Skip to main content
Fig. 3 | Retrovirology

Fig. 3

From: Elevated levels of inflammatory plasma biomarkers are associated with risk of HIV infection

Fig. 3

Preinfection individuals have significantly higher cytokines and chemokine levels compared to the uninfected group when individuals exhibiting genital inflammation/ulceration are excluded. Cytokine and chemokines concentrations from plasma from the Zambian and Rwandan preinfection and uninfected groups were compared when individuals were separated based on presence or absence of genital inflammation or ulceration. Forms of genital inflammation included: ulcers, inflammation due to STI, and inflammation not caused by STIs. The levels of cytokines and chemokines were separated by the country of origin (Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, two-tailed, FDR adjusted p-values). Light purple (uninfected individuals without genital inflammation, U−), yellow (preinfection individuals without genital inflammation, P−), orange (uninfected individuals with genital inflammation, U+), purple (preinfection individuals with genital inflammation, P+)

Back to article page
\