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Table 1 Design characteristics of the studies included in our systematic review

From: Socioeconomic status (SES) as a determinant of adherence to treatment in HIV infected patients: a systematic review of the literature

First author, Year of publication [Reference number] Setting Type of Study Patient Population Type of Medication (*)
Laniece I., 2003 [23] Senegal, Dakar, 3 health structures Prospective cohort study (2 years) 158 HIV(+) adults, enrolling into ISAARV (Senegalese ARV Access Initiative) HAART, mainly
Mohammed H., 2004 [26] USA, Non-urban Louisiana, 8 HIV outpatient clinics Retrospective study (clinic survey) (30 months) 273 HIV(+) adults, using HAART HAART
Eldred L.J., 1998 [27] USA, Baltimore, Johns Hopkins Hospital, HIV Outpatient Clinic Retrospective study (clinic survey) (9 months) 244 HIV(+) adults, Medicaid-insured, at least one previous clinic visit in previous 6 months + prescription of antiretroviral therapy for at least 6 months Antiretroviral monotherapy, mainly
Kleeberger C.A., 2004 [24] USA, Multicenter (4 centres in Baltimore, Chicago, Pittsburgh, Los Angeles) Prospective cohort study (2 years) 597 HIV(+) homosexual men, using HAART + participating in MACS (Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study), between patients' 30th and 33rd visit [only 486 provided needed data on follow-up] HAART
Peretti-Watel P., 2005 [28] France, 102 hospital departments delivering HIV care Cross-sectional study (national survey) (1 year) 1809 HIV(+) adults (homosexual men, heterosexual men, and heterosexual women), French speaking, diagnosed as HIV(+) for at least 12 months, living in France for at least 6 months + sexually active during the prior 12 months HAART
Fong O.W., 2003 [15] Hong Kong, Integrated Treatment Centre of the Department of Health Retrospective study (1 year) 161 HIV(+) adults, Chinese in origin + treated with HAART for at least 12 months (at the end of 2000) HAART
Kleeberger C.A., 2001 [25] USA, Multicenter (4 centres in Baltimore, Chicago, Pittsburgh, Los Angeles) Prospective cohort study (6 months) 539 HIV(+) homosexual men, during their 30th visit to MACS HAART, mainly
Goldman D.P., 2002 [16] USA Retrospective analysis of prospective study, (2 years) 2864 HIV(+) adults, participating in HCSUS (HIV Cost and Services Utilization Study [only 2267 provided needed data on last follow-up] HAART, mainly
Golin C.E., 2002 [14] USA, North Carolina, County Hospital HIV Clinic Prospective cohort study (1 year) 117 HIV(+) adults, English or Spanish speaking + newly initiating HAART (PI or NNRTI) HAART
Singh N., 1999 [3] USA, 3 Medical Centres, HIV Clinics Prospective cohort study (6 months) 123 HIV (+) adults, followed in any of the clinics Antiretroviral treatment, not specified
Kalichman S.C., 1999 [29] USA, Georgia, Atlanta, community area Community-based study (Regional survey) 184 HIV(+) adults, receiving triple-drug combination HAART
Weiser S., 2003 [30] Botswana, 3 private clinics (2 in Gabarone, 1 in Francistown) Cross-sectional study (Clinic survey) (7 months) 109 HIV (+) adults Antiretroviral treatment (HAART 31%)
Morse E.V., 1991 [21] USA, Louisiana, New Orleans Nurse-based survey (6 months) 40 HIV (+) adults, asymptomatic + participating in ACTG (AIDS Clinical Trials Group) [the 20 most and the 20 least adherent patients] ZDV or placebo
Gebo K.A., 2003 [31] USA, Baltimore, Johns Hopkins University, HIV Clinic Cross-sectional study (Clinic survey) (8 months) 196 HIV (+) adults, enrolling in the HIV Clinic + taking at least 1 antiretroviral medication Antiretroviral treatment, not specified
Duong M., 2001 [32] France, Dijon Hospital AIDS day-care Unit Prospective cross-sectional study (5 months) 149 HIV (+) adults, receiving drug regimens including 2 nucleoside analogues + 1 or more PIs HAART
Ickovics J.R, 2002 [4] USA, Multicenter (21 collaborating units) Prospective analysis of Randomised Controlled Trial (24 weeks) 93 HIV (+) adults, participating in ACTG (AIDS Clinical Trial Group) protocol 307 dT4+ DLV+IDV, ZDV+3TC+IDV, ZDV+DLV+IDV
Singh N., 1996 [22] USA, Pittsburgh VA Medical Center Prospective study (12 months) 46 HIV (+) male adults ZDV only (78%), ZDV + ddI (13%), ddI only (8%)
  1. (*) Abbreviations in medication: HAART = highly active antiretroviral treatment, ZDV = zidovudine, dT4 = stavudine, DLV = delaviridine, IDV = indinavir, 3TC = lamivudine