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  1. Content type: Research

    HIV-1 Tat activates transcription of HIV-1 viral genes by inducing phosphorylation of the C-terminal domain (CTD) of RNA polymerase II (RNAPII). Tat can also disturb cellular metabolism by inhibiting prolifera...

    Authors: Nicolas Epie, Tatyana Ammosova, Tamar Sapir, Yaroslav Voloshin, William S Lane, Willie Turner, Orly Reiner and Sergei Nekhai

    Citation: Retrovirology 2005 2:6

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  2. Content type: Research

    HIV infection and progression to AIDS is characterized by the depletion of T cells, which could be due, in part, to apoptosis mediated by the extra-cellular HIV-encoded Tat protein as a consequence of Tat bind...

    Authors: Jean de Mareuil, Manon Carre, Pascale Barbier, Grant R Campbell, Sophie Lancelot, Sandrine Opi, Didier Esquieu, Jennifer D Watkins, Charles Prevot, Diane Braguer, Vincent Peyrot and Erwann P Loret

    Citation: Retrovirology 2005 2:5

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  3. Content type: Research

    Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) proviral load is related to the development of HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) and has also been shown to be elevated in the perip...

    Authors: Maria Yakova, Agnès Lézin, Fabienne Dantin, Gisèle Lagathu, Stéphane Olindo, Georges Jean-Baptiste, Serge Arfi and Raymond Césaire

    Citation: Retrovirology 2005 2:4

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  4. Content type: Research

    Retroviruses have a diploid genome and recombine at high frequency. Recombinant proviruses can be generated when two genetically different RNA genomes are packaged into the same retroviral particle. It was sho...

    Authors: Sergey A Kharytonchyk, Alla I Kireyeva, Anna B Osipovich and Igor K Fomin

    Citation: Retrovirology 2005 2:3

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  5. Content type: Research

    The antibacterial activity of host defense peptides (HDP) is largely mediated by permeabilization of bacterial membranes. The lipid membrane of enveloped viruses might also be a target of antimicrobial peptide...

    Authors: Lars Steinstraesser, Bettina Tippler, Janine Mertens, Evert Lamme, Heinz-Herbert Homann, Marcus Lehnhardt, Oliver Wildner, Hans-Ulrich Steinau and Klaus Überla

    Citation: Retrovirology 2005 2:2

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  6. Content type: Research

    Several cellular positive and negative elongation factors are involved in regulating RNA polymerase II processivity during transcription elongation in human cells. In recruiting several of these regulatory fac...

    Authors: Yueh-Hsin Ping, Chia-ying Chu, Hong Cao, Jean-Marc Jacque, Mario Stevenson and Tariq M Rana

    Citation: Retrovirology 2004 1:46

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  7. Content type: Research

    The identification of the molecular mechanisms of human immunodeficiency virus type 1, HIV-1, transcriptional regulation is required to develop novel inhibitors of viral replication. NF-κB transacting factors ...

    Authors: Camillo Palmieri, Francesca Trimboli, Antimina Puca, Giuseppe Fiume, Giuseppe Scala and Ileana Quinto

    Citation: Retrovirology 2004 1:45

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  8. Content type: Research

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are 21~25-nucleotides (nt) long and interact with mRNAs to trigger either translational repression or RNA cleavage through RNA interference (RNAi), depending on the degree of complementarity...

    Authors: Shinya Omoto, Masafumi Ito, Yutaka Tsutsumi, Yuko Ichikawa, Harumi Okuyama, Ebiamadon Andi Brisibe, Nitin K Saksena and Yoichi R Fujii

    Citation: Retrovirology 2004 1:44

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  9. Content type: Short report

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small RNAs of 21–25 nucleotides that specifically regulate cellular gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. miRNAs are derived from the maturation by cellular RNases III of im...

    Authors: Yamina Bennasser, Shu-Yun Le, Man Lung Yeung and Kuan-Teh Jeang

    Citation: Retrovirology 2004 1:43

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  10. Content type: Research

    Human T-cell leukemia virus (HTLV) -1 and -2 are deltaretroviruses that infect a wide range of cells. Glut1, the major vertebrate glucose transporter, has been shown to be the HTLV Env receptor. While it is we...

    Authors: Felix J Kim, Nicolas Manel, Edith N Garrido, Carine Valle, Marc Sitbon and Jean-Luc Battini

    Citation: Retrovirology 2004 1:41

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  11. Content type: Commentary

    Human T-lymphotropic virus type-1 (HTLV-1) is a complex retrovirus that causes adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) and is implicated in a variety of lymphocyte-mediated disorders. HTLV-1 pX ORF II encodes two...

    Authors: Patrick L Green

    Citation: Retrovirology 2004 1:40

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  12. Content type: Research

    Human T-lymphotropic virus type-1 (HTLV-1) is a deltaretrovirus that causes adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma and is implicated in a variety of lymphocyte-mediated disorders. HTLV-1 contains both regulatory and a...

    Authors: Bindhu Michael, Amrithraj M Nair, Hajime Hiraragi, Lei Shen, Gerold Feuer, Kathleen Boris-Lawrie and Michael D Lairmore

    Citation: Retrovirology 2004 1:39

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  13. Content type: Research

    The protease inhibitor, TL-3, demonstrated broad efficacy in vitro against FIV, HIV and SIV (simian immunodeficiency virus), and exhibited very strong protective effects on early neurologic alterations in the CNS...

    Authors: Sohela de Rozières, Christina H Swan, Dennis A Sheeter, Karen J Clingerman, Ying-Chuan Lin, Salvador Huitron-Resendiz, Steven Henriksen, Bruce E Torbett and John H Elder

    Citation: Retrovirology 2004 1:38

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  14. Content type: Short report

    A pol-fragment of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) that is highly related to SIVdrl-pol from drill monkeys (Mandrillus leucophaeus) was detected in two mandrills (Mandrillus sphinx) from Amsterdam Zoo. These c...

    Authors: Antoinette C van der Kuyl, Remco van den Burg, Mark J Hoyer, Rob A Gruters, Albert DME Osterhaus and Ben Berkhout

    Citation: Retrovirology 2004 1:36

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  15. Content type: Commentary

    Nucleo-cytoplasmic transport of RNA is one of many cellular pathways whose illumination has progressed hand in hand with understanding of retroviral mechanisms. A recent paper in Cell reports the involvement of a...

    Authors: Andrew I Dayton

    Citation: Retrovirology 2004 1:35

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  16. Content type: Research

    The Sykes' monkey and related forms (Cercopithecus mitis) make up an abundant, widespread and morphologically diverse species complex in eastern Africa that naturally harbors a distinct simian immunodeficiency vi...

    Authors: Brett R Ellis, Elephas Munene, Debra Elliott, James Robinson, Moses G Otsyula and Scott F Michael

    Citation: Retrovirology 2004 1:34

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  17. Content type: Research

    The early stages consecutive to infection of sheep (e.g. primo-infection) by Bovine leukemia virus mutants are largely unknown. In order to better understand the mechanisms associated with this period, we aime...

    Authors: Christophe Debacq, Maria Teresa Sanchez Alcaraz, Franck Mortreux, Pierre Kerkhofs, Richard Kettmann and Luc Willems

    Citation: Retrovirology 2004 1:31

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  18. Content type: Research

    The aim of this study was to evaluate gene therapy for AIDS based on the transduction of circulating lymphocytes with a retroviral vector giving low levels of constitutive macaque interferon β production in ma...

    Authors: Wilfried Gay, Evelyne Lauret, Bertrand Boson, Jérome Larghero, Franck Matheux, Sophie Peyramaure, Véronique Rousseau, Dominique Dormont, Edward De Maeyer and Roger Le Grand

    Citation: Retrovirology 2004 1:29

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  19. Content type: Commentary

    The viral infectivity factor, Vif, of human immunodeficiency virus type 1, HIV-1, has long been shown to promote viral replication in vivo and to serve a critical function for productive infection of non-permissi...

    Authors: Joao Goncalves and Mariana Santa-Marta

    Citation: Retrovirology 2004 1:28

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  20. Content type: Research

    The human immunodeficiency virus Vif protein overcomes the inhibitory activity of the APOBEC3G cytidine deaminase by prohibiting its packaging into virions. Inhibition of APOBEC3G encapsidation is paralleled b...

    Authors: Sandra Kao, Eri Miyagi, Mohammad A Khan, Hiroaki Takeuchi, Sandrine Opi, Ritu Goila-Gaur and Klaus Strebel

    Citation: Retrovirology 2004 1:27

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  21. Content type: Editorial

    Retrovirology has been publishing as an Open Access online journal for approximately six months. In this editorial, I review the reasons for and the advantages of Open Access publishing, update our progress to...

    Authors: Kuan-Teh Jeang

    Citation: Retrovirology 2004 1:24

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  22. Content type: Research

    The HIV-1 genome encodes a well-conserved accessory gene product, Vpr, that serves multiple functions in the retroviral life cycle, including the enhancement of viral replication in nondividing macrophages, th...

    Authors: Xiao-Jian Yao, Nicole Rougeau, Ghislaine Duisit, Julie Lemay and Éric A Cohen

    Citation: Retrovirology 2004 1:21

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  23. Content type: Commentary

    The viral transactivator of HTLV-I, Tax, has long been shown to target the earliest steps of transcription by forming quaternary complexes with sequence specific transcription factors and histone-modifying enz...

    Authors: Cynthia de la Fuente and Fatah Kashanchi

    Citation: Retrovirology 2004 1:19

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  24. Content type: Research

    Human T-cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-I) Tax protein is a transcriptional regulator of viral and cellular genes. In this study we have examined in detail the determinants for Tax-mediated transcriptional ac...

    Authors: Yick-Pang Ching, Abel CS Chun, King-Tung Chin, Zhi-Qing Zhang, Kuan-Teh Jeang and Dong-Yan Jin

    Citation: Retrovirology 2004 1:18

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  25. Content type: Research

    The viral and host factors involved in transmission of HIV through breastfeeding are largely unknown, and intervention strategies are urgently needed to protect at-risk populations. To evaluate the viral and i...

    Authors: Angela M Amedee, Jenna Rychert, Nedra Lacour, Lynn Fresh and Marion Ratterree

    Citation: Retrovirology 2004 1:17

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  26. Content type: Hypothesis

    The HIV-1 plague continues unabatedly across sub-Saharan Africa. In Botswana and Swaziland, nearly 40% of the entire adult population is already infected. No current program is capable of slowing the advancing...

    Authors: Stephen M Smith

    Citation: Retrovirology 2004 1:16

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  27. Content type: Research

    Despite the effectiveness of currently available antiretroviral therapies in the treatment of HIV-1 infection, a continuing need exists for novel compounds that can be used in combination with existing drugs t...

    Authors: Jing Zhou, Chin Ho Chen and Christopher Aiken

    Citation: Retrovirology 2004 1:15

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  28. Content type: Review

    Apoptosis, or programmed cell death, is a key event in biologic homeostasis but is also involved in the pathogenesis of many human diseases including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Although mult...

    Authors: Barbara Ahr, Véronique Robert-Hebmann, Christian Devaux and Martine Biard-Piechaczyk

    Citation: Retrovirology 2004 1:12

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  29. Content type: Research

    Since the discovery of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) twenty years ago, AIDS has become one of the most studied diseases. A number of viruses have subsequently been identified to contribute to the pathog...

    Authors: Elodie Ghedin, Anne Pumfery, Cynthia de la Fuente, Karen Yao, Naomi Miller, Vincent Lacoste, John Quackenbush, Steven Jacobson and Fatah Kashanchi

    Citation: Retrovirology 2004 1:10

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  30. Content type: Review

    During the last two decades, the profusion of HIV research due to the urge to identify new therapeutic targets has led to a wealth of information on the retroviral replication cycle. However, while the late st...

    Authors: Sébastien Nisole and Ali Saïb

    Citation: Retrovirology 2004 1:9

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  31. Content type: Commentary

    Recent data have established the HIV-1 and SIV escape CTL through epitope mutation. However, three novel studies prove that such escape comes at a "cost" to overall viral fitness. Understanding how HIV-1/SIV e...

    Authors: Stephen M Smith

    Citation: Retrovirology 2004 1:8

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  32. Content type: Research

    It is poorly understood why many transforming proteins reportedly enhance both cell growth (transformation) and cell death (apoptosis). At first glance, the ability to transform and the ability to engender apo...

    Authors: Takefumi Kasai and Kuan-Teh Jeang

    Citation: Retrovirology 2004 1:7

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  33. Content type: Research

    The human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) Tax protein indirectly influences transcriptional activation, signal transduction, cell cycle control, and apoptosis. The function of Tax primarily relies on pro...

    Authors: Kylene Kehn, Longwen Deng, Cynthia de la Fuente, Katharine Strouss, Kaili Wu, Anil Maddukuri, Shanese Baylor, Robyn Rufner, Anne Pumfery, Maria Elena Bottazzi and Fatah Kashanchi

    Citation: Retrovirology 2004 1:6

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  34. Content type: Research

    To generate a replication-competent retrovirus that could be conditionally inactivated, we flanked the viral genes of the Akv murine leukemia virus with LoxP sites. This provirus can delete its envelope gene b...

    Authors: Clifford L Wang, J Graeme Hodgson, Tiffany Malek, Finn Skou Pedersen and Matthias Wabl

    Citation: Retrovirology 2004 1:5

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  35. Content type: Research

    HTLV-I is associated with adult T-cell leukemia, and both HTLV-I and -II are associated with HTLV-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). Several published reports suggest that HTLV-I may...

    Authors: Jennie R Orland, Baoguang Wang, David J Wright, Catharie C Nass, George Garratty, James W Smith, Bruce Newman, Donna M Smith and Edward L Murphy

    Citation: Retrovirology 2004 1:4

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