PPM1A knockdown in resting CD4+T cells increases HIV-1 gene expression. A. Resting CD4+T cells isolated from three healthy donors were nucleofected with control siRNA or siRNA against PPM1A plus a HIV-1 proviral reporter plasmid which expresses GFP. GFP expression was analysed 48 hours post-transfection. Fold-change in percentage of GFP+ cells was calculated by setting the GFP values to 1.0 in control siRNA treated cells. B. Resting CD4+T cells from five healthy donors were nucleofected similar to A, except that they were nucleofected with a HIV-1 proviral reporter plasmid that expresses luciferase. Luciferase expression was analyzed 48 hours post-transfection and normalized to total cellular protein. Fold-change in luciferase expression was calculated by setting the luciferase values to 1.0 in control siRNA treated cells.