Human astrocyte transfection with HIV-1 Vpr mutant viruses. (A) Transduced astrocytes showed that pseudotyped virus (pv) expressing Vpr77Q induced the least IFN-α expression. Similarly, the Vpr77Q virus induced (B) MX1 and (C) BST-2 transcript levels were lowest in the Vpr77Q virus-transduced astrocytes; while (D) PRKRA was consistently reduced by all HIV-1 vectors. (E) In contrast to the host gene expression observed in A, B and C, HIV-1 pol were highest in the Vpr77Q virus-transduced astrocytes, which was complemented by a similar profile in RT activity in matched supernatants (F). Experiments were carried out in triplicate at least two times (A-F, Dunnett test, relative to control; *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01).