Activated CD14+ cells in patients with HAM/TSP. (A) TNF-α expression in CD14+ cells of NDs and HAM/TSP patients after culture for 24 hours. The data were obtained from six NDs and six HAM/TSP patients. CD14+ cells expressing TNF-α was significantly elevated in HAM/TSP patients, compared to NDs by Mann-Whitney test (p = 0.0022). The horizontal line represents the mean. (B) Detection of IL-1β in PBMC culture supernatants of NDs and HAM/TSP patients after culture for 24 hours. The data were obtained from five NDs and eight HAM/TSP patients. IL-1β expression in HAM/TSP patients was significantly higher in those cells of NDs by Mann-Whitney test (p = 0.0043). The horizontal line represents the mean. (C) Tax expressions in CD4+CD25+ T cells (i) and CD4+CD25- T cells (ii) cocultured with or without autologous CD14+ cells of ACs (n = 2, opened circle) and patients with HAM/TSP (n = 3, closed circle) for 18 hours.