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Figure 2 | Retrovirology

Figure 2

From: HIV-1 replicates in human osteoclasts and enhances their differentiation in vitro

Figure 2

HIV-1 infection of osteoclasts. (A) The induced osteoclasts (OC) and macrophages (Mph) were incubated for 6 hours with R5-tropic JR-FL (2.5 × 105 IFU/ml) or X4-tropic NL4-3 (2.5 × 105 IFU/ml) in the absence or presence of 4 μg/ml TFV. Forty hours after infection, the cells were fixed and stained with anti-HIV-1 p24 and anti-TRAP antibodies. The green and red signals show expressions of HIV-1 p24 and TRAP, respectively. The blue signals show nucleus stained with Hoechst 33258. Scale bar, 100 μm. (B) The induced osteoclasts and macrophages were infected with JR-FL or NL4-3 at the indicated doses. Forty hours after infection, the cells were stained with anti-HIV-1 p24 and anti-TRAP antibodies. The number of p24-positive and negative cells was counted. The bars show the ratio of p24-positive cells to total cells on a logarithmic scale. (C) The induced osteoclasts and macrophages were infected with JR-FL (2.5 × 105 IFU/ml) or NL4-3 (2.5 × 105 IFU/ml) in the presence of TFV at the indicated concentrations. Forty hours after infection, the cells were stained with anti-HIV-1 p24 and anti-TRAP antibodies. The number of p24-positive and negative cells was counted. ND means not detected.

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