MDM2 is a novel E3 ligase for HIV-1 Vif
- Taisuke Izumi1,
- Akifumi Takaori-Kondo1Email author,
- Kotaro Shirakawa1, 2,
- Hiroaki Higashitsuji3,
- Katsuhiko Itoh3,
- Katsuhiro Io1,
- Masashi Matsui1,
- Kazuhiro Iwai4, 5,
- Hiroshi Kondoh6,
- Toshihiro Sato7,
- Mitsunori Tomonaga7,
- Satoru Ikeda7,
- Hirofumi Akari8,
- Yoshio Koyanagi9,
- Jun Fujita3 and
- Takashi Uchiyama1
© Izumi et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2009
Received: 16 September 2008
Accepted: 07 January 2009
Published: 07 January 2009
The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Vif plays a crucial role in the viral life cycle by antagonizing a host restriction factor APOBEC3G (A3G). Vif interacts with A3G and induces its polyubiquitination and subsequent degradation via the formation of active ubiquitin ligase (E3) complex with Cullin5-ElonginB/C. Although Vif itself is also ubiquitinated and degraded rapidly in infected cells, precise roles and mechanisms of Vif ubiquitination are largely unknown. Here we report that MDM2, known as an E3 ligase for p53, is a novel E3 ligase for Vif and induces polyubiquitination and degradation of Vif. We also show the mechanisms by which MDM2 only targets Vif, but not A3G that binds to Vif. MDM2 reduces cellular Vif levels and reversely increases A3G levels, because the interaction between MDM2 and Vif precludes A3G from binding to Vif. Furthermore, we demonstrate that MDM2 negatively regulates HIV-1 replication in non-permissive target cells through Vif degradation. These data suggest that MDM2 is a regulator of HIV-1 replication and might be a novel therapeutic target for anti-HIV-1 drug.
Host restriction factors protect hosts from viruses, whereas viruses evade these proteins to replicate more efficiently in host cells. The interplay between the host restriction factors and viral proteins is therefore very important for regulating viral replication [1, 2]. A3G (Apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme, catalytic polypeptide-like 3G) is a newly identified anti-HIV-1 host factor , which belongs to the APOBEC superfamily of cytidine deaminases, consisting of APOBEC1, APOBEC2, AID (activation-induced cytidine deaminase), APOBEC3(A-H), and APOBEC4 . A3G is incorporated into HIV-1 virions and inhibits HIV-1 replication by inducing G-to-A hypermutation in viral cDNA during reverse transcription [5–8]. HIV-1 Vif counteracts A3G by targeting it for proteasomal degradation, thus supporting HIV-1 replication in non-permissive target cells [9–11]. Vif forms a ubiquitin ligase (E3) complex with Cullin5 (Cul5), Elongin B, and Elongin C and functions as a substrate recognition subunit of this complex to induce ubiquitination and subsequent degradation of A3G [12, 13]. Vif also counteracts several APOBEC3 proteins including APOBEC3F (A3F) [14, 15]. These observations reconcile the long-standing mystery of why Vif function is necessary for HIV-1 to infect non-permissive cells. On the other hand, it has been shown that intracellular levels of Vif are maintained relatively low by ubiquitination in virus-producing cells [16–18]. Although several groups have reported E3 ligases important for Vif ubiquitination [17, 18], the precise roles and mechanisms of Vif ubiquitination remain unclear. Here we demonstrate that MDM2 is a novel E3 ligase for Vif and that it induces ubiquitination and degradation of Vif, thereby regulating HIV-1 replication.
MDM2 downregulates cellular Vif levels by inducing its degradation in a proteasome-dependent manner
Because it is well known that MDM2 regulates p53 levels by modulating its protein stability, we next examined the protein stability of Vif with the ectopic expression of MDM2. HEK293T cells were transfected with pNL-A1 with or without a MDM2 expression vector and treated with cycloheximide 21 hrs after transfection. After cycloheximide treatment, cellular levels of Vif decreased by 60% in MDM2-transfected cells and by 20% in control cells, respectively (Fig. 1B &1C), indicating that Vif decayed much faster when MDM2 was overexpressed. The stability profile of Vif protein was similar to that of p53 (Fig. 1B). However, in our hands, the half-life of Vif protein was longer than those shown in previous studies from several laboratories. We interpret that this difference is attributable to divergent methods used in the studies which employed radioisotopes or cycloheximide. Thus, our findings suggest that MDM2 affects the stability of Vif protein similar to its effect on p53. We also examined the stability of Vif in MDM2-/- MEF cells. Vif decayed much faster in p53-/- MEF cells than in p53-/-MDM2-/- double knock-out (DKO) MEF cells (Additional file 1), suggesting that endogenous MDM2 can also influence the stability of Vif. We then tested a RING finger domain-deleted MDM2 mutant, ΔRF, which is inactive for the ubiquitination activity of MDM2 . Ectopic expression of MDM2 suppressed cellular Vif levels, but the expression of ΔRF did not (Fig. 1D). This result suggests that ubiquitination of Vif by MDM2 is involved in the downregulation of cellular Vif levels. We further treated transfected cells with a proteasome inhibitor MG132 to see whether the downregulation of Vif by MDM2 was proteasome-dependent. Treatment with MG132 clearly restored the cellular Vif level that was downregulated by MDM2 (Fig. 1E, top panel, lane 3 as compared with lane 1), supporting that the MDM2-mediated downregulation of Vif was proteasome-dependent. Taken together, we concluded that MDM2 downregulates cellular Vif level by inducing its degradation in a proteasome-dependent manner.
MDM2 specifically binds and downregulates Vif
MDM2 induces ubiqutination of Vif
MDM2 negatively regulates HIV-1 replication in non-permissive cells through ubiqutination and degradation of Vif
We also tested the effect of MDM2 on HIV-1 replication in the presence of A3F. MDM2 suppressed viral replication in the presence of A3F, similar to results shown for A3G (Additional file 3). These data indicated that the MDM2-mediated Vif downregulation led to upregulated cellular A3G and A3F levels in producer cells, resulting in less infectious HIV-1 virions produced. Since MDM2 was previously reported to upregulate HIV-1 transcription by ubiquitination of Tat, we further examined HIV-1 replication in macrophages knocked down for MDM2 (Fig. 5C). We chose terminally differentiated macrophages as the target, because the knockdown of MDM2 is lethal for proliferating cells. HIV-1 replicated more efficiently in macrophages transfected with MDM2 siRNA than in control siRNA-transfected macrophages. These data indicated that MDM2 negatively regulated HIV-1 replication in non-permissive target cells through the ubiquitination and degradation of Vif.
To obtain further insights into the mechanisms why our MDM2 system did not induce the ubiquitination of A3G which was bound to Vif, we tested the expression levels and the binding affinity of A3G to Vif in transfected cells. Co-expression of MDM2 reduced the cellular levels of Vif and inversely increased the A3G levels in a dose dependent manner (Fig. 5D). Immunoprecipitation assays revealed that the co-expression of MDM2 blocked the binding of A3G to Vif in a dose dependent manner (Fig. 5E). These data suggest that the interaction between MDM2 and Vif precludes A3G from binding to Vif.
In this study, we report that MDM2 is a novel E3 ligase for HIV-1 Vif. MDM2 physically interacts with Vif and functions as an E3 ligase for Vif to induce its polyubiquitination and proteasomal degradation. Several E3 ligases including Cul5 , Nedd4, and AIP4 , have been reported to induce Vif ubiquitination, and the roles of Cul5 for Vif ubiquitination and degradation are especially well documented. Dang et al. have recently reported that Cul5 induces A3G degradation not by direct ubiquination of A3G but indirectly through Vif ubiqutination and that polyubiquitinated Vif might serve as a vehicle to transport A3G into proteasomes for degradation . In this manuscript, we show that MDM2 only targets Vif for degradation but not A3G, although MDM2 and Cul5 both induce Vif ubiquitination (Additional file 2, part A). MDM2 reduced cellular Vif levels and inversely increased A3G levels (Fig. 5B &5D), unlike Cul5. One possible explanation is that the binding of MDM2 to Vif precluded A3G from binding Vif (Fig. 5E), whereas a Cul5-Vif complex can bind A3G to form a ternary complex. MDM2 binds the N-terminal region of Vif which does not overlap with, but is close to the A3G/A3F binding domain . This binding might affect the interaction of Vif with A3G and/or A3F. Furthermore, the evidence that an MDM2 ΔRF mutant failed to protect A3G indicated that the ubiquitination and degradation of Vif is necessary to protect A3G and A3F from Vif. These findings suggest that different E3 ligases might play different roles in Vif ubiquitination. Further studies on the different roles of Vif ubiquitination by different E3 ligases and their virological significance should be investigated.
We demonstrate that MDM2 negatively regulated HIV-1 replication through Vif degradation. Through the degradation of target proteins (p53, pRB, etc), MDM2 can exert profound physiological effects on the regulation of cell cycle, cell proliferation, DNA repairs and other processes. To our knowledge, this is the first report to show that MDM2 plays an important role in viral replication through the degradation of viral proteins. Recently, MDM2 was also reported to ubiquitinate HIV-1 Tat protein and activate its transcriptional activity in a non-proteolytic manner . Our experiment using MDM2 knockdown macrophages showed that HIV-1 replication in these macrophages was more efficient than in control siRNA-transfected macrophages. These data are consistent with MDM2 negatively regulateing HIV-1 replication through Vif ubiquitination (Fig. 5C). However, the replication efficiency of HIV-1 in MDM2 knockdown macrophages was only 2-fold higher and was slower than in control siRNA-transfected macrophages. This suggests the possibilities that the ubiquitination of Tat might work as a positive regulatory factor at an earlier phase of infection and that MDM2 might be involved in both positive and negative regulation of HIV-1 replication at different stages. Further studies on the detailed effect of MDM2 on HIV-1 replication are needed.
We also demonstrated that Vif can bind MDM2 directly. We also mapped the interaction domain of MDM2 with Vif to amino acids 168–320 which is located in its central acidic and Zn finger domains. This central domain is different from the primary p53-binding site of MDM2 which is located in its N-terminal region; however, this central deomain was recently reported as a second p53-binding site and was shown to be important for the regulation of p53 stability [27–30] (Fig. 2B &2C). Interestingly, several proteins including p300, p14ARF, and pRB bind to the central domain of MDM2 and regulate the stability and function of p53 via MDM2 [28, 31]. Thus, it is possible that Vif might affect the stability and function of p53. Indeed, we confirmed that Vif can stabilize p53 (Izumi et al., unpublished data), which could explain why the effect of MDM2 on p53 degradation was weaker than that on Vif as shown in Fig. 1A. A further study is under way to elucidate this new function of Vif (Izumi et al., HIV-1 Vif induces G2 cell cycle arrest via the p53 pathway, unpublished).
Finally, expanding evidence suggests that the ubiquitination system plays important roles in many aspects of HIV-1 replication including the degradation of A3G by Vif [9–11], the degradation of CD4 by Vpu , HIV-1 viral budding , Tat-mediated transactivation , and Vpr-induced G2 cell cycle arrest [34, 35]. The functional linkage between Vif and MDM2 also suggests that ubiquitin processes such as the A3G/Vif interplay is highly complex. It is obvious that HIV-1 replication in target CD4+ T cells is strongly affected by the interplay of these proteins. From the viral point of view, this interplay might give an advantage to HIV-1 replication. One possibility is that MDM2 regulates cellular Vif levels appropriately, such as not to affect viral replication  but just enough to antagonize A3G. Recent studies suggest that the G-to-A mutations induced by A3G may not be the mechanism by which A3G restricts or controls viral replication  and that a partially effective Vif inhibitor may actually accelerate the evolution of drug resistance and immune escape . The inhibitory activity of MDM2 toward Vif could be partially effective and therefore could lead to viral evolution of drug resistance and immune escape. More recently, Nathans et al. have reported a small molecule that specifically antagonizes Vif function and inhibits viral replication by targeting the A3G/Vif axis. This compound enhances Vif degradation only in the presence of A3G, but does not induce A3G degradation and rather stabilizes A3G. They suggested the possibility of a new proteolytic enzyme for Vif degradation and that their new compound interferes with Vif interaction with a host protein in a Vif-A3G-host protein complex, thereby making Vif less stable. The precise biological significance of this Vif-A3G-host protein complex requires future elucidation. Nevertheless, modification or intervention of such Vif-A3G-host protein interplay could lead to the development of new therapeutic strategies for HIV-1 infection.
MDM2 is a novel E3 ligase for Vif which induces the polyubiquitination and degradation of Vif to negatively regulate HIV-1 replication.
Expression vectors for hemagglutinin (HA)- or FLAG-tagged MDM2, pCMV4/HA-MDM2 or pCMV4/FLAG-MDM2, and their mutants were constructed as previously described . An expression vector for HA-tagged human APOBEC3G, pcDNA3/HA-hA3G , and HIV-1 reporter plasmids, pNL43/Δenv-Luc (WT) and pNL43/ΔenvΔvif-Luc (ΔVif) , were constructed as previously described. Expression vectors for FLAG-tagged Parkin and Cul5 (pcDNA3/FLAG-Parkin and pcDNA3/FLAG-Cul5, respectively) were constructed by the PCR method. Complementary DNA for HIV-1 Vif was also cloned into pDON-AI (TAKARA BIO INC.) and pDON/EGFP for expression of Vif and EGFP-fused Vif (EGFP-Vif). The subgenomic expression vector pNL-A1, which expresses all HIV-1 proteins except for gag and pol products, and its mutants expressing Vif deletion mutants were kind gifts from Dr. K. Strebel .
We performed an immunoprecipitation assay for protein-protein interaction in vivo, as described previously . HEK293T cells were cotransfected with pCMV4/HA-MDM2 and pNL-A1 by the calcium phosphate method. Two days after transfection, cells were lysed in lysis buffer (25 mM HEPES pH7.4/150 mM NaCl/1 mM MgCl2/0.5% TritonX-100/10% Glycerol) and complexes were immunoprecipitated with anti-MDM2 monoclonal antibody (mAb) (SMP-14, Santa Cruz Biotechnology, Inc., Santa Cruz, CA and Ab-1, Calbiochem, EMD Biosciences, Inc, Darmstadt, Germany) and Protein A-Sepharose beads (Amersham Biosciences Corp.) at 4°C. The beads were washed with RIPA buffer (50 mM Tris-HCl pH8.0/150 mM NaCl/1% Triton-X 100/0.1% SDS/0.1% DOC) and analyzed by immunoblotting with anti-Vif mAb (#319) (A kind gift from Dr. M. Malim through the AIDS Research and Reference Reagent Program)  or anti-HA mAb (12CA5). To map the regions of MDM2 necessary for binding to Vif, HEK293T cells were cotransfected with expression vectors for a series of MDM2 deletion mutants together with pNL-A1. Complexes were immunoprecipitated with anti-HA mAb and analyzed by immunoblotting with anti-Vif mAb. To map the regions of Vif necessary for binding to MDM2, HEK293T cells were cotransfected with expression vectors for a series of Vif deletion mutants together with pCMV4/HA-MDM2. Complexes were immunoprecipitated with anti-Vif mAb and analyzed by immunoblotting with anti-MDM2 mAb. In all these experiments, transfected cells were treated with MG132 for 6 hrs prior to harvesting in order to stabilize both Vif and MDM2; otherwise we could not detect the expression of MDM2 because of its rapid degradation, as seen in Fig. 1A.
In vitro and in vivo ubiquitination assays
In vitro ubiquitination assays were carried out in ubiquitin reaction buffer (50 mM Tris-HCl/2 mM ATP/5 mM MgCl2/2 μM DTT) with E1(200 ng), E2(Ubc5c)(150 ng), and GST-tagged ubiquitin (GST-Ub) (10 μg) as described previously . MDM2 and Vif were expressed as GST-fusion proteins in Escherichia coli strain DH5α and BL21, respectively. The reactions were incubated at 30°C for 90 min. The samples were subjected to immunoblotting with anti-Vif mAb to detect GST-ubiquitin conjugated Vif.
For in vivo ubiquitination assays, HEK 293T cells were cotransfected with plasmids expressing Vif, FLAG-MDM2 or its mutants, and His-tagged ubiquitin (His-Ub) as indicated. Cells were treated with 10 μM MG132 for 6 hrs prior to harvesting. Forty-eight hours post transfection, cell lysates were affinity-purified with Ni-NTA-agarose beads (Invitrogen corporation, Carlsbad, CA) and analyzed by immunoblotting with anti-Vif mAb.
For production of RNAi within the cells, we used the pSuper vector as described previously . pSuper-MDM2-1 contained the 19 nt derived from the mdm2 cDNA (nt 404–422) as the target sequence. Double-stranded RNA containing scrambled 19 nt was used as a control. HEK293T cells were transfected with pSuper plasmids together with plasmids expressing Vif and HA-Ub. Cell lysates were immunoprecipitated with anti-Vif mAb followed by immunoblottimg with anti-HA mAb.
Single round infection assays with HIV-1 luciferase reporter virus
Luciferase reporter viruses with or without Vif were prepared by cotransfection of pNL43/Δenv-Luc (Wt) or pNL43/ΔenvΔvif-Luc (ΔVif) plus pVSV-G together with a mock vector or an expression vector for MDM2 or a mutant in the presence or absence of pcDNA3/hA3G by calcium phosphate as previously described . The reporter viruses were adjusted according to p24 values and used to infect M8166 target cells. Productive infection was measured by luciferase activity and values were presented as percent infectivity relative to the value of each virus without the expression of hA3G.
Knockdown of MDM2 in macrophages and replication assays
Monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM) were cultured for 7 days from CD14+ monocytes isolated from the peripheral blood of an HIV-1-negative healthy individual. Electroporation with Stealth Select RNAi for MDM2 or Control (Invitrogen Corporation) was performed using the Nucleofector machine (Amaxa Inc., Gaithersburg, MD) according to the manufacturer's instructions. Twenty four hours after transfection, MDM were challenged with R5 HIV-1JR-FL at multiplicity of infection of 0.1 at 37°C for 3 hrs. The cells were cultured from day 4 to 21 after infection, and the concentration of p24 antigen in the supernatant was measured with an HIV-1 p24 antigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay [ELISA] kit (ZeptMetrix, Buffalo, NY).
We thank Drs. K. Strebel for the pNL-A1 plasmid and its derivative mutants, D. P. Lane for p53-/-MDM2-/- DKO-MEF, and M. Malim for the anti-Vif mAb (#319) through the AIDS Research and Reference Reagent Program, Division of AIDS, NIAID, NIH. This study was partly supported by grants-in-aid from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science, and Technology, from the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare, Japan, from the Naito Foundation, and from Mitsubishi Pharma Research Foundation.
- Goff SP: Retrovirus restriction factors. Mol Cell. 2004, 16: 849-859. 10.1016/j.molcel.2004.12.001.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Towers GJ: The control of viral infection by tripartite motif proteins and cyclophilin A. Retrovirology. 2007, 4: 40-10.1186/1742-4690-4-40.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Sheehy AM, Gaddis NC, Choi JD, Malim MH: Isolation of a human gene that inhibits HIV-1 infection and is suppressed by the viral Vif protein. Nature. 2002, 418: 646-650. 10.1038/nature00939.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Goila-Gaur R, Strebel K: HIV-1 Vif, APOBEC, and intrinsic immunity. Retrovirology. 2008, 5: 51-10.1186/1742-4690-5-51.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Mangeat B, Turelli P, Caron G, Friedli M, Perrin L, Trono D: Broad antiretroviral defence by human APOBEC3G through lethal editing of nascent reverse transcripts. Nature. 2003, 424: 99-103. 10.1038/nature01709.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Harris RS, Bishop KN, Sheehy AM, Craig HM, Petersen-Mahrt SK, Watt IN, Neuberger MS, Malim MH: DNA deamination mediates innate immunity to retroviral infection. Cell. 2003, 113: 803-809. 10.1016/S0092-8674(03)00423-9.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Zhang H, Yang B, Pomerantz RJ, Zhang C, Arunachalam SC, Gao L: The cytidine deaminase CEM15 induces hypermutation in newly synthesized HIV-1 DNA. Nature. 2003, 424: 94-98. 10.1038/nature01707.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Shindo K, Takaori-Kondo A, Kobayashi M, Abudu A, Fukunaga K, Uchiyama T: The enzymatic activity of CEM15/Apobec-3G is essential for the regulation of the infectivity of HIV-1 virion but not a sole determinant of its antiviral activity. J Biol Chem. 2003, 278: 44412-44416. 10.1074/jbc.C300376200.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Marin M, Rose KM, Kozak SL, Kabat D: HIV-1 Vif protein binds the editing enzyme APOBEC3G and induces its degradation. Nat Med. 2003, 9: 1398-1403. 10.1038/nm946.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Sheehy AM, Gaddis NC, Malim MH: The antiretroviral enzyme APOBEC3G is degraded by the proteasome in response to HIV-1 Vif. Nat Med. 2003, 9: 1404-1407. 10.1038/nm945.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Stopak K, de Noronha C, Yonemoto W, Greene WC: HIV-1 Vif blocks the antiviral activity of APOBEC3G by impairing both its translation and intracellular stability. Mol Cell. 2003, 12: 591-601. 10.1016/S1097-2765(03)00353-8.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Yu X, Yu Y, Liu B, Luo K, Kong W, Mao P, Yu XF: Induction of APOBEC3G ubiquitination and degradation by an HIV-1 Vif-Cul5-SCF complex. Science. 2003, 302: 1056-1060. 10.1126/science.1089591.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kobayashi M, Takaori-Kondo A, Miyauchi Y, Iwai K, Uchiyama T: Ubiquitination of APOBEC3G by an HIV-1 Vif-Cullin5-Elongin B-Elongin C Complex Is Essential for Vif Function. J Biol Chem. 2005, 280: 18573-18578. 10.1074/jbc.C500082200.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Zheng Y-H, Irwin D, Kurosu T, Tokunaga K, Sata T, Peterlin BM: Human APOBEC3F Is Another Host Factor That Blocks Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Replication. J Virol. 2004, 78: 6073-6076. 10.1128/JVI.78.11.6073-6076.2004.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Shirakawa K, Takaori-Kondo A, Kobayashi M, Tomonaga M, Izumi T, Fukunaga K, Sasada A, Abudu A, Miyauchi Y, Akari H: Ubiquitination of APOBEC3 proteins by the Vif-Cullin5-ElonginB-ElonginC complex. Virology. 2006, 344: 263-266. 10.1016/j.virol.2005.10.028.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Fujita M, Akari H, Sakurai A, Yoshida A, Chiba T, Tanaka K, Strebel K, Adachi A: Expression of HIV-1 accessory protein Vif is controlled uniquely to be low and optimal by proteasome degradation. Microbes Infect. 2004, 6: 791-798. 10.1016/j.micinf.2004.04.011.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Mehle A, Goncalves J, Santa-Marta M, McPike M, Gabuzda D: Phosphorylation of a novel SOCS-box regulates assembly of the HIV-1 Vif-Cul5 complex that promotes APOBEC3G degradation. Genes Dev. 2004, 18: 2861-2866. 10.1101/gad.1249904.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Dussart S, Courcoul M, Bessou G, Douaisi M, Duverger Y, Vigne R, Decroly E: The Vif protein of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 is posttranslationally modified by ubiquitin. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2004, 315: 66-72. 10.1016/j.bbrc.2004.01.023.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Higashitsuji H, Itoh K, Sakurai T, Nagao T, Sumitomo Y, Masuda T, Dawson S, Shimada Y, Mayer RJ, Fujita J: The oncoprotein gankyrin binds to MDM2/HDM2, enhancing ubiquitylation and degradation of p53. Cancer Cell. 2005, 8: 75-87. 10.1016/j.ccr.2005.06.006.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Honda R, Tanaka H, Yasuda H: Oncoprotein MDM2 is a ubiquitin ligase E3 for tumor suppressor p53. FEBS Lett. 1997, 420: 25-27. 10.1016/S0014-5793(97)01480-4.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Yu Y, Xiao Z, Ehrlich ES, Yu X, Yu X-F: Selective assembly of HIV-1 Vif-Cul5-ElonginB-ElonginC E3 ubiquitin ligase complex through a novel SOCS box and upstream cysteines. Genes Dev. 2004, 18: 2867-2872. 10.1101/gad.1250204.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Strebel K, Daugherty D, Clouse K, Cohen D, Folks T, Martin MA: The HIV 'A' (sor) gene product is essential for virus infectivity. Nature. 1987, 328: 728-730. 10.1038/328728a0.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Dang Y, Siew LM, Zheng YH: APOBEC3G is degraded by the proteasomal pathway in a Vif-dependent manner without being polyubiquitylated. J Biol Chem. 2008, 283: 13124-13131. 10.1074/jbc.M708728200.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Honda R, Yasuda H: Activity of MDM2, a ubiquitin ligase, toward p53 or itself is dependent on the RING finger domain of the ligase. Oncogene. 2000, 19: 1473-1476. 10.1038/sj.onc.1203464.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- He Z, Zhang W, Chen G, Xu R, Yu XF: Characterization of conserved motifs in HIV-1 Vif required for APOBEC3G and APOBEC3F interaction. J Mol Biol. 2008, 381: 1000-1011. 10.1016/j.jmb.2008.06.061.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Brès V, Kiernan RE, Linares LK, Chable-Bessia C, Plechakova O, Tréand C, Emiliani S, Peloponese JM, Jeang KT, Coux O, Scheffner M, Benkirane M: A non-proteolytic role for ubiquitin in Tat-mediated transactivation of the HIV-1 promoter. Nat Cell Biol. 2003, 5: 754-761. 10.1038/ncb1023.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Argentini M, Barboule N, Wasylyk B: The contribution of the acidic domain of MDM2 to p53 and MDM2 stability. Oncogene. 2001, 20: 1267-1275. 10.1038/sj.onc.1204241.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Iwakuma T, Lozano G: MDM2, an introduction. Mol Cancer Res. 2003, 1: 993-1000.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kawai H, Wiederschain D, Yuan ZM: Critical contribution of the MDM2 acidic domain to p53 ubiquitination. Mol Cell Biol. 2003, 23: 4939-4947. 10.1128/MCB.23.14.4939-4947.2003.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Meulmeester E, Frenk R, Stad R, de Graaf P, Marine JC, Vousden KH, Jochemsen AG: Critical role for a central part of Mdm2 in the ubiquitylation of p53. Mol Cell Biol. 2003, 23: 4929-4938. 10.1128/MCB.23.14.4929-4938.2003.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ganguli G, Wasylyk B: p53-independent functions of MDM2. Mol Cancer Res. 2003, 1: 1027-1035.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Margottin F, Bour SP, Durand H, Selig L, Benichou S, Richard V, Thomas D, Strebel K, Benarous R: A novel human WD protein, h-beta TrCp, that interacts with HIV-1 Vpu connects CD4 to the ER degradation pathway through an F-box motif. Mol Cell. 1998, 1: 565-574. 10.1016/S1097-2765(00)80056-8.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Freed EO: Viral late domains. J Virol. 2002, 76: 4679-4687. 10.1128/JVI.76.10.4679-4687.2002.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Wen X, Duus KM, Friedrich TD, de Noronha CM: The HIV1 protein Vpr acts to promote G2 cell cycle arrest by engaging a DDB1 and Cullin4A-containing ubiquitin ligase complex using VprBP/DCAF1 as an adaptor. J Biol Chem. 2007, 282: 27046-27057. 10.1074/jbc.M703955200.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Schrofelbauer B, Hakata Y, Landau NR: HIV-1 Vpr function is mediated by interaction with the damage-specific DNA-binding protein DDB1. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2007, 104: 4130-4135. 10.1073/pnas.0610167104.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Akari H, Fujita M, Kao S, Khan MA, Shehu-Xhilaga M, Adachi A, Strebel K: High level expression of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 Vif inhibits viral infectivity by modulating proteolytic processing of the Gag precursor at the p2/nucleocapsid processing site. J Biol Chem. 2004, 279: 12355-12362. 10.1074/jbc.M312426200.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ulenga NK, Sarr AD, Hamel D, Sankale JL, Mboup S, Kanki PJ: The level of APOBEC3G (hA3G)-related G-to-A mutations does not correlate with viral load in HIV type 1-infected individuals. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2008, 24: 1285-1290. 10.1089/aid.2008.0072.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Pillai SK, Wong JK, Barbour JD: Turning up the volume on mutational pressure: is more of a good thing always better? (A case study of HIV-1 Vif and APOBEC3). Retrovirology. 2008, 5: 26-10.1186/1742-4690-5-26.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kobayashi M, Takaori-Kondo A, Shindo K, Abudu A, Fukunaga K, Uchiyama T: APOBEC3G Targets Specific Virus Species. J Virol. 2004, 78: 8238-8244. 10.1128/JVI.78.15.8238-8244.2004.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Simon JH, Southerling TE, Peterson JC, Meyer BE, Malim MH: Complementation of vif-defective human immunodeficiency virus type 1 by primate, but not nonprimate, lentivirus vif genes. J Virol. 1995, 69: 4166-4172.PubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.