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  1. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are 21~25-nucleotides (nt) long and interact with mRNAs to trigger either translational repression or RNA cleavage through RNA interference (RNAi), depending on the degree of complementarity...

    Authors: Shinya Omoto, Masafumi Ito, Yutaka Tsutsumi, Yuko Ichikawa, Harumi Okuyama, Ebiamadon Andi Brisibe, Nitin K Saksena and Yoichi R Fujii

    Citation: Retrovirology 2004 1:44

    Content type: Research

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  2. Human T-cell leukemia virus (HTLV) -1 and -2 are deltaretroviruses that infect a wide range of cells. Glut1, the major vertebrate glucose transporter, has been shown to be the HTLV Env receptor. While it is we...

    Authors: Felix J Kim, Nicolas Manel, Edith N Garrido, Carine Valle, Marc Sitbon and Jean-Luc Battini

    Citation: Retrovirology 2004 1:41

    Content type: Research

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  3. Human T-lymphotropic virus type-1 (HTLV-1) is a complex retrovirus that causes adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) and is implicated in a variety of lymphocyte-mediated disorders. HTLV-1 pX ORF II encodes two...

    Authors: Patrick L Green

    Citation: Retrovirology 2004 1:40

    Content type: Commentary

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  4. Human T-lymphotropic virus type-1 (HTLV-1) is a deltaretrovirus that causes adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma and is implicated in a variety of lymphocyte-mediated disorders. HTLV-1 contains both regulatory and a...

    Authors: Bindhu Michael, Amrithraj M Nair, Hajime Hiraragi, Lei Shen, Gerold Feuer, Kathleen Boris-Lawrie and Michael D Lairmore

    Citation: Retrovirology 2004 1:39

    Content type: Research

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  5. The protease inhibitor, TL-3, demonstrated broad efficacy in vitro against FIV, HIV and SIV (simian immunodeficiency virus), and exhibited very strong protective effects on early neurologic alterations in the CNS...

    Authors: Sohela de Rozières, Christina H Swan, Dennis A Sheeter, Karen J Clingerman, Ying-Chuan Lin, Salvador Huitron-Resendiz, Steven Henriksen, Bruce E Torbett and John H Elder

    Citation: Retrovirology 2004 1:38

    Content type: Research

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  6. A pol-fragment of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) that is highly related to SIVdrl-pol from drill monkeys (Mandrillus leucophaeus) was detected in two mandrills (Mandrillus sphinx) from Amsterdam Zoo. These c...

    Authors: Antoinette C van der Kuyl, Remco van den Burg, Mark J Hoyer, Rob A Gruters, Albert DME Osterhaus and Ben Berkhout

    Citation: Retrovirology 2004 1:36

    Content type: Short report

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  7. Nucleo-cytoplasmic transport of RNA is one of many cellular pathways whose illumination has progressed hand in hand with understanding of retroviral mechanisms. A recent paper in Cell reports the involvement of a...

    Authors: Andrew I Dayton

    Citation: Retrovirology 2004 1:35

    Content type: Commentary

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  8. The Sykes' monkey and related forms (Cercopithecus mitis) make up an abundant, widespread and morphologically diverse species complex in eastern Africa that naturally harbors a distinct simian immunodeficiency vi...

    Authors: Brett R Ellis, Elephas Munene, Debra Elliott, James Robinson, Moses G Otsyula and Scott F Michael

    Citation: Retrovirology 2004 1:34

    Content type: Research

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  9. The early stages consecutive to infection of sheep (e.g. primo-infection) by Bovine leukemia virus mutants are largely unknown. In order to better understand the mechanisms associated with this period, we aime...

    Authors: Christophe Debacq, Maria Teresa Sanchez Alcaraz, Franck Mortreux, Pierre Kerkhofs, Richard Kettmann and Luc Willems

    Citation: Retrovirology 2004 1:31

    Content type: Research

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  10. The aim of this study was to evaluate gene therapy for AIDS based on the transduction of circulating lymphocytes with a retroviral vector giving low levels of constitutive macaque interferon β production in ma...

    Authors: Wilfried Gay, Evelyne Lauret, Bertrand Boson, Jérome Larghero, Franck Matheux, Sophie Peyramaure, Véronique Rousseau, Dominique Dormont, Edward De Maeyer and Roger Le Grand

    Citation: Retrovirology 2004 1:29

    Content type: Research

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  11. The viral infectivity factor, Vif, of human immunodeficiency virus type 1, HIV-1, has long been shown to promote viral replication in vivo and to serve a critical function for productive infection of non-permissi...

    Authors: Joao Goncalves and Mariana Santa-Marta

    Citation: Retrovirology 2004 1:28

    Content type: Commentary

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  12. The human immunodeficiency virus Vif protein overcomes the inhibitory activity of the APOBEC3G cytidine deaminase by prohibiting its packaging into virions. Inhibition of APOBEC3G encapsidation is paralleled b...

    Authors: Sandra Kao, Eri Miyagi, Mohammad A Khan, Hiroaki Takeuchi, Sandrine Opi, Ritu Goila-Gaur and Klaus Strebel

    Citation: Retrovirology 2004 1:27

    Content type: Research

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  13. Retrovirology has been publishing as an Open Access online journal for approximately six months. In this editorial, I review the reasons for and the advantages of Open Access publishing, update our progress to...

    Authors: Kuan-Teh Jeang

    Citation: Retrovirology 2004 1:24

    Content type: Editorial

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  14. The HIV-1 genome encodes a well-conserved accessory gene product, Vpr, that serves multiple functions in the retroviral life cycle, including the enhancement of viral replication in nondividing macrophages, th...

    Authors: Xiao-Jian Yao, Nicole Rougeau, Ghislaine Duisit, Julie Lemay and Éric A Cohen

    Citation: Retrovirology 2004 1:21

    Content type: Research

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  15. The viral transactivator of HTLV-I, Tax, has long been shown to target the earliest steps of transcription by forming quaternary complexes with sequence specific transcription factors and histone-modifying enz...

    Authors: Cynthia de la Fuente and Fatah Kashanchi

    Citation: Retrovirology 2004 1:19

    Content type: Commentary

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  16. Human T-cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-I) Tax protein is a transcriptional regulator of viral and cellular genes. In this study we have examined in detail the determinants for Tax-mediated transcriptional ac...

    Authors: Yick-Pang Ching, Abel CS Chun, King-Tung Chin, Zhi-Qing Zhang, Kuan-Teh Jeang and Dong-Yan Jin

    Citation: Retrovirology 2004 1:18

    Content type: Research

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  17. The viral and host factors involved in transmission of HIV through breastfeeding are largely unknown, and intervention strategies are urgently needed to protect at-risk populations. To evaluate the viral and i...

    Authors: Angela M Amedee, Jenna Rychert, Nedra Lacour, Lynn Fresh and Marion Ratterree

    Citation: Retrovirology 2004 1:17

    Content type: Research

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  18. The HIV-1 plague continues unabatedly across sub-Saharan Africa. In Botswana and Swaziland, nearly 40% of the entire adult population is already infected. No current program is capable of slowing the advancing...

    Authors: Stephen M Smith

    Citation: Retrovirology 2004 1:16

    Content type: Hypothesis

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  19. Despite the effectiveness of currently available antiretroviral therapies in the treatment of HIV-1 infection, a continuing need exists for novel compounds that can be used in combination with existing drugs t...

    Authors: Jing Zhou, Chin Ho Chen and Christopher Aiken

    Citation: Retrovirology 2004 1:15

    Content type: Research

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  20. Apoptosis, or programmed cell death, is a key event in biologic homeostasis but is also involved in the pathogenesis of many human diseases including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Although mult...

    Authors: Barbara Ahr, Véronique Robert-Hebmann, Christian Devaux and Martine Biard-Piechaczyk

    Citation: Retrovirology 2004 1:12

    Content type: Review

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  21. Since the discovery of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) twenty years ago, AIDS has become one of the most studied diseases. A number of viruses have subsequently been identified to contribute to the pathog...

    Authors: Elodie Ghedin, Anne Pumfery, Cynthia de la Fuente, Karen Yao, Naomi Miller, Vincent Lacoste, John Quackenbush, Steven Jacobson and Fatah Kashanchi

    Citation: Retrovirology 2004 1:10

    Content type: Research

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  22. During the last two decades, the profusion of HIV research due to the urge to identify new therapeutic targets has led to a wealth of information on the retroviral replication cycle. However, while the late st...

    Authors: Sébastien Nisole and Ali Saïb

    Citation: Retrovirology 2004 1:9

    Content type: Review

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  23. Recent data have established the HIV-1 and SIV escape CTL through epitope mutation. However, three novel studies prove that such escape comes at a "cost" to overall viral fitness. Understanding how HIV-1/SIV e...

    Authors: Stephen M Smith

    Citation: Retrovirology 2004 1:8

    Content type: Commentary

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  24. It is poorly understood why many transforming proteins reportedly enhance both cell growth (transformation) and cell death (apoptosis). At first glance, the ability to transform and the ability to engender apo...

    Authors: Takefumi Kasai and Kuan-Teh Jeang

    Citation: Retrovirology 2004 1:7

    Content type: Research

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  25. The human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) Tax protein indirectly influences transcriptional activation, signal transduction, cell cycle control, and apoptosis. The function of Tax primarily relies on pro...

    Authors: Kylene Kehn, Longwen Deng, Cynthia de la Fuente, Katharine Strouss, Kaili Wu, Anil Maddukuri, Shanese Baylor, Robyn Rufner, Anne Pumfery, Maria Elena Bottazzi and Fatah Kashanchi

    Citation: Retrovirology 2004 1:6

    Content type: Research

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  26. To generate a replication-competent retrovirus that could be conditionally inactivated, we flanked the viral genes of the Akv murine leukemia virus with LoxP sites. This provirus can delete its envelope gene b...

    Authors: Clifford L Wang, J Graeme Hodgson, Tiffany Malek, Finn Skou Pedersen and Matthias Wabl

    Citation: Retrovirology 2004 1:5

    Content type: Research

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  27. HTLV-I is associated with adult T-cell leukemia, and both HTLV-I and -II are associated with HTLV-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). Several published reports suggest that HTLV-I may...

    Authors: Jennie R Orland, Baoguang Wang, David J Wright, Catharie C Nass, George Garratty, James W Smith, Bruce Newman, Donna M Smith and Edward L Murphy

    Citation: Retrovirology 2004 1:4

    Content type: Research

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  28. We previously described the construction of an HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein complex (Env) that is stabilized by an engineered intermolecular disulfide bond (SOS) between gp120 and gp41. The modified Env protein...

    Authors: Rogier W Sanders, Martijn M Dankers, Els Busser, Michael Caffrey, John P Moore and Ben Berkhout

    Citation: Retrovirology 2004 1:3

    Content type: Research

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  29. CCR5 and CXCR4 are the two main coreceptors essential for HIV entry. Therefore, these chemokine receptors have become important targets in the search for anti-HIV agents. Here, we describe the establishment of...

    Authors: Katrien Princen, Sigrid Hatse, Kurt Vermeire, Erik De Clercq and Dominique Schols

    Citation: Retrovirology 2004 1:2

    Content type: Research

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