Modulation of β-chemokine secretion by HIV-1 infection of decidual mononuclear cells. Decidual mononuclear cells were infected with R5 and X4 HIV-1 (10-3 MOI). (A) β-chemokine secretion was measured 14 days later, after 3 days of culture (day 11 to day 14): uninfected control conditions (black dots), R5 HIV-1 (red dots) and X4 HIV-1 (blue dots). Results are expressed in pg/ml, as measured with Luminex technology. Bars indicate the median values and each donor is represented by a different symbol. Significant changes are indicated. (B) Results are the fold increase in secretion in HIV-1-infected cell culture supernatants compared to uninfected controls. Bars represent the mean of the fold induction and error bars the SEM. At least 6 different donors were used for each experimental condition. Significant changes are indicated by a star (p < 0.05). A one-sample t test was used.