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Fig. 2 | Retrovirology

Fig. 2

From: HIV integration and the establishment of latency in CCL19-treated resting CD4+ T cells require activation of NF-κB

Fig. 2

Treatment with PI3K and Ras/Raf/MEK inhibitors, eliminates HIV integration in CCL19-treated resting CD4+ T cells. a Resting CD4+ T-cells were pre-incubated with inhibitors of specific signalling pathways for 1 h before addition of CCL19, PHA-IL2 or DMSO and then infected with HIV NL4-3 for 2 h and cultured with media containing IL2 (1 U/mL) for up to 4 days following infection. HIV integration was measured by qPCR for Alu-LTR (b, d) and nuclear entry was measured by qPCR for 2-LTR circles (c, e). Experiments were also performed in the presence of inhibitors to PI3K (LY294002 and Wortmannin; b, c). d, e Further experiments were conducted in the presence of inhibitors of p38 (SB203580), ERK1/2 (PD980509), JNK (SP600125), AP-1 (SR11302), or NF-κB (SC-514) activation. Each column represents the mean copy number and the symbols represent individual donors. The detection limit for the Alu-LTR was 300 copies/106 cells and is shown as a dashed line. *p < 0.05; **p < 0.005

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