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Figure 7 | Retrovirology

Figure 7

From: Elevated expression of LAG-3, but not PD-1, is associated with impaired iNKT cytokine production during chronic HIV-1 infection and treatment

Figure 7

Cytokine/chemokine and sLAG-3 responses 5 days post-αGalCer stimulation among HIV- (n = 15), HIV+ (n = 8) and HIV+ ART (n = 14) experienced participants. PBMC were stimulated for 5 days with 100 ng/mL αGalCer, and cytokine/chemokine/sLAG-3 concentrations were quantified in the supernatant. (A) Supernatant concentrations of IFNγ, IL-13 and IP-10 were reduced among HIV-infected participants. (B) The proportional contribution of each analyte to total cytokine/chemokine expression among participant groups is shown. Aside from IP-10, HIV-N cytokine production is dominated by IFNγ and IL-13, while HIV+ cytokine production is dominated by TNFα and chemokine expression. (C) Proportion of subjects exhibiting above-background sLAG-3 production. (D) sLAG-3 concentration among study groups. (E) Correlation of sLAG-3 concentration IFNγ, IL-13 and TNFα among all participants. Statistical comparisons made by Kruskal-Wallis (with Dunn’s post-test), chi square test and Spearman correlation *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001.

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