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Fig. 2 | Retrovirology

Fig. 2

From: Enhancement of HIV-1 infection and intestinal CD4+ T cell depletion ex vivo by gut microbes altered during chronic HIV-1 infection

Fig. 2

HAMB enhance HIV-1 infection and depletion of LP CD4 T cells. LPMC (n = 7) were spinoculated with CCR5-tropic HIV-1BAL or mock control and exposed to High abundance or Low abundance HAMB species or to control bacteria (E. coli, B. infantis) (2.5 bacteria: 1 LPMC) for 4 days. LPMC were harvested and levels of productive infection and depletion of LP CD4 T cells determined. a Representative gating strategy illustrating intracellular p24 levels in viable CD4 T cells (gated as CD3+ CD8−) in presence or absence of bacteria with gates established on matched mock controls. b Percentages of intracellular p24-expressing (p24+) CD4 T cells in presence or absence of bacteria with background p24 (mock) values removed. c Levels of CD4 depletion in presence or absence of bacteria relative to depletion in matched mock conditions. Values are shown as ‘box and whisker’ with the box extending from the 25th to 75th percentile, the line in the box indicating the median value and the whiskers indicating maximum and minimum values. White box indicates no bacteria, light gray boxes indicate HAMB species and dark gray boxes indicate control bacteria. Statistical analysis was performed using the Wilcoxon matched–pairs signed rank test comparing frequencies of p24 + CD4 T cells or levels of depletion induced in response to bacteria to HIV-1 only. *p < 0.05, #p = 0.08. Legend details the abbreviations used for each bacteria (x axis)

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