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HIV Seroprevalence and Factors Affecting Prevention of Vertical Transmission of HIV Among Antenatal Care
Retrovirology volume 2, Article number: P65 (2005)
The aim of the study was to identify the potential barriers for intervention program on preventing mother to child transmission of HIV among pregnant mothers attending antenatal care clinic in Southwestern Ethiopia.
Patients and Methods
A cross-sectional survey was conducted among antenatal care attendants of Jimma university hospital from Jan. 25, 2004 to Feb 25, 2004 using a structured questionnaire. At the same time unlinked anonymous blood sample was taken during routine ANC investigations. The sera were tested for HIV antibody using rapid test algorithm. In addition, full VCT service was given for volunteers. The data was analyzed by using SPSS 12th edition and chi-square and binary logistic regression were used to see associations and p-value less than 0.05 was taken as cut of point for significance.
On the whole, 258 women were included in the study of which four were excluded due to incompleteness of the data. The over all HIV sero prevalence was 9.8%; being 10.4 % in urban & 7.7% in rural women. Logistic regression demonstrated low income groups, illiterates, low-level workers and those who have misconception about HIV/AIDS had higher chance of HIV infection accompanied by low likelihood of accepting HIV testing. Women who have history of STD & surgery were also found to be more likely to be HIV sero positive as compared to those with out history. Though, 92.1% of mothers were indebted about the importance of HIV screening test, only 31.9 % of them received VCT service. Similarly, only 17.3% of mothers who believed breastfeeding as a potential HIV mode of transmission to the baby if they were found to be infected could afford to buy formula milk for at least six months.
The study found out higher HIV prevalence among pregnant mothers as compared to the national figure with highest infection rate in the age group 15 – 24 yrs old, reflecting recent high rate of HIV infection. In addition, provision of VCT service only would not be enough for effective prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV, as it was made known from our study, unless it is supplemented with some form of activity which would promote the uptake of VCT service by the mothers. Provision of free formula milk shall also be considered as a part of intervention program in addition to antiretroviral drug administration for effective prevention of vertical transmission of HIV as most mothers couldn't afford to buy as reflected in this study.