Identification of Vpr mutants deficient for binding to the nucleoporin hCG1. A) Screening for Vpr mutants defective for the interaction with hCG1. The L40 yeast reporter strain expressing the wt or mutated (clones 11 and 35, and Vpr-R90K and -W54R single-point mutants) HIV-1 Vpr fused either to LexABD (upper panels) or to the Gal4 DNA binding domain (Gal4BD) (lower panels), in combination with each of the Gal4AD-hybrids indicated on the top was analyzed for histidine auxotrophy and β-Gal activity. Double transformants were patched on selective medium with histidine (+His) and then replica-plated on medium without histidine (-His) and on Whatman filters for β-Gal assay. Growth in the absence of histidine and expression of β-galactosidase indicated an interaction between hybrid proteins. B) Amino acid substitutions found in the hCG1-binding deficient Vpr mutants (clones 11 and 35). Mutants were derived by error prone PCR-mediated mutagenesis from the primary sequence of the VprLai strain that is shown at the top. C) Isolation of single-point Vpr mutants defective for the interaction with hCG1. Single-point mutants derived from Vpr clones 11 and 35 fused to LexABD were expressed in L40 strain in combination with each of the Gal4AD-hybrids indicated on the top. Double transformants were assessed as described in A).