Reduced CD4 T cell activation and in vitro susceptibility to HIV-1 infection in exposed uninfected Central Africans
© Bégaud et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2006
Received: 18 April 2006
Accepted: 22 June 2006
Published: 22 June 2006
Environmentally driven immune activation was suggested to contribute to high rates of HIV-1 infection in Africa. We report here a study of immune activation markers and susceptibility to HIV-1 infection in vitro of forty-five highly exposed uninfected partners (EUs) of HIV-1 infected individuals in Central African Republic, in comparison with forty-four low-risk blood donors (UCs).
Analysis of T lymphocyte subsets and activation markers in whole blood showed that the absolute values and the percentage of HLA-DR+CD4 T cells and of CCR5+CD4 T cells were lower in the EUs than in the UCs (p = 0.0001). Mutations in the CCR5 coding region were not found in either group. Susceptibility to in vitro infection of unstimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells, prior of PHA activation, was decreased in EUs compared to UCs, either using a CXCR4-tropic or a CCR5-tropic HIV-1 strain (p = 0.02 and p = 0.05, respectively). Levels of MIP-1β, but not of MIP-1α or RANTES, in the supernatants of PHA-activated PBMC, were higher in the EUs than in the UCs (p = 0.007).
We found low levels of CD4 T cell activation and reduced PBMC susceptibility to HIV-1 infection in Central African EUs, indicating that both may contribute to the resistance to HIV-1 infection.
Central African Republic (CAR) has a high prevalence rate of HIV-1 infection estimated at 18% among pregnant women . The primary route of transmission is heterosexual. High rates of infection in HIV-1-infected individuals in Africa have been suggested to be related to immune hyperactivation driven by environmental factors, including high exposure to infectious agents and poor hygienic conditions . Indeed, higher levels of CD4 and CD8 T cell activation have been reported in HIV-1 infected Africans in comparison with European populations . In particular, HLA-DR expression on CD4 T cells was correlated with CD4 T cell count, viral load and coinfections . Successful antiretroviral therapy was reported to decrease the levels of T cell activation markers, with a stronger effect on CD8 than on CD4 T cell activation [4, 5]. A pattern of immune activation, including an increase of activated T cell subsets and of the HIV-1 CCR5 co-receptor expression, has been reported not only in HIV-infected but also in HIV-uninfected African populations [6–9]. Interestingly, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from individuals with a chronic immune activation exhibited higher susceptibility to HIV-1 infection in vitro .
In spite of the spreading of HIV-epidemic in CAR, a consistent proportion of Central Africans who have been persistently exposed for several years to infection through unprotected sexual relationships with HIV-1 infected partners remained seronegative (Bégaud E. et al., unpublished data). Most studies on correlates of protection against HIV-1 infection in seronegative exposed individuals in other African countries were conducted on cohorts of commercial sex workers (CSW) whereas only a few studies concerned seronegative partners in serodiscordants couples [11–18]. In these studies, HIV-1-specific helper and cytotoxic T cell responses have been detected in a significant proportion of exposed seronegative individuals [19–23]. HIV-1-specific mucosal IgA were also detected in persistently negative Kenyan CSW and were shown to be capable of in vitro neutralization of HIV-1 [24, 25]. The question of whether these specific immune responses exert a protective role or they reflect exposure to HIV-1 is, however, still debated [26–28]. Other immunological or genetic factors potentially related to the resistance have also been addressed in exposed seronegative African individuals but no clear protective mechanisms emerged from these studies [12, 13, 29–31]. Genetic polymorphism in the CCR5 gene, such as the CCR5-Δ32 mutation, which was associated to the resistance to HIV-1 infection in Caucasian populations, has not been found in Africans .
We studied a group of exposed seronegative partners of HIV-1 infected individuals in Bangui with a long history of leading a common life and practicing unprotected sexual relations. Considering the background of immune activation reported in African populations, we asked whether differences in the levels of CD4 T cell activation and in the capacity to replicate HIV-1 in vitro could be related to the apparent resistance to infection in this group. From the studies conducted, we found lower levels of CD4 T cell activation and reduced in vitro susceptibility to HIV-1 infection in exposed seronegative individuals than in low-risk Central African blood donors.
Characteristics of study population
Characteristics of the EUs n = 45
Common life (years):
Sexual intercourses/week :
Never using condom :
The analysis of the CCR5 coding region polymorphism did not reveal the presence of variants of the CCR5 co-receptor, including the CCR5Δ32 mutation, among EUs or UCs.
Decreased expression of HLA-DR and CCR5 on CD4 T cells from EUs
Lymphocyte subsets and activation markers in the EUs and UCs
EUs (n = 25)
UCs (n = 24)
T cell markers
(T cell subset) #
527.6 (267 – 862)
Reduced PBMC susceptibility to in vitro HIV-1 infection in EUs
β-chemokine secretion by PBMC
We found a higher level of MIP-1β/CCL4 production in PHA-activated PBMC supernatants from the EUs than from the UCs (medians: 43.7 and 28.9 ng/ml in EUs and UCs respectively, p = 0.007), whereas there were no significant differences in MIP-1α/CCL3 (medians: 20.9 and 19.2 in EUs and UCs) or RANTES/CCL5 (medians: 30.8 and 22.4 in EUs and UCs) between the two groups.
Immune activation has been suggested to be critical in HIV-1 transmission and spreading in sub-Saharan Africa. We studied a group of Central African individuals who remained apparently uninfected despite repeated unprotected sex intercourses with their HIV-1-infected partners (EUs). We found a lower number and proportion of activation marker-expressing CD4 T lymphocytes in the EUs than in the low-risk controls. HLA-DR+CD4 T cell levels in UCs were indeed comparable to those reported for other African populations . These data suggest lower availability of activated CD4 T cells for efficient HIV-1 replication in Central African EUs. Accordingly, PBMC from the EUs were less susceptible to both X4 and R5 HIV-1 strains in comparison with PBMC from the UCs, when infected before PHA-stimulation. In this condition, differences in target cell basal activation between the EUs and the UCs may eventually result in different capacity to support viral infection and replication. A higher number of activated CD4 T cells in UCs may allow a more rapid onset of HIV-1 replication, which would then promote a more efficient spread of infection upon PHA-activation. The loss of difference in HIV-1 replication levels between EUs and UCs when PBMC were activated before infection may be due to the strong polyclonal stimulation by PHA that may mask the initial differences in the susceptibility to HIV-1 infection. Still, the levels of HIV-1 Bal production were lower in the EUs PBMC, possibly due to higher production of MIP-1β. Contrasting results have been reported in this regard, depicting either lower or comparable susceptibility to HIV-1 infection of PHA-stimulated PBMC in different EU groups in comparison to control groups [12, 30, 33–36]. However, whether discrepancies are linked to differences in experimental conditions or to differences between populations of study remains unclear
Consistent with the low CD4 T cell activation, EUs also showed a significantly lower expression of CCR5 on CD4 T lymphocytes. CCR5 surface expression has been shown to influence in vitro infectability with R5 HIV-1 [37–41] and R5 variants are largely prevalent in infected individuals in Bangui . Therefore, low levels of CCR5-expressing CD4 T cells may actually contribute to protect Central African EUs from HIV-1 transmission.
A recent study has also associated lower levels of CD4 T cell activation with resistance to HIV-1 in a group of homosexual EUs from the Amsterdam Cohort Studies . In this study, lower percentages of CXCR4 – but not of CCR5-expressing CD4 T cells were found in EUs. However, lymphocyte phenotypes were determined on cryopreserved PBMCs and not in fresh blood, as we did, and the surface expression of CXCR4 and CCR5 may vary according to the nature and the conservation of samples  and Scott-Algara D. et al. unpublished data). A CXCR4 decreased expression in CD4 T cells from commercial sex workers in Côte d'Ivoire was associated with prolonged duration of commercial sex work and not with T cell activation . It is possible that parameters associated with different sexual behaviours and/or environments are involved in the regulation of chemokine receptors expression.
In summary, we found low CD4 T cell activation and CCR5 expression as well as a reduced susceptibility to HIV-1 infection in Central African EU partners of HIV-1 infected individuals. This study did not allow further examination of immune activation or HIV-specific responses in other lymphoid compartments, including genital mucosa that is particularly relevant in sexual transmission of HIV-1. Previous studies of parameters of protection in EU CSW in Kenya revealed higher frequencies of CTL, CD4 T cells, IgA or elevated levels of β-chemokines in cervico-vaginal samples than in blood [16, 21, 24]. However, low levels of systemic CD4 T cell activation as well as a reduced susceptibility to HIV-1 infection documented here may reflect a general lower permissiveness to infection in EUs and may contribute to the protection against HIV-1 transmission, possibly together with other anti-viral responses not addressed here. Indeed, EUs are heterogeneous populations and different mechanisms, either innate or acquired, likely account for protection in different individuals [45–47].
Materials and methods
Forty-five HIV-1-positive individuals and their HIV-1-negative heterosexual partners having a history of regular unprotected sexual relations for more than two years were enrolled at the Communitarian Hospital in Bangui. Seropositive patients were admitted in the hospital for medical care. Plasma HIV-1 RNA levels were quantified using the HIV-1 RNA 3.0 assay (Chiron, France). Partners of HIV-1 infected patients were tested negative for HIV-1 infection by Genelavia Mixt (Sanofi Diagnostics Pasteur) and Vironostica HIV Uni-form II (Organon Teknika) and by PCR on PBMC DNA for gag, pol, and env genes and will therefore be referred to as exposed uninfected individuals (EUs). All PCR primers used allow amplification of most HIV-1 isolates of the M group, including A subtype env that is predominant in CAR . Enrolled participants gave their informed consent, completed a questionnaire regarding the frequency of sexual relations and other risk practices and received counseling and information about HIV-1 and safe sex. Forty-four Central African HIV-1 seronegative individuals with no risk factors for HIV-1 infection, such as sex with multiple partners or intravenous drug use, were recruited in Bangui as unexposed controls (UCs). This study was approved for ethical clearance by CAR Health Ministry and Health Authorities.
The political situation in CAR, including a coup in March 2003, caused movements of population including individuals enrolled in this study. Consequently, most of the analyses described below were performed on blood samples collected only at baseline visit.
CCR5 polymorphism analysis
CCR5 coding region polymorphism in EUs was analysed by denaturing high performance liquid chromatography and sequencing, as previously described 
Immunophenotyping analyses were performed on fresh whole blood samples from EUs or UCs at the Institut Pasteur of Bangui. CD4, CD8, NK and B cell populations were studied by a three-colour flow cytometry with standard lysis procedures. Labelled cells were analysed on a FACSCalibur flow cytometre (Becton Dickinson, Paris, France) (10000 events in lymphocyte gate). Monoclonal antibodies were acquired from Becton Dickinson.
Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were prepared from blood samples collected on EDTA by centrifugation on Ficoll-Paque Plus (Amersham Bioscience, Uppsala, Sweden) and cryopreserved in fetal calf serum (FCS, Life Technologies) – 10 % dimethyl sulphoxide (Sigma, Irvine, UK). Susceptibility of PBMC to HIV-1 infection was determined by using the CCR4-tropic (X4) NL-4.3 HIV-1 or the CCR5-tropic (R5) BaL HIV-1 strains. In some experiments we also used a primary R5/(X4) isolate, HIV-1 73Mcd, from one CAR HIV-1-infected partner of an EU. To reduce inter-experimental variability bias, we included a same reference stock of PBMC from a HIV- blood donor used as standard in each assay and designated thereafter "standard PBMC". Viral inoculums able to consistently infect standard PBMCs were determined in preliminary assays. For each individual, PBMCs (105 cells/well in 96-well microplates) were infected in quadruplicate either 24 h before being activated with PHA (1 μg/ml) for 3 days (infection before activation: BA), or after 3-days activation with PHA (infection after activation: AA). PBMCs were then cultured in RPMI 1640 medium containing 10% FCS, 1% penicillin-streptomycin-neomycin, 1% glutamine and 100 U.I. of IL2 (Proleukin; Chiron, France) and HIV-1 replication was monitored by p24 antigen quantification in culture supernatants (HIV-1 p24 Antigen Assay, Coulter, France). The p24 value of standard PBMCs at their peak of infection (day 10–13) was considered to be 100 % for each infectivity assay. The p24 values of each individual PBMC infection were compared and normalised to the mean p24 value of the standard PBMC. Infectivity assays were performed in the L3 laboratory of the Institut Pasteur of Bangui.
β-chemokine (MIP-1α/CCL3, MIP-1β/CCL4, RANTES/CCL5) levels in PHA-activated PBMC supernatants were measured using commercial ELISA kits according to the manufacturer's instructions (Quantikine R&D Systems, Oxon, UK).
Statistical analysis was performed by using the STATA 8.0 statistical package (Stata Corporation, College Station, Texas, USA). Continuous variables were compared between the groups using the non-parametric Mann-Whitney U test. A Bonferroni correction was applied to the level of significance of statistical tests for comparing lymphocyte phenotypes between EU and controls due to the large number of tests performed in this analysis. Based on 13 comparisons of phenotypes, the level of significance was set at 0.05/13 = 0.004. Spearman rank correlation coefficients were computed to assess the strength of the association between two continuous variables.
This work was supported by grants from Sidaction and from the 'Programmes Transversaux de Recherche' of the Institut Pasteur. We thank Drs. P. Minssart, Ph. Gabrié and Ch. Mbolidi for their help in recruitment of study population, P. Pelembi and G. Yabeta for technical help and all the sérodiscordants couples and blood donors who accepted to participate in this study.
- Matsika-Claquin MD, Massanga M, Menard D, Mazi-Nzapako J, Tenegbia JP, Mandeng MJ, Willybiro-Sacko J, Fontanet A, Talarmin A: HIV epidemic in Central African Republic: high prevalence rates in both rural and urban areas. J Med Virol. 2004, 72: 358-362. 10.1002/jmv.20001.View ArticlePubMed
- Bentwich Z, Kalinkovich A, Weisman Z: Immune activation is a dominant factor in the pathogenesis of African AIDS. Immunology Today. 1995, 16: 187-191. 10.1016/0167-5699(95)80119-7.View ArticlePubMed
- Rizzardini G, Trabattoni D, Saresella M, Piconi S, Lukwiya M, Declich S, Fabiani M, Ferrante P, Clerici M: Immune activation in HIV-infected African individuals. Italian-Ugandan AIDS cooperation program. Aids. 1998, 12: 2387-2396. 10.1097/00002030-199818000-00007.View ArticlePubMed
- Eggena MP, Barugahare B, Okello M, Mutyala S, Jones N, Ma Y, Kityo C, Mugyenyi P, Cao H: T cell activation in HIV-seropositive Ugandans: differential associations with viral load, CD4+ T cell depletion, and coinfection. J Infect Dis. 2005, 191: 694-701. 10.1086/427516.View ArticlePubMed
- Koblavi-Deme S, Maran M, Kabran N, Borget MY, Kalou M, Kestens L, Maurice C, Sassan-Morokro M, Ekpini ER, Roels TH, Chorba T, Nkengasong JN: Changes in levels of immune activation and reconstitution markers among HIV-1-infected Africans receiving antiretroviral therapy. Aids. 2003, 17 Suppl 3: S17-22.View ArticlePubMed
- Clerici M, Butto S, Lukwiya M, Saresella M, Declich S, Trabattoni D, Pastori C, Piconi S, Fracasso C, Fabiani M, Ferrante P, Rizzardini G, Lopalco L: Immune activation in africa is environmentally-driven and is associated with upregulation of CCR5. Italian-Ugandan AIDS Project. Aids. 2000, 14: 2083-2092. 10.1097/00002030-200009290-00003.View ArticlePubMed
- Messele T, Abdulkadir M, Fontanet AL, Petros B, Hamann D, Koot M, Roos MT, Schellekens PT, Miedema F, Rinke de Wit TF: Reduced naive and increased activated CD4 and CD8 cells in healthy adult Ethiopians compared with their Dutch counterparts. Clin Exp Immunol. 1999, 115: 443-450. 10.1046/j.1365-2249.1999.00815.x.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMed
- Kemp K, Akanmori BD, Hviid L: West African donors have high percentages of activated cytokine producing T cells that are prone to apoptosis. Clin Exp Immunol. 2001, 126: 69-75. 10.1046/j.1365-2249.2001.01657.x.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMed
- Kassu A, Tsegaye A, Petros B, Wolday D, Hailu E, Tilahun T, Hailu B, Roos MT, Fontanet AL, Hamann D, De Wit TF: Distribution of lymphocyte subsets in healthy human immunodeficiency virus-negative adult Ethiopians from two geographic locales. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol. 2001, 8: 1171-1176. 10.1128/CDLI.8.6.1171-1176.2001.PubMed CentralPubMed
- Shapira-Nahor O, Kalinkovich A, Weisman Z, Greenberg Z, Nahmias J, Shapiro M, Panet A, Bentwich Z: Increased susceptibility to HIV-1 infection of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from chronically immune-activated individuals. Aids. 1998, 12: 1731-1733.PubMed
- Fowke KR, Nagelkerke NJ, Kimani J, Simonsen JN, Anzala AO, Bwayo JJ, MacDonald KS, Ngugi EN, Plummer FA: Resistance to HIV-1 infection among persistently seronegative prostitutes in Nairobi, Kenya [see comments]. Lancet. 1996, 348: 1347-1351. 10.1016/S0140-6736(95)12269-2.View ArticlePubMed
- Messele T, Rinke de Wit TF, Brouwer M, Aklilu M, Birru T, Fontanet AL, Schuitemaker H, Hamann D: No difference in in vitro susceptibility to HIV type 1 between high-risk HIV-negative Ethiopian commercial sex workers and low-risk control subjects. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2001, 17: 433-441. 10.1089/088922201750102526.View ArticlePubMed
- Jennes W, Sawadogo S, Koblavi-Deme S, Vuylsteke B, Maurice C, Roels TH, Chorba T, Nkengasong JN, Kestens L: Cellular human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-protective factors: a comparison of HIV-exposed seronegative female sex workers and female blood donors in Abidjan, Cote d'Ivoire. J Infect Dis. 2003, 187: 206-214. 10.1086/346049.View ArticlePubMed
- Trivedi HN, Plummer FA, Anzala AO, Njagi E, Bwayo JJ, Ngugi EN, Embree JE, Hayglass KT: Resistance to HIV-1 infection among African sex workers is associated with global hyporesponsiveness in interleukin 4 production. Faseb J. 2001, 15: 1795-1797.PubMed
- MacDonald KS, Fowke KR, Kimani J, Dunand VA, Nagelkerke NJ, Ball TB, Oyugi J, Njagi E, Gaur LK, Brunham RC, Wade J, Luscher MA, Krausa P, Rowland-Jones S, Ngugi E, Bwayo JJ, Plummer FA: Influence of HLA supertypes on susceptibility and resistance to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection. J Infect Dis. 2000, 181: 1581-1589. 10.1086/315472.View ArticlePubMed
- Iqbal SM, Ball TB, Kimani J, Kiama P, Thottingal P, Embree JE, Fowke KR, Plummer FA: Elevated T cell counts and RANTES expression in the genital mucosa of HIV-1-resistant Kenyan commercial sex workers. J Infect Dis. 2005, 192: 728-738. 10.1086/432482.View ArticlePubMed
- Kebba A, Kaleebu P, Rowland S, Ingram R, Whitworth J, Imami N, Gotch F: Distinct patterns of peripheral HIV-1-specific interferon- gamma responses in exposed HIV-1-seronegative individuals. J Infect Dis. 2004, 189: 1705-1713. 10.1086/383227.View ArticlePubMed
- Kebba A, Kaleebu P, Serwanga J, Rowland S, Yirrell D, Downing R, Gilmour J, Imami N, Gotch F, Whitworth J: HIV type 1 antigen-responsive CD4+ T-lymphocytes in exposed yet HIV Type 1 seronegative Ugandans. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2004, 20: 67-75. 10.1089/088922204322749512.View ArticlePubMed
- Rowland-Jones S, Sutton J, Ariyoshi K, Dong T, Gotch F, McAdam S, Whitby D, Sabally S, Gallimore A, Corrah T, Takiguchi M, Schultz T, McMichel A, Whittle H: HIV-specific cytotoxic T-cells in HIV-exposed but uninfected Gambian women. Nature Med. 1995, 1: 59-64. 10.1038/nm0195-59.View ArticlePubMed
- Rowland-Jones SL, Dong T, Fowke KR, Kimani J, Krausa P, Newell H, Blanchard T, Ariyoshi K, Oyugi J, Ngugi E, Bwayo J, MacDonald KS, McMichael AJ, Plummer FA: Cytotoxic T cell responses to multiple conserved HIV epitopes in HIV-resistant prostitutes in Nairobi [see comments]. Journal of Clinical Investigation. 1998, 102: 1758-1765.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMed
- Kaul R, Plummer FA, Kimani J, Dong T, Kiama P, Rostron T, Njagi E, MacDonald KS, Bwayo JJ, McMichael AJ, Rowland-Jones SL: HIV-1-specific mucosal CD8+ lymphocyte responses in the cervix of HIV-1-resistant prostitutes in Nairobi. J Immunol. 2000, 164: 1602-1611.View ArticlePubMed
- Fowke KR, Kaul R, Rosenthal KL, Oyugi J, Kimani J, Rutherford WJ, Nagelkerke NJ, Ball TB, Bwayo JJ, Simonsen JN, Shearer GM, Plummer FA: HIV-1-specific cellular immune responses among HIV-1-resistant sex workers. Immunol Cell Biol. 2000, 78: 586-595. 10.1046/j.1440-1711.2000.00944.x.View ArticlePubMed
- Jennes W, Vuylsteke B, Borget MY, Traore-Ettiegne V, Maurice C, Nolan M, Nkengasong JN, Kestens L: HIV-specific T helper responses and frequency of exposure among HIV-exposed seronegative female sex workers in Abidjan, Cote d'Ivoire. J Infect Dis. 2004, 189: 602-610. 10.1086/381454.View ArticlePubMed
- Kaul R, Trabattoni D, Bwayo JJ, Arienti D, Zagliani A, Mwangi FM, Kariuki C, Ngugi EN, MacDonald KS, Ball TB, Clerici M, Plummer FA: HIV-1-specific mucosal IgA in a cohort of HIV-1-resistant Kenyan sex workers. Aids. 1999, 13: 23-29. 10.1097/00002030-199901140-00004.View ArticlePubMed
- Devito C, Hinkula J, Kaul R, Kimani J, Kiama P, Lopalco L, Barass C, Piconi S, Trabattoni D, Bwayo JJ, Plummer F, Clerici M, Broliden K: Cross-clade HIV-1-specific neutralizing IgA in mucosal and systemic compartments of HIV-1-exposed, persistently seronegative subjects. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2002, 30: 413-420.View ArticlePubMed
- Kaul R, Rowland-Jones SL, Kimani J, Dong T, Yang HB, Kiama P, Rostron T, Njagi E, Bwayo JJ, MacDonald KS, McMichael AJ, Plummer FA: Late seroconversion in HIV-resistant Nairobi prostitutes despite pre-existing HIV-specific CD8(+) responses. J Clin Invest. 2001, 107: 341-349.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMed
- Kaul R, Rutherford J, Rowland-Jones SL, Kimani J, Onyango JI, Fowke K, MacDonald K, Bwayo JJ, McMichael AJ, Plummer FA: HIV-1 Env-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte responses in exposed, uninfected Kenyan sex workers: a prospective analysis. Aids. 2004, 18: 2087-2089. 10.1097/00002030-200410210-00015.View ArticlePubMed
- Lopalco L, Barassi C, Paolucci C, Breda D, Brunelli D, Nguyen M, Nouhin J, Luong TT, Truong LX, Clerici M, Calori G, Lazzarin A, Pancino G, Burastero SE: Predictive value of anti-cell and anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) humoral responses in HIV-1-exposed seronegative cohorts of European and Asian origin. J Gen Virol. 2005, 86: 339-348. 10.1099/vir.0.80585-0.View ArticlePubMed
- Luscher MA, Choy G, Njagi E, Bwayo JJ, Anzala AO, Ndinya-Achola JO, Ball TB, Wade JA, Plummer FA, Barber BH, MacDonald KS: Naturally occurring IgG anti-HLA alloantibody does not correlate with HIV type 1 resistance in Nairobi prostitutes. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 1998, 14: 109-115.View ArticlePubMed
- Fowke KR, Dong T, Rowland-Jones SL, Oyugi J, Rutherford WJ, Kimani J, Krausa P, Bwayo J, Simonsen JN, Shearer GM, Plummer FA: HIV type 1 resistance in Kenyan sex workers is not associated with altered cellular susceptibility to HIV type 1 infection or enhanced beta-chemokine production. AIDS Research & Human Retroviruses. 1998, 14: 1521-1530.View Article
- Jennes W, Evertse D, Borget MY, Vuylsteke B, Maurice C, Nkengasong JN, Kestens L: Suppressed cellular alloimmune responses in HIV-exposed seronegative female sex workers. Clin Exp Immunol. 2006, 143: 435-444. 10.1111/j.1365-2249.2006.03017.x.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMed
- Samson M, Libert F, Doranz BJ, Rucker J, Liesnard C, Farber CM, Saragosti S, Lapouméroulie CJ, Forceille C, Muyldermans G, Verhofstede C, Burtonboy G, Georges M, Imai T, Rana S, Yi Y, Smiyh RJ, Collman RG, Doms RW, Vassart G, Parmentier M: Resistance to HIV-1 infection in caucasian individuals bearing mutant alleles of the CCR-5 chemokine receptor gene. Nature. 1996, 382: 722-725. 10.1038/382722a0.View ArticlePubMed
- Paxton WA, Martin SR, Tse D, O'Brien TR, Skurnick J, VanDevanter NL, Padian N, Braun JF, Kotler DP, Wolinsky SM, Koup RA: Relative resistance to HIV-1 infection of CD4 lymphocytes from persons who remain uninfected despite multiple high-risk sexual exposure. Nature Medicine. 1996, 2: 412-417. 10.1038/nm0496-412.View ArticlePubMed
- Truong TXL, Luong TT, Scott-Algara D, Versmisse P, David A, Perez-Bercoff D, Nguyen NV, Tran HK, Cao CT, Fontanet A, Follézou JY, Theodorou I, Barre-Sinoussi F, Pancino G: CD4+ cell and CD8+ cell-mediated resistance to HIV-1 infection in exposed uninfected intravascolar drug users in Vietnam. AIDS. 2003, 17: 1-10. 10.1097/00002030-200307040-00002.View Article
- John R, Arango-Jaramillo S, Finny GJ, Schwartz DH: Risk associated HIV-1 cross-clade resistance of whole peripheral blood mononuclear cells from exposed uninfected individuals with wild-type CCR5. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2004, 35: 1-8.View ArticlePubMed
- Blaak H, van't Wout AB, Brouwer M, Cornelissen M, Kootstra NA, Albrecht-van Lent N, Keet RP, Goudsmit J, Coutinho RA, Schuitemaker H: Infectious cellular load in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected individuals and susceptibility of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from their exposed partners to non-syncytium-inducing HIV-1 as major determinants for HIV-1 transmission in homosexual couples. Journal of Virology. 1998, 72: 218-224.PubMed CentralPubMed
- Wu L, Paxton WA, Kassam N, Ruffing N, Rottman JB, Sullivan N, Choe H, Sodroski J, Newman W, Koup RA, Mackay CR: CCR5 levels and expression pattern correlate with infectability by macrophage-tropic HIV-1, in vitro. J Exp Med. 1997, 185: 1681-1691. 10.1084/jem.185.9.1681.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMed
- Paxton WA, Liu R, Kang S, Wu L, Gingeras TR, Landau NR, Mackay CR, Koup RA: Reduced HIV-1 infectability of CD4+ lymphocytes from exposed-uninfected individuals: association with low expression of CCR5 and high production of beta-chemokines. Virology. 1998, 244: 66-73. 10.1006/viro.1998.9082.View ArticlePubMed
- Platt EJ, Wehrly K, Kuhmann SE, Chesebro B, Kabat D: Effects of CCR5 and CD4 cell surface concentrations on infections by macrophagetropic isolates of human immunodeficiency virus type 1. J Virol. 1998, 72: 2855-2864.PubMed CentralPubMed
- Blaak H, Ran LJ, Rientsma R, Schuitemaker H: Susceptibility of in vitro stimulated PBMC to infection with NSIHIV-1 is associated with levels of CCR5 expression and beta-chemokine production. Virology. 2000, 267: 237-246. 10.1006/viro.1999.0111.View ArticlePubMed
- Lin YL, Mettling C, Portales P, Reynes J, Clot J, Corbeau P: Cell surface CCR5 density determines the postentry efficiency of R5 HIV-1 infection. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002, 99: 15590-15595. 10.1073/pnas.242134499.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMed
- Begaud E, Feindirongai G, Versmisse P, Ipero J, Leal J, Germani Y, Morvan J, Fleury H, Muller-Trutwin M, Barre-Sinoussi F, Pancino G: Broad spectrum of coreceptor usage and rapid disease progression in HIV-1-infected individuals from Central African Republic. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2003, 19: 551-560. 10.1089/088922203322230914.View ArticlePubMed
- Koning FA, Otto SA, Hazenberg MD, Dekker L, Prins M, Miedema F, Schuitemaker H: Low-Level CD4+ T Cell Activation Is Associated with Low Susceptibility to HIV-1 Infection. J Immunol. 2005, 175: 6117-6122.View ArticlePubMed
- Shalekoff S, Tiemessen CT: Duration of sample storage dramatically alters expression of the human immunodeficiency virus coreceptors CXCR4 and CCR5. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol. 2001, 8: 432-436. 10.1128/CDLI.8.2.432-436.2001.PubMed CentralPubMed
- Liu R, Paxton WA, Choe S, Ceradini D, Martin SR, Horuk R, MacDonald ME, Stuhlmann H, Koup RA, Landau NR: Homozygous defect in HIV-1 coreceptor accounts for resistance of some multiply-exposed individuals to HIV-1 infection. Cell. 1996, 86: 367-377. 10.1016/S0092-8674(00)80110-5.View ArticlePubMed
- Scott-Algara D, Truong LX, Versmisse P, David A, Luong TT, Nguyen NV, Theodorou I, Barre-Sinoussi F, Pancino G: Cutting edge: increased NK cell activity in HIV-1-exposed but uninfected Vietnamese intravascular drug users. J Immunol. 2003, 171: 5663-5667.View ArticlePubMed
- Kulkarni PS, Butera ST, Duerr AC: Resistance to HIV-1 infection: lessons learned from studies of highly exposed persistently seronegative (HEPS) individuals. AIDS Rev. 2003, 5: 87-103.PubMed
- Muller-Trutwin MC, Chaix ML, Letourneur F, Begaud E, Beaumont D, Deslandres A, You B, Morvan J, Mathiot C, Barre-Sinoussi F, Saragosti S: Increase of HIV-1 subtype A in Central African Republic. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 1999, 21: 164-171.PubMed
- Capoulade-Metay C, Ma L, Truong LX, Dudoit Y, Versmisse P, Nguyen NV, Nguyen M, Scott-Algara D, Barre-Sinoussi F, Debre P, Bismuth G, Pancino G, Theodorou I: New CCR5 variants associated with reduced HIV coreceptor function in southeast Asia. Aids. 2004, 18: 2243-2252. 10.1097/00002030-200411190-00004.View ArticlePubMed
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.