A model depicting actin regulation by cofilin during HIV-1 infection of resting T cell. Interactions between the key factors involved in regulation of cortical actin are shown in the context of HIV-1 infection. HIV-induced signaling from CXCR4 activates phosphatase which dephosphorylates and activates cofilin. This leads to depolymerization of F-actin, releasing HIV-1 reverse transcription complex and promoting its translocation towards the nucleus. Steps requiring additional studies, such as involvement of CCR5 in cofilin activation, regulation of a switch between activation of cofilin kinase and phosphatase, the role of F-actin in HIV reverse transcription and nuclear translocation are marked by question marks. See text for details.