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Table 1 Summary of the features of FIV and HIV-1 latency discussed in this review

From: Feline immunodeficiency virus latency

Feature FIV HIV-1
Latently infected peripheral CD4+ T cells per million, approximate 10 1-10
Primary T cell reservoir CD4+ T cells Central memory CD4 + T cells
Viremia in chronic infection (untreated) Undetectable to low Low to moderate
Accessory genes rev, vif, orf-A rev, vif, tat, vpr, vpu, nef
Tat-like function NO YES
Paused RNA Polymerase II detected on LTR in vivo YES YES
Detection of short, promoter-proximal transcripts in vivo YES YES
Detection of multiply-spliced viral mRNA in vivo NO NO
Promoter associated histone modifications involved in chromatin control of latency Acetylation and methylation (others unknown) Acetylation, methylation, phosphorylation and ubiquitination
CpG methylation of latent proviral promoter in vivo NO NO
Transcriptional reactivation by HDAC inhibitors YES YES
Transcriptional reactivation by HMT inhibitors YES YES
Transcriptional reactivation by DNMT inhibitors Unknown NO
Transcriptional reactivation by PKC activators YES YES