GB virus C (GBV-C) a member of the Flaviviridae, is a non-pathogenic virus, which replicates in lymphocytes and shown to slow viral replication in HIV-1 patients thereby decreasing progression to AIDS. The mechanism by which GBV-C acts remains elusive.
Th1 cytokines are strongly correlated with GBV-C/HIV-1 co-infection, thus allowing for latent seroconversation and longer longevity. IL-16 a potent anti-HIV-1 Th1 cytokine could explain GBV-C role in co-infection. Hijacking host proteins is critical in the replication, infection and expansion of HIV-1 in the human host.