Transduction of Human DCs or macrophages with scSIV expressing LMP1 or LMP1-CD40 results in increased levels of maturation and activation markers. The expression levels of surface markers from three independent experiments are presented as mean fluorescence intensity (MFI). (A) The expression of surface markers on SIV infected DCs was examined by flow cytometry 4 days after transduction. Transduction with scSIV-LMP1 resulted in dendritic cell activation and maturation as measured by significantly increased levels of CD40, CD80 and CD83 expression, while scSIV-LMP1-CD40 resulted in significant increased levels of CD40, CD80 and HLA-DR expression when compared to scSIV-GFP-transduced cells. (B) The expression level of surface markers on scSIV virus-transduced macrophages was examined 4 days after transduction by flow cytometry from a representative donor. Transduction with scSIV-LMP1 resulted in increased levels of CD40 and CD80 expression, while scSIV-LMP1-CD40 resulted in increased levels of CD40, CD80 and CD83 expression compared to scSIV-GFP-transduced macrophages. As the positive control for the maturation and activation, MIMIC cytokine cocktail for DCs and LPS was used for macrophages. Data were analyzed with the unpaired t test: *, p < 0.05; **, p < 0.01; ***, p < 0.001 compared with the scSIV-GFP infected group.