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  1. The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is the primary cause of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), which is a slow, progressive and degenerative disease of the human immune system. The path...

    Authors: Morten Hjuler Nielsen, Finn Skou Pedersen and Jørgen Kjems
    Citation: Retrovirology 2005 2:10
  2. The nuclear transcription factor NF-κB binds to the HIV-1 long terminal repeat (LTR) and is a key regulator of HIV-1 gene expression in cells latently infected with this virus. In this report, we have analyzed...

    Authors: Qinmiao Sun, Hittu Matta and Preet M Chaudhary
    Citation: Retrovirology 2005 2:9
  3. HIV-1 Tat activates transcription of HIV-1 viral genes by inducing phosphorylation of the C-terminal domain (CTD) of RNA polymerase II (RNAPII). Tat can also disturb cellular metabolism by inhibiting prolifera...

    Authors: Nicolas Epie, Tatyana Ammosova, Tamar Sapir, Yaroslav Voloshin, William S Lane, Willie Turner, Orly Reiner and Sergei Nekhai
    Citation: Retrovirology 2005 2:6
  4. HIV infection and progression to AIDS is characterized by the depletion of T cells, which could be due, in part, to apoptosis mediated by the extra-cellular HIV-encoded Tat protein as a consequence of Tat bind...

    Authors: Jean de Mareuil, Manon Carre, Pascale Barbier, Grant R Campbell, Sophie Lancelot, Sandrine Opi, Didier Esquieu, Jennifer D Watkins, Charles Prevot, Diane Braguer, Vincent Peyrot and Erwann P Loret
    Citation: Retrovirology 2005 2:5
  5. Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) proviral load is related to the development of HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) and has also been shown to be elevated in the perip...

    Authors: Maria Yakova, Agnès Lézin, Fabienne Dantin, Gisèle Lagathu, Stéphane Olindo, Georges Jean-Baptiste, Serge Arfi and Raymond Césaire
    Citation: Retrovirology 2005 2:4
  6. Retroviruses have a diploid genome and recombine at high frequency. Recombinant proviruses can be generated when two genetically different RNA genomes are packaged into the same retroviral particle. It was sho...

    Authors: Sergey A Kharytonchyk, Alla I Kireyeva, Anna B Osipovich and Igor K Fomin
    Citation: Retrovirology 2005 2:3
  7. The antibacterial activity of host defense peptides (HDP) is largely mediated by permeabilization of bacterial membranes. The lipid membrane of enveloped viruses might also be a target of antimicrobial peptide...

    Authors: Lars Steinstraesser, Bettina Tippler, Janine Mertens, Evert Lamme, Heinz-Herbert Homann, Marcus Lehnhardt, Oliver Wildner, Hans-Ulrich Steinau and Klaus Überla
    Citation: Retrovirology 2005 2:2
  8. Several cellular positive and negative elongation factors are involved in regulating RNA polymerase II processivity during transcription elongation in human cells. In recruiting several of these regulatory fac...

    Authors: Yueh-Hsin Ping, Chia-ying Chu, Hong Cao, Jean-Marc Jacque, Mario Stevenson and Tariq M Rana
    Citation: Retrovirology 2004 1:46
  9. The identification of the molecular mechanisms of human immunodeficiency virus type 1, HIV-1, transcriptional regulation is required to develop novel inhibitors of viral replication. NF-κB transacting factors ...

    Authors: Camillo Palmieri, Francesca Trimboli, Antimina Puca, Giuseppe Fiume, Giuseppe Scala and Ileana Quinto
    Citation: Retrovirology 2004 1:45
  10. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are 21~25-nucleotides (nt) long and interact with mRNAs to trigger either translational repression or RNA cleavage through RNA interference (RNAi), depending on the degree of complementarity...

    Authors: Shinya Omoto, Masafumi Ito, Yutaka Tsutsumi, Yuko Ichikawa, Harumi Okuyama, Ebiamadon Andi Brisibe, Nitin K Saksena and Yoichi R Fujii
    Citation: Retrovirology 2004 1:44
  11. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small RNAs of 21–25 nucleotides that specifically regulate cellular gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. miRNAs are derived from the maturation by cellular RNases III of im...

    Authors: Yamina Bennasser, Shu-Yun Le, Man Lung Yeung and Kuan-Teh Jeang
    Citation: Retrovirology 2004 1:43
  12. Human T-cell leukemia virus (HTLV) -1 and -2 are deltaretroviruses that infect a wide range of cells. Glut1, the major vertebrate glucose transporter, has been shown to be the HTLV Env receptor. While it is we...

    Authors: Felix J Kim, Nicolas Manel, Edith N Garrido, Carine Valle, Marc Sitbon and Jean-Luc Battini
    Citation: Retrovirology 2004 1:41
  13. Human T-lymphotropic virus type-1 (HTLV-1) is a complex retrovirus that causes adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) and is implicated in a variety of lymphocyte-mediated disorders. HTLV-1 pX ORF II encodes two...

    Authors: Patrick L Green
    Citation: Retrovirology 2004 1:40
  14. Human T-lymphotropic virus type-1 (HTLV-1) is a deltaretrovirus that causes adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma and is implicated in a variety of lymphocyte-mediated disorders. HTLV-1 contains both regulatory and a...

    Authors: Bindhu Michael, Amrithraj M Nair, Hajime Hiraragi, Lei Shen, Gerold Feuer, Kathleen Boris-Lawrie and Michael D Lairmore
    Citation: Retrovirology 2004 1:39
  15. The protease inhibitor, TL-3, demonstrated broad efficacy in vitro against FIV, HIV and SIV (simian immunodeficiency virus), and exhibited very strong protective effects on early neurologic alterations in the CNS...

    Authors: Sohela de Rozières, Christina H Swan, Dennis A Sheeter, Karen J Clingerman, Ying-Chuan Lin, Salvador Huitron-Resendiz, Steven Henriksen, Bruce E Torbett and John H Elder
    Citation: Retrovirology 2004 1:38
  16. A pol-fragment of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) that is highly related to SIVdrl-pol from drill monkeys (Mandrillus leucophaeus) was detected in two mandrills (Mandrillus sphinx) from Amsterdam Zoo. These c...

    Authors: Antoinette C van der Kuyl, Remco van den Burg, Mark J Hoyer, Rob A Gruters, Albert DME Osterhaus and Ben Berkhout
    Citation: Retrovirology 2004 1:36
  17. Nucleo-cytoplasmic transport of RNA is one of many cellular pathways whose illumination has progressed hand in hand with understanding of retroviral mechanisms. A recent paper in Cell reports the involvement of a...

    Authors: Andrew I Dayton
    Citation: Retrovirology 2004 1:35
  18. The Sykes' monkey and related forms (Cercopithecus mitis) make up an abundant, widespread and morphologically diverse species complex in eastern Africa that naturally harbors a distinct simian immunodeficiency vi...

    Authors: Brett R Ellis, Elephas Munene, Debra Elliott, James Robinson, Moses G Otsyula and Scott F Michael
    Citation: Retrovirology 2004 1:34
  19. The early stages consecutive to infection of sheep (e.g. primo-infection) by Bovine leukemia virus mutants are largely unknown. In order to better understand the mechanisms associated with this period, we aime...

    Authors: Christophe Debacq, Maria Teresa Sanchez Alcaraz, Franck Mortreux, Pierre Kerkhofs, Richard Kettmann and Luc Willems
    Citation: Retrovirology 2004 1:31
  20. The aim of this study was to evaluate gene therapy for AIDS based on the transduction of circulating lymphocytes with a retroviral vector giving low levels of constitutive macaque interferon β production in ma...

    Authors: Wilfried Gay, Evelyne Lauret, Bertrand Boson, Jérome Larghero, Franck Matheux, Sophie Peyramaure, Véronique Rousseau, Dominique Dormont, Edward De Maeyer and Roger Le Grand
    Citation: Retrovirology 2004 1:29
  21. The viral infectivity factor, Vif, of human immunodeficiency virus type 1, HIV-1, has long been shown to promote viral replication in vivo and to serve a critical function for productive infection of non-permissi...

    Authors: Joao Goncalves and Mariana Santa-Marta
    Citation: Retrovirology 2004 1:28
  22. The human immunodeficiency virus Vif protein overcomes the inhibitory activity of the APOBEC3G cytidine deaminase by prohibiting its packaging into virions. Inhibition of APOBEC3G encapsidation is paralleled b...

    Authors: Sandra Kao, Eri Miyagi, Mohammad A Khan, Hiroaki Takeuchi, Sandrine Opi, Ritu Goila-Gaur and Klaus Strebel
    Citation: Retrovirology 2004 1:27
  23. Retrovirology has been publishing as an Open Access online journal for approximately six months. In this editorial, I review the reasons for and the advantages of Open Access publishing, update our progress to...

    Authors: Kuan-Teh Jeang
    Citation: Retrovirology 2004 1:24
  24. The HIV-1 genome encodes a well-conserved accessory gene product, Vpr, that serves multiple functions in the retroviral life cycle, including the enhancement of viral replication in nondividing macrophages, th...

    Authors: Xiao-Jian Yao, Nicole Rougeau, Ghislaine Duisit, Julie Lemay and Éric A Cohen
    Citation: Retrovirology 2004 1:21
  25. The viral transactivator of HTLV-I, Tax, has long been shown to target the earliest steps of transcription by forming quaternary complexes with sequence specific transcription factors and histone-modifying enz...

    Authors: Cynthia de la Fuente and Fatah Kashanchi
    Citation: Retrovirology 2004 1:19
  26. Human T-cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-I) Tax protein is a transcriptional regulator of viral and cellular genes. In this study we have examined in detail the determinants for Tax-mediated transcriptional ac...

    Authors: Yick-Pang Ching, Abel CS Chun, King-Tung Chin, Zhi-Qing Zhang, Kuan-Teh Jeang and Dong-Yan Jin
    Citation: Retrovirology 2004 1:18
  27. The viral and host factors involved in transmission of HIV through breastfeeding are largely unknown, and intervention strategies are urgently needed to protect at-risk populations. To evaluate the viral and i...

    Authors: Angela M Amedee, Jenna Rychert, Nedra Lacour, Lynn Fresh and Marion Ratterree
    Citation: Retrovirology 2004 1:17
  28. The HIV-1 plague continues unabatedly across sub-Saharan Africa. In Botswana and Swaziland, nearly 40% of the entire adult population is already infected. No current program is capable of slowing the advancing...

    Authors: Stephen M Smith
    Citation: Retrovirology 2004 1:16
  29. Despite the effectiveness of currently available antiretroviral therapies in the treatment of HIV-1 infection, a continuing need exists for novel compounds that can be used in combination with existing drugs t...

    Authors: Jing Zhou, Chin Ho Chen and Christopher Aiken
    Citation: Retrovirology 2004 1:15
  30. Apoptosis, or programmed cell death, is a key event in biologic homeostasis but is also involved in the pathogenesis of many human diseases including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Although mult...

    Authors: Barbara Ahr, Véronique Robert-Hebmann, Christian Devaux and Martine Biard-Piechaczyk
    Citation: Retrovirology 2004 1:12
  31. Since the discovery of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) twenty years ago, AIDS has become one of the most studied diseases. A number of viruses have subsequently been identified to contribute to the pathog...

    Authors: Elodie Ghedin, Anne Pumfery, Cynthia de la Fuente, Karen Yao, Naomi Miller, Vincent Lacoste, John Quackenbush, Steven Jacobson and Fatah Kashanchi
    Citation: Retrovirology 2004 1:10
  32. During the last two decades, the profusion of HIV research due to the urge to identify new therapeutic targets has led to a wealth of information on the retroviral replication cycle. However, while the late st...

    Authors: Sébastien Nisole and Ali Saïb
    Citation: Retrovirology 2004 1:9
  33. Recent data have established the HIV-1 and SIV escape CTL through epitope mutation. However, three novel studies prove that such escape comes at a "cost" to overall viral fitness. Understanding how HIV-1/SIV e...

    Authors: Stephen M Smith
    Citation: Retrovirology 2004 1:8

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