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Table 1 Inactivation steps in virus production and the log reduction at each inactivation step
figure a

From: First Phase I human clinical trial of a killed whole-HIV-1 vaccine: demonstration of its safety and enhancement of anti-HIV antibody responses

Inactivation method Log10 reduction Master virus bank (Log10TCID50/ml) Putative safety margin
AT-2 ≥4.83 ± 0.26 5.64 ± 0.10 ≥4.71 log units
Gamma irradiation ≥5.52 ± 0.33