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Fig. 5 | Retrovirology

Fig. 5

From: Enhancement of HIV-1 infection and intestinal CD4+ T cell depletion ex vivo by gut microbes altered during chronic HIV-1 infection

Fig. 5

HAMB-mediated increased CCR5 expression is a result of indirect stimulation of LP CD4 T cells. a CCR5 expression in response to individual TLR ligands (TLRL) was measured by exposing LPMC (n = 6–7) to TLR4L (commensal E. coli LPS, 1 μg/ml) or TLR2L (Bacillus subtilis LTA, 1 μg/ml) or cultured without TLRLs (None) for 5 days. LPMC were harvested and CCR5 expression levels (Mean fluorescence intensity; MFI) on LP CD4 T cells evaluated. Isotype control values have been subtracted (net MFI) and values are illustrated as ‘box and whisker’ with the box extending from the 25th to 75th percentile, the line in the box indicating the median value and the whiskers indicating maximum and minimum values. Statistical analysis was performed using the Wilcoxon matched–pairs signed rank test, *p < 0.05. b Levels of CCR5 expression on LP CD4 T cells in response to stimulation of total LPMC or CD4-enriched LP cells with P. stercorea (2.5:1 LPMC/CD4 T cell) or E. coli LPS (1 μg/ml) for 24 h. Values shown are mean ± SEM of stimuli–specific CCR5 expression levels (net; no stimulation values subtracted; n = 3). Percent values indicate the average decrease in levels of CCR5 expression on CD4 T cells stimulated directly relative to expression levels on CD4 T cells from total LPMC stimulated cultures. Statistical analysis was performed using Paired t test, *p < 0.05, #p = 0.07. (C) LPMC (n = 6–7) were exposed to CD3/CD2/CD28 beads (1 bead: 2 LPMC) or cultured without exogenous stimuli (None) for 5 days. LPMC were harvested and frequencies of activated (CD38+HLA-DR+; CD25+) LP CD4 T cells and CCR5 expression levels determined. Values are shown with isotype (CCR5) or FMO control values removed and illustrated as ‘box and whisker’ plots. Statistical analysis was performed using the Wilcoxon matched–pairs signed rank test. *p < 0.05

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