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Fig. 1 | Retrovirology

Fig. 1

From: Enhancement of HIV-1 infection and intestinal CD4+ T cell depletion ex vivo by gut microbes altered during chronic HIV-1 infection

Fig. 1

Abundances of HIV-altered mucosal bacteria (HAMB) species in HIV-infected and uninfected study participants. Bacterial taxa were identified in colon biopsies from 17 participants with chronic, untreated HIV-1 infection and 14 uninfected control participants using bacterial 16S ribosomal DNA sequencing. Of the 21 species that were significantly over (6) or under (15) represented in HIV-1-infected participants (Additional file 1: Table S1), 7 species that represented each of the 3 phyla (Bacteroides, Proteobacteria and Firmicutes) were evaluated in the LPAC model. a Phylogenetic tree illustrating taxonomic hierarchy for each HAMB species (GN gram-negative; GP gram-positive). b, c Plots showing individual relative abundance of each species that were (b) increased or (c) decreased in HIV-1 infected participants (squares) compared to uninfected participants (circles). Values are shown as a fraction of all classified species detected within each individual. Lines represent the median value. Statistical analysis was performed using the Mann–Whitney test

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