Skip to main content

Volume 9 Supplement 2

AIDS Vaccine 2012

Mucosal prime with a replicating vaccinia-based vaccine promotes mucosal immunity against SIV


We previously demonstrated that vaccine prime with a recombinant replication-competent modified vaccinia Tiantan (rMVTTSIVgpe) was able to enhance the boost effects of a rAd5SIVgpe for eliciting protective immunity against SIV mucosal challenge in rhesus macaques. Whether this heterologous prime and boost regimen is able to elicit potent mucosal immunity specific to SIV remains less understood.


Different groups of mice were immunized with the following regiments: rMVTTSIVgpe-rAd5SIVgpe, rAd5SIVgpe-rMVTTSIVgpe and rAd5SIVgpe-rAd5SIVgpe. rMVTTSIVgpe was administrated through intraoral and intranasal routes (ioin) routes whereas rAd5SIVgpe was given through the intramuscular injection (im).


Consistent with previous findings in macaques, mice immunized with the rMVTTSIVgpe-rAd5SIVgpe regimen generated significantly stronger systemic cellular immune responses as well as serum antibody responses than any other vaccine regimens. Furthermore, as compared with other groups, this rMVTTSIVgpe-rAd5SIVgpe regimen induced significantly higher frequencies of gut-homing CCR9+ Gag-specific CD8+ T cells as well as CCR6+ Gag-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. This regimen also elicited the highest level of CD8+ T cell ELIspot responses against Gag, Pol and Env antigens in mesenteric lymph nodes (mLN). Besides, SIV-specific IgGs could be detected in the rectal wash of mice received rMVTTSIVgpe-rAd5SIVgpe immunization with detectable neutralizing activity.


These findings demonstrated that mucosal priming with rMVTTSIVgpe significantly promoted mucosal immunity against SIV, which may have implications to the effectiveness of the mucosal rMVTTSIVgpe prime-systemic rAd5SIVgpe boost vacciniation strategy in preventing mucosal infection of SIVmac239 in macaques.

Author information



Corresponding author

Correspondence to X Tang.

Rights and permissions

This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Tang, X., Du, Y., Sun, C. et al. Mucosal prime with a replicating vaccinia-based vaccine promotes mucosal immunity against SIV. Retrovirology 9, P189 (2012).

Download citation


  • Rhesus Macaque
  • Mesenteric Lymph Node
  • Vaccinia
  • Mucosal Immunity
  • Intranasal Route