Comparison of IV vs IR viral loads and CD4+ T cell counts from SIVmneCl8/SIVmne027 co-inoculated macaques. Total plasma viral RNA transcripts (a), SIVmneCl8 env transcripts (b), and CD4+ T cell levels (c) from intravenously infected macaques (gray circles, triangles, and squares) and intrarectally infected macaques (black circles, triangles, and squares) are shown. Viral RNA measurements were determined as in Fig. 3. Values represent average readings for each time point ± the standard error. Levels of significance are denoted as follows: (**) p < 0.05, (*) p = 0.05. In panel (a) the p-value at peak plasma viral load is 0.0007. The p-value for differences in viral set-point at 20 and 24 weeks post-inoculation are 0.0544 and 0.0509, respectively. For panel (b) p-values at 2, 4, and 8 weeks post-inoculation are 0.049, 0.006, and 0.005, respectively. For panel (c) the p-value for period 0-8 weeks post-inoculation is 0.0013, and the p-value for period 8-24 weeks post-inoculation is 0.0006.