TNFα increases levels of mature miRNAs and primary miRNA transcripts in human macrophages. Human macrophages were treated with 20 ng/ml TNFα. Cells were harvested at 2, 4, 8, 12 and 24 hours after treatment and RNA isolated. (A-D) Taqman miRNA RT-qPCR assays were used to measure levels of mature miRNAs. (E-H) Taqman pri-miRNA RT-qPCR assays were used to measure levels of primary miRNA transcripts. Results were normalized to U6. Values are expressed as fold induction of miRNAs over uninfected controls using the ΔΔCq method and data shown is an average of at least 3 experiments.