The latent HIV-1 reservoir represents the primary barrier to the eradication of HIV-1 infection. The design of novel reservoir-clearance strategies, however, is impeded in part by the inability to distinguish...

    Authors: Nischal Ranganath, Teslin S. Sandstrom, Saleh Fadel, Sandra C. Côté and Jonathan B. Angel

    Citation: Retrovirology 2016 13:66

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  11. Content type: Research

    In contrast to adult HIV infection, where slow disease progression is strongly linked to immune control of HIV mediated by protective HLA class I molecules such as HLA-B*81:01, the mechanisms by which a minori...

    Authors: M.-H. Tsai, M. Muenchhoff, E. Adland, A. Carlqvist, J. Roider, D. K. Cole, A. K. Sewell, J. Carlson, T. Ndung’u and P. J. R. Goulder

    Citation: Retrovirology 2016 13:65

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  12. Content type: Research

    Patients of African ancestry with untreated HIV-1 infection and carrying the G1 or G2 kidney disease risk variants (Vs) at the APOL1 gene have a tenfold higher risk of developing HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVA...

    Authors: Joanna Mikulak, Ferdinando Oriolo, Federica Portale, Paolo Tentorio, Xiqian Lan, Moin A. Saleem, Karl Skorecki, Pravin C. Singhal and Domenico Mavilio

    Citation: Retrovirology 2016 13:63

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  13. Content type: Research

    The p6 region of the HIV-1 structural precursor polyprotein, Gag, contains two motifs, P7TAP11 and L35YPLXSL41, designated as late (L) domain-1 and -2, respectively. These motifs bind the ESCRT-I factor Tsg101 an...

    Authors: Susan M. Watanabe, Viviana Simon, Natasha D. Durham, Brittney R. Kemp, Satoshi Machihara, Kimdar Sherefa Kemal, Binshan Shi, Brian Foley, Hongru Li, Benjamin K. Chen, Barbara Weiser, Harold Burger, Kathryn Anastos, Chaoping Chen and Carol A. Carter

    Citation: Retrovirology 2016 13:64

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  14. Content type: Research

    Follicular dendritic cells (FDCs) are important components in the organization of germinal centers in lymphoid tissue where, following antigen presentation, B cells differentiate into memory B cells. The possi...

    Authors: Farideh Sabri, Alejandro Prados, Raquel Muñoz-Fernández, Rebecka Lantto, Pablo Fernandez-Rubio, Aikaterini Nasi, Sylvie Amu, Jan Albert, Enrique Garcia Olivares and Francesca Chiodi

    Citation: Retrovirology 2016 13:61

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  15. Content type: Research

    Mucosal HIV-1 transmission predominantly results in a single transmitted/founder (T/F) virus establishing infection in the new host despite the generally high genetic diversity of the transmitter virus populat...

    Authors: Corinna S. Oberle, Beda Joos, Peter Rusert, Nottania K. Campbell, David Beauparlant, Herbert Kuster, Jacqueline Weber, Corinne D. Schenkel, Alexandra U. Scherrer, Carsten Magnus, Roger Kouyos, Philip Rieder, Barbara Niederöst, Dominique L. Braun, Jovan Pavlovic, Jürg Böni…

    Citation: Retrovirology 2016 13:62

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  16. Content type: Short report

    The glycan supersite centered on N332 in the V3 base of the HIV-1 envelope (Env) is a target for broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) such as PGT121 and PGT128. In this study, we examined the basis of resis...

    Authors: Suprit Deshpande, Shilpa Patil, Rajesh Kumar, Tandile Hermanus, Kailapuri G. Murugavel, Aylur K. Srikrishnan, Suniti Solomon, Lynn Morris and Jayanta Bhattacharya

    Citation: Retrovirology 2016 13:60

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  17. Content type: Research

    Th17 cells are permissive to HIV-1 infection and their depletion from the gut of infected individuals leads to microbial translocation, a major cause for non-AIDS co-morbidities. Most recent evidence supports ...

    Authors: Vanessa Sue Wacleche, Jean-Philippe Goulet, Annie Gosselin, Patricia Monteiro, Hugo Soudeyns, Rémi Fromentin, Mohammad-Ali Jenabian, Shant Vartanian, Steven G. Deeks, Nicolas Chomont, Jean-Pierre Routy and Petronela Ancuta

    Citation: Retrovirology 2016 13:59

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  18. Content type: Research

    Foamy viruses (FVs) of the Spumaretrovirinae subfamily are distinct retroviruses, with many features of their molecular biology and replication strategy clearly different from those of the Orthoretroviruses, such...

    Authors: Yang Liu, Matthew J. Betts, Janet Lei, Guochao Wei, Qiuying Bao, Timo Kehl, Robert B. Russell and Martin Löchelt

    Citation: Retrovirology 2016 13:57

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  19. Content type: Research

    Virus transmission from various wild and domestic animals contributes to an increased risk of emerging infectious diseases in human populations. HTLV-1 is a human retrovirus associated with acute T-cell leukem...

    Authors: Yoshimi Enose-Akahata, Breanna Caruso, Benjamin Haner, Emily Charlip, Govind Nair, Raya Massoud, Bridgette J. Billioux, Joan Ohayon, William M. Switzer and Steven Jacobson

    Citation: Retrovirology 2016 13:56

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