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High prevalence of cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection in infants born to HIV infected mothers–ANRS French Perinatal Cohort (EPF)

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Background

In developed countries, 0.3% to 0.5% of all newborns are congenitally infected by cytomegalovirus (CMV) with the risk of sensorineural hearing loss or mental retardation [1, 2]. Few results about congenital CMV infection in infants born to HIV-infected women have been reported [3]. Rate of disease progression and central nervous system disease was found to be higher in HIV-1-infected infants who acquire CMV infection in the first 18 months of life than those infected with HIV-1 alone [4]. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of neonatal CMV infection in children born to HIV-infected mothers between 1993 and 2004 enrolled in the ANRS French Perinatal Cohort (EPF).

Materials and methods

EPF is a national prospective multicenter cohort of mother-to-child HIV transmission. As part of the standardized follow-up of infants born alive between 1993 and 2004 in EPF sites, a urine sample was obtained within the ten first days of life. These samples were used to screen for congenital CMV infection, using rapid culture from 1993 to 2001 and real-time PCR since 2001.

Results

Between 1993 and 2004, 4995 of the 7878 newborns included in EPF were screened for CMV. The prevalence of CMV infection was 2.4% (119 positive tests; 95% confidence interval: 2.0–2.8). Thirteen of the 119 CMV infected newborns were also infected with HIV. The prevalence of CMV infection was higher in HIV-infected newborns (10.2%; 95% CI: 4.9-15.5) than in HIV-uninfected newborns (2.2%, 95% CI: 1.8-2.6, p<0.01).

Conclusions

The prevalence of congenital CMV infection was high in children born to HIV- infected mothers and was significantly higher in HIV-infected children than HIV-uninfected children.

References

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    Barbi M, Binda S, Caroppo S, Calvario A, Germinario C, Bozzi A, et al: Multicity Italian study of congenital cytomegalovirus infection. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2006, 25: 156-159. 10.1097/01.inf.0000199261.98769.29.

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    Gratacap-Cavallier B, Morand P, Dutertre N, Bosson JL, Baccard-Longere M, Jouk PS, et al: Cytomegalovirus infection in pregnant women. Seroepidemiological prospective study in 1,018 women in Isere. J Gynecol Obstet Biol Reprod (Paris). 1998, 27: 161-166.

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    Doyle M, Atkins JT, Rivera-Matos IR: Congenital cytomegalovirus infection in infants infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 1996, 15: 1102-1106. 10.1097/00006454-199612000-00010.

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    Kovacs A, Schluchter M, Easley K, Demmler G, Shearer W, La Russa P, et al: Cytomegalovirus infection and HIV-1 disease progression in infants born to HIV-1-infected women. Pediatric Pulmonary and Cardiovascular Complications of Vertically Transmitted HIV Infection Study Group. N Engl J Med. 1999, 341: 77-84. 10.1056/NEJM199907083410203.

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Acknowledgements

The study was supported by the ANRS. We thank all cohort investigators and V Benhammou, N Chernai, A Diop, K Hamrene, P Huynh, C Laurent, M Peres, ERamos, L Boufassa, T Wack, N Zeller.

Author information

Correspondence to Gaelle Guibert.

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Open Access This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 International License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Guibert, G., Leruez-Ville, M., Rouzioux, C. et al. High prevalence of cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection in infants born to HIV infected mothers–ANRS French Perinatal Cohort (EPF). Retrovirology 5, O10 (2008) doi:10.1186/1742-4690-5-S1-O10

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Keywords

  • Sensorineural Hearing
  • Sensorineural Hearing Loss
  • Central Nervous System Disease
  • Nervous System Disease
  • Infected Mother