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  1. Content type: Research

    Follicular dendritic cells (FDCs) are important components in the organization of germinal centers in lymphoid tissue where, following antigen presentation, B cells differentiate into memory B cells. The possi...

    Authors: Farideh Sabri, Alejandro Prados, Raquel Muñoz-Fernández, Rebecka Lantto, Pablo Fernandez-Rubio, Aikaterini Nasi, Sylvie Amu, Jan Albert, Enrique Garcia Olivares and Francesca Chiodi

    Citation: Retrovirology 2016 13:61

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  2. Content type: Research

    Mucosal HIV-1 transmission predominantly results in a single transmitted/founder (T/F) virus establishing infection in the new host despite the generally high genetic diversity of the transmitter virus populat...

    Authors: Corinna S. Oberle, Beda Joos, Peter Rusert, Nottania K. Campbell, David Beauparlant, Herbert Kuster, Jacqueline Weber, Corinne D. Schenkel, Alexandra U. Scherrer, Carsten Magnus, Roger Kouyos, Philip Rieder, Barbara Niederöst, Dominique L. Braun, Jovan Pavlovic, Jürg Böni…

    Citation: Retrovirology 2016 13:62

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  3. Content type: Short report

    The glycan supersite centered on N332 in the V3 base of the HIV-1 envelope (Env) is a target for broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) such as PGT121 and PGT128. In this study, we examined the basis of resis...

    Authors: Suprit Deshpande, Shilpa Patil, Rajesh Kumar, Tandile Hermanus, Kailapuri G. Murugavel, Aylur K. Srikrishnan, Suniti Solomon, Lynn Morris and Jayanta Bhattacharya

    Citation: Retrovirology 2016 13:60

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  4. Content type: Research

    Th17 cells are permissive to HIV-1 infection and their depletion from the gut of infected individuals leads to microbial translocation, a major cause for non-AIDS co-morbidities. Most recent evidence supports ...

    Authors: Vanessa Sue Wacleche, Jean-Philippe Goulet, Annie Gosselin, Patricia Monteiro, Hugo Soudeyns, Rémi Fromentin, Mohammad-Ali Jenabian, Shant Vartanian, Steven G. Deeks, Nicolas Chomont, Jean-Pierre Routy and Petronela Ancuta

    Citation: Retrovirology 2016 13:59

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  5. Content type: Research

    Foamy viruses (FVs) of the Spumaretrovirinae subfamily are distinct retroviruses, with many features of their molecular biology and replication strategy clearly different from those of the Orthoretroviruses, such...

    Authors: Yang Liu, Matthew J. Betts, Janet Lei, Guochao Wei, Qiuying Bao, Timo Kehl, Robert B. Russell and Martin Löchelt

    Citation: Retrovirology 2016 13:57

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  6. Content type: Research

    Virus transmission from various wild and domestic animals contributes to an increased risk of emerging infectious diseases in human populations. HTLV-1 is a human retrovirus associated with acute T-cell leukem...

    Authors: Yoshimi Enose-Akahata, Breanna Caruso, Benjamin Haner, Emily Charlip, Govind Nair, Raya Massoud, Bridgette J. Billioux, Joan Ohayon, William M. Switzer and Steven Jacobson

    Citation: Retrovirology 2016 13:56

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  7. Content type: Research

    In HIV-1 infected cells, the integrated viral DNA is transcribed by the host cell machinery to generate the full length HIV-1 RNA (FL RNA) that serves as mRNA encoding for the Gag and GagPol precursors. Virion...

    Authors: Hala El Mekdad, Emmanuel Boutant, Hassan Karnib, Marina E. Biedma, Kamal Kant Sharma, Iuliia Malytska, Géraldine Laumond, Marion Roy, Eléonore Réal, Jean-Christophe Paillart, Christiane Moog, Jean Luc Darlix, Yves Mély and Hugues de Rocquigny

    Citation: Retrovirology 2016 13:54

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  8. Content type: Correspondence

    8E5/LAV cells harbor a single HIV provirus, and are used frequently to generate standards for HIV genome quantification. Using flow cytometry-based in situ mRNA hybridization validated by qPCR, we find that di...

    Authors: Kaley M. Wilburn, Henry C. Mwandumba, Kondwani C. Jambo, Saikat Boliar, Sabrina Solouki, David G. Russell and David W. Gludish

    Citation: Retrovirology 2016 13:55

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  9. Content type: Research

    In most patients, current antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimens can rapidly reduce plasma viral load. However, even after years of effective treatment, a significant proportion of patients show residual plasma...

    Authors: Maria C. Puertas, Marc Noguera-Julian, Marta Massanella, Christian Pou, Maria J. Buzon, Bonaventura Clotet, Mario Stevenson, Roger Paredes, Julià Blanco and Javier Martinez-Picado

    Citation: Retrovirology 2016 13:51

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  10. Content type: Research

    Covariation is an essential process that leads to coevolution of parts of proteins and genomes. In organisms subject to strong selective pressure, coevolution is central to keep the balance between the opposit...

    Authors: Romain Gasser, Meriem Hamoudi, Martina Pellicciotta, Zhicheng Zhou, Clara Visdeloup, Philippe Colin, Martine Braibant, Bernard Lagane and Matteo Negroni

    Citation: Retrovirology 2016 13:50

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  11. Content type: Research

    Eradication of HIV cannot be achieved with combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) because of the persistence of long-lived latently infected resting memory CD4+ T cells. We previously reported that HIV latenc...

    Authors: Suha Saleh, Hao K. Lu, Vanessa Evans, David Harisson, Jingling Zhou, Anthony Jaworowski, Georgina Sallmann, Karey Y. Cheong, Talia M. Mota, Surekha Tennakoon, Thomas A. Angelovich, Jenny Anderson, Andrew Harman, Anthony Cunningham, Lachlan Gray, Melissa Churchill…

    Citation: Retrovirology 2016 13:49

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  12. Content type: Research

    Current HIV-1 immunogens are unable to induce antibodies that can neutralize a broad range of HIV-1 (broadly neutralizing antibodies; bNAbs). However, such antibodies are elicited in 10–30 % of HIV-1 infected ...

    Authors: Tom L. G. M. van den Kerkhof, Steven W. de Taeye, Brigitte D. Boeser-Nunnink, Dennis R. Burton, Neeltje A. Kootstra, Hanneke Schuitemaker, Rogier W. Sanders and Marit J. van Gils

    Citation: Retrovirology 2016 13:48

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  13. Content type: Short report

    The NCI Retrovirus Integration Database is a MySql-based relational database created for storing and retrieving comprehensive information about retroviral integration sites, primarily, but not exclusively, HIV...

    Authors: Wei Shao, Jigui Shan, Mary F. Kearney, Xiaolin Wu, Frank Maldarelli, John W. Mellors, Brian Luke, John M. Coffin and Stephen H. Hughes

    Citation: Retrovirology 2016 13:47

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  14. Content type: Research

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is a global pathogen of Felidae species and a model system for Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-induced AIDS. In felids such as the domestic cat (Felis catus), APOBEC3 (A3) g...

    Authors: Zeli Zhang, Qinyong Gu, Ananda Ayyappan Jaguva Vasudevan, Anika Hain, Björn-Philipp Kloke, Sascha Hasheminasab, Daniel Mulnaes, Kei Sato, Klaus Cichutek, Dieter Häussinger, Ignacio G. Bravo, Sander H. J. Smits, Holger Gohlke and Carsten Münk

    Citation: Retrovirology 2016 13:46

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  15. Content type: Research

    A persistent immune activation is observed in gut during HIV-1 infection, which is not completely reversed by a combined antiretroviral therapy (cART). The impact of the time of cART initiation may highly infl...

    Authors: Anne-Emmanuelle Depincé-Berger, Delphine Vergnon-Miszczycha, Alexandre Girard, Anne Frésard, Elisabeth Botelho-Nevers, Claude Lambert, Emilie Del Tedesco, Christian Genin, Bruno Pozzetto, Frédéric Lucht, Xavier Roblin, Thomas Bourlet and Stéphane Paul

    Citation: Retrovirology 2016 13:44

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  16. Content type: Short report

    Humans encode seven APOBEC3 proteins (A–H), with A3G, 3F and 3H as the major factors restricting HIV-1 replication. HIV-1, however, encodes Vif, which counteracts A3 proteins by chaperoning them to the proteasome...

    Authors: Cristhian Cadena, Spyridon Stavrou, Tomaz Manzoni, Shilpa S. Iyer, Frederic Bibollet-Ruche, Weiyu Zhang, Beatrice H. Hahn, Edward P. Browne and Susan R. Ross

    Citation: Retrovirology 2016 13:45

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  17. Content type: Short report

    Primary CD4+ T cells and cell lines differ in their permissiveness to HIV infection. Impaired innate immunity may contribute to this different phenotype.

    Authors: Antonio Rausell, Miguel Muñoz, Raquel Martinez, Thierry Roger, Amalio Telenti and Angela Ciuffi

    Citation: Retrovirology 2016 13:43

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  18. Content type: Research

    Broadly neutralizing antibodies to HIV-1 elicited in infected individuals evolves through shifts in their molecular specificities to viral envelope (Env) in the disease course. Recently, we showed that resista...

    Authors: Suprit Deshpande, Shilpa Patil, Rajesh Kumar, Tripti Shrivastava, Aylur K. Srikrishnan, Kailapuri G. Murugavel, Wayne C. Koff, Bimal K. Chakrabarti and Jayanta Bhattacharya

    Citation: Retrovirology 2016 13:41

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  19. Content type: Research

    Accumulating data suggest that immune effector functions mediated through the Fc portion of HIV-1-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) are a key component of HIV-1 protective immunity, affecting both disease progre...

    Authors: Ria Lassaunière, Alfred Musekiwa, Glenda E. Gray, Louise Kuhn and Caroline T. Tiemessen

    Citation: Retrovirology 2016 13:40

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  20. Content type: Research

    Although combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) has saved millions of lives, it is incapable of full immune reconstitution and virus eradication. The transactivator of transcription (Tat) protein is a key hum...

    Authors: Barbara Ensoli, Maphoshane Nchabeleng, Fabrizio Ensoli, Antonella Tripiciano, Stefania Bellino, Orietta Picconi, Cecilia Sgadari, Olimpia Longo, Lara Tavoschi, Daniel Joffe, Aurelio Cafaro, Vittorio Francavilla, Sonia Moretti, Maria Rosaria Pavone Cossut, Barbara Collacchi, Angela Arancio…

    Citation: Retrovirology 2016 13:34

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  21. Content type: Research

    During the first trimester of pregnancy, HIV-1 in utero transmission is rare despite the permissivity of the placenta and the decidua (the uterine mucosa during pregnancy) to infection. In the decidua from th...

    Authors: H. Quillay, H. El Costa, M. Duriez, R. Marlin, C. Cannou, Y. Madec, C. de Truchis, M. Rahmati, F. Barré-Sinoussi, M. T. Nugeyre and E. Menu

    Citation: Retrovirology 2016 13:39

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  22. Content type: Research

    The molecular clock hypothesis that genes or proteins evolve at a constant rate is a key tool to reveal phylogenetic relationships among species. Using the molecular clock, we can trace an infection back to tr...

    Authors: Sung Yong Park, Tanzy M. T. Love, Alan S. Perelson, Wendy J. Mack and Ha Youn Lee

    Citation: Retrovirology 2016 13:38

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  23. Content type: Research

    The latent reservoir in resting CD4+ T cells presents a major barrier to HIV cure. Latency-reversing agents are therefore being developed with the ultimate goal of disrupting the latent state, resulting in induct...

    Authors: Perry Tsai, Guoxin Wu, Caroline E. Baker, William O. Thayer, Rae Ann Spagnuolo, Rosa Sanchez, Stephanie Barrett, Bonnie Howell, David Margolis, Daria J. Hazuda, Nancie M. Archin and J. Victor Garcia

    Citation: Retrovirology 2016 13:36

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  24. Content type: Erratum

    Authors: Erwann P. Loret, Albert Darque, Elisabeth Jouve, Elvenn A. Loret, Corinne Nicolino-Brunet, Sophie Morange, Elisabeth Castanier, Josiane Casanova, Christine Caloustian, Charléric Bornet, Julie Coussirou, Jihen Boussetta, Vincent Couallier, Olivier Blin, Bertrand Dussol and Isabelle Ravaux

    Citation: Retrovirology 2016 13:35

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    The original article was published in Retrovirology 2016 13:21

  25. Content type: Research

    HIV-1 entry is a receptor-mediated process directed by the interaction of the viral envelope with the host cell CD4 molecule and one of two co-receptors, CCR5 or CXCR4. The amino acid sequence of the third var...

    Authors: Gregory C. Antell, Will Dampier, Benjamas Aiamkitsumrit, Michael R. Nonnemacher, Jeffrey M. Jacobson, Vanessa Pirrone, Wen Zhong, Katherine Kercher, Shendra Passic, Jean W. Williams, Gregory Schwartz, Uri Hershberg, Fred C. Krebs and Brian Wigdahl

    Citation: Retrovirology 2016 13:32

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  26. Content type: Research

    Bovine Leukemia Virus (BLV) is a deltaretrovirus closely related to the Human T cell leukemia virus-1 (HTLV-1). Cattle are the natural host of BLV where it integrates into B-cells, producing a lifelong infecti...

    Authors: Keith Durkin, Nicolas Rosewick, Maria Artesi, Vincent Hahaut, Philip Griebel, Natasa Arsic, Arsène Burny, Michel Georges and Anne Van den Broeke

    Citation: Retrovirology 2016 13:33

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  27. Content type: Research

    HIV reservoirs pose major challenges to viral eradication. The main cellular reservoirs include CD4 T cells and macrophages, whereas anatomic reservoirs are thought to be primarily lymphoid tissues. Adipose ti...

    Authors: Jacob Couturier, Neeti Agarwal, Pramod N. Nehete, Wallace B. Baze, Michael A. Barry, K. Jagannadha Sastry, Ashok Balasubramanyam and Dorothy E. Lewis

    Citation: Retrovirology 2016 13:30

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  28. Content type: Research

    Human T cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) basic leucine zipper factor (HBZ), which is encoded by a minus strand mRNA, is thought to play important roles in the development of adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) and ...

    Authors: Yasuo Shiohama, Tadasuke Naito, Toshio Matsuzaki, Reiko Tanaka, Takeaki Tomoyose, Hiroshi Takashima, Takuya Fukushima, Yuetsu Tanaka and Mineki Saito

    Citation: Retrovirology 2016 13:29

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  29. Content type: Research

    HIV-1 capsid influences viral uncoating and nuclear import. Some capsid is detected in the nucleus but it is unclear if it has any function. We reported that the antibiotic Coumermycin-A1 (C-A1) inhibits HIV-1...

    Authors: Nan-Yu Chen, Lihong Zhou, Paul J. Gane, Silvana Opp, Neil J. Ball, Giuseppe Nicastro, Madeleine Zufferey, Cindy Buffone, Jeremy Luban, David Selwood, Felipe Diaz-Griffero, Ian Taylor and Ariberto Fassati

    Citation: Retrovirology 2016 13:28

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  30. Content type: Commentary

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) populations are characterized by extensive genetic diversity. Antigenic diversification is essential for escape from immune selection and therapy, and remains one of the majo...

    Authors: Redmond P. Smyth and Matteo Negroni

    Citation: Retrovirology 2016 13:27

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  31. Content type: Short report

    Tetherin is an intrinsic anti-viral factor impairing the release of nascent HIV-1 particles from infected cells. Vpu, an HIV-1 accessory protein, antagonizes the anti-viral action of tetherin. Although previou...

    Authors: Hiroki Ikeda, Shinji Nakaoka, Rob J. de Boer, Satoru Morita, Naoko Misawa, Yoshio Koyanagi, Kazuyuki Aihara, Kei Sato and Shingo Iwami

    Citation: Retrovirology 2016 13:23

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  32. Content type: Research

    Regulatory T cells (Tregs) have been shown to limit anti-viral immunity during chronic retroviral infection and to restrict vaccine-induced T cell responses. The objective of the study was to assess whether a ...

    Authors: Torben Knuschke, Olga Rotan, Wibke Bayer, Viktoriya Sokolova, Wiebke Hansen, Tim Sparwasser, Ulf Dittmer, Matthias Epple, Jan Buer and Astrid M. Westendorf

    Citation: Retrovirology 2016 13:24

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  33. Content type: Research

    Through incorporation into virus particles, the HIV-1 Vpr protein participates in the early steps of the virus life cycle by influencing the reverse transcription process. We previously showed that this positi...

    Authors: Cecile Herate, Clarisse Vigne, Carolin A. Guenzel, Marie Lambele, Marie-Christine Rouyez and Serge Benichou

    Citation: Retrovirology 2016 13:26

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  34. Content type: Research

    A Tat Oyi vaccine preparation was administered with informed consent to 48 long-term HIV-1 infected volunteers whose viral loads had been suppressed by antiretroviral therapy (cART). These volunteers were rand...

    Authors: Erwann P. Loret, Albert Darque, Elisabeth Jouve, Elvenn A. Loret, Corinne Nicolino-Brunet, Sophie Morange, Elisabeth Castanier, Josiane Casanova, Christine Caloustian, Charléric Bornet, Julie Coussirou, Jihen Boussetta, Vincent Couallier, Olivier Blin, Bertrand Dussol and Isabelle Ravaux

    Citation: Retrovirology 2016 13:21

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    The Erratum to this article has been published in Retrovirology 2016 13:35

  35. Content type: Research

    CD4 T cell depletion during HIV-1 infection is associated with AIDS disease progression, and the HIV-1 Env protein plays an important role in the process. Together with CXCR4, CCR5 is one of the two co-recepto...

    Authors: Li-Chung Tsao, Haitao Guo, Jerry Jeffrey, James A. Hoxie and Lishan Su

    Citation: Retrovirology 2016 13:22

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  36. Content type: Research

    HIV-1 replication kinetics inherently depends on the availability of cellular dNTPs for viral DNA synthesis. In activated CD4+ T cells and other rapidly dividing cells, the concentrations of dNTPs are high and H...

    Authors: Michele B. Daly, Megan E. Roth, Laurent Bonnac, José O. Maldonado, Jiashu Xie, Christine L. Clouser, Steven E. Patterson, Baek Kim and Louis M. Mansky

    Citation: Retrovirology 2016 13:20

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  37. Content type: Research

    The promyelocytic leukemia (PML) protein, a type I interferon (IFN-I)-induced gene product and a member of the tripartite motif (TRIM) family, modulates the transcriptional activity of viruses belonging to var...

    Authors: Nasser Masroori, Natacha Merindol and Lionel Berthoux

    Citation: Retrovirology 2016 13:19

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  38. Content type: Research

    The Gag polyprotein is a multifunctional regulator of retroviral replication and major structural component of immature virions. The nucleic acid chaperone (NAC) activity is considered necessary to retroviral ...

    Authors: Katarzyna Pachulska-Wieczorek, Leszek Błaszczyk, Marcin Biesiada, Ryszard W. Adamiak and Katarzyna J. Purzycka

    Citation: Retrovirology 2016 13:18

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  39. Content type: Review

    Human T cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is an oncogenic retrovirus responsible for the development of adult T-cell leukemia (ATL). Although HTLV-1 harbors an oncogene, tax, that transforms T cells in vitro an...

    Authors: Guangyong Ma, Jun-ichirou Yasunaga and Masao Matsuoka

    Citation: Retrovirology 2016 13:16

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  40. Content type: Research

    The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) capsid is a self-assembled protein shell that contains the viral genome. During the stages between viral entry into a host cell and nuclear import of the viral DNA, the...

    Authors: Ruben Ramalho, Sanela Rankovic, Jing Zhou, Christopher Aiken and Itay Rousso

    Citation: Retrovirology 2016 13:17

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  41. Content type: Research

    LILRA3 is an immunostimulatory molecule which can conditionally induce the proliferation of cytotoxic cells. LILRA3 has a deletion genotype which is associated with multiple immune disorders. In this study, we wa...

    Authors: Hui Zhi Low, Gerrit Ahrenstorf, Claudia Pommerenke, Nadine Habermann, Klaus Schughart, David Ordóñez, Renata Stripecke, Esther Wilk and Torsten Witte

    Citation: Retrovirology 2016 13:15

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  42. Content type: Research

    Gene therapy is currently being attempted using a number of delivery vehicles including lentiviral-based vectors. The delivery and insertion of a gene using lentiviral-based vectors involves multiple discrete ...

    Authors: Daniel O. Griffin and Stephen P. Goff

    Citation: Retrovirology 2016 13:14

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  43. Content type: Research

    BST-2 is an interferon-induced host restriction factor that inhibits the release of diverse mammalian enveloped viruses from infected cells by physically trapping the newly formed virions onto the host cell s...

    Authors: Quan Zhang, Zeyun Mi, Yuming Huang, Ling Ma, Jiwei Ding, Jing Wang, Yongxin Zhang, Yang chen, Jinming Zhou, Fei Guo, Xiaoyu Li and Shan Cen

    Citation: Retrovirology 2016 13:13

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