- Poster presentation
- Open Access
Evolution of viruses and antiviral defense
Retrovirology volume 6, Article number: P59 (2009)
Contemporary viruses can be organized in an evolutionary tree ranging from the RNA world to the DNA world, from ribozymes, via viroids, DNA-ribozymes, Influenza, retro-and para-retroviruses to DNA viruses - supporting a „virus-first“ hypothesis. Retroviruses have shaped or may have even built the human genome, where up to 50% are retrovirus-related sequences to which increasing and decreasing complexities contributed. Rudimentary reverse transcription from RNA to DNA is still ongoing today in telomeres during embryogenesis and cancer . Sequence analysis of the human genome witnesses our past, indicating how long HIV-like viruses, reverse transcriptase and RNases H have been around. Endogenization of retroviruses is actively ongoing in animal models and may allow a prediction on the future of HIV in people. Evolution of HIV takes place during antiretroviral therapies. An HIV suicide approach circumvents mutagenesis and escape mutants [2, 3]. Co-evolution or crossing arms, also known from phage and bacteria, can be deduced from structural and functional similarities of retroviral replication and the siRNA-mediated antiviral defense machineries . An evolutionary relationship between siRNA and interferon can be constructed by comparing their pathways. SiRNA involving dicer as well as inter-feron are active antiviral defense mechanisms in mammalian cells, tested by dicer and interferon knockdown analyses [5, 6]. The systems differ in strength and sequence specificities.
Noreen F, Heinrich J, Moelling K: Antitumor activity of small double-stranded oligodeoxynucleotides targeting telomerase RNA in malignant melanoma cells. Oligonucleotides. 2009, 19: 169-178. 10.1089/oli.2008.0170.
Heinrich J, Mathur S, Matskevich AA, Moelling K: Oligonucleotide-mediated retroviral RNase H activation leads to reduced HIV-1 titer in patient-derived plasma. AIDS. 2009, 23: 213-221. 10.1097/QAD.0b013e32831c5480.
Matzen K, Elzaouk L, Matskevich A, Nitzsche A, Heinrich J, Moelling K: RNase H-induced suicide of a retrovirus by oligodeoxy-nucleotides in a mouse model. Nat Biotechnol. 2007, 25: 669-674. 10.1038/nbt1311.
Moelling K, Matskevich A, Jung JS: Relationship between Retroviral Replication and RNA Interference Machineries. Cold Spring Harb Symp Quant Biol. 2006, 71: 365-368. 10.1101/sqb.2006.71.010.
Matskevich AA, Moelling K: Dicer is involved in protection against influenza A virus infection. J Gen Virol. 2007, 88: 2627-2635. 10.1099/vir.0.83103-0.
Matskevich AA, Moelling K: Stimuli-dependent cleavage of Dicer during apoptosis. Biochem J. 2008, 412: 527-534. 10.1042/BJ20071461.
About this article
Cite this article
Moelling, K. Evolution of viruses and antiviral defense. Retrovirology 6, P59 (2009). https://doi.org/10.1186/1742-4690-6-S2-P59
- Reverse Transcription
- Mammalian Cell
- Human Genome