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Table 3 Distribution of simian foamy virus in captive and wild caught neotropical monkeys from Peru

From: Wide distribution and ancient evolutionary history of simian foamy viruses in New World primates

Origin Family Scientific name Common name n Serology PCR
EIA (%) WB (%) 141-bp pol (%) 495-bp pol (%)
Illegal trade market Atelidae Ateles paniscus chamek Peruvian spider monkey 1 0/1 ND 0/1 0/1
Lagothrix lagotricha Common wooly monkey 2 0/2 ND 0/1 0/1
Cebidae Aotus species Owl monkey 1 1/1 (100) 1/1 (100) 0/1 0/1
Cebus albifrons White-fronted capuchin 2 1/2 (50) 1/1 (100) 0/2 0/2
Saguinus fusicollis Brown mantled tamarin 1 a 0/1 0/1
Saguinus species Tamarin 1 0/1 0/1
Saimiri sciureus Common squirrel monkey 4 1/4 (25) 1/4 (25)
Pitheciidae Pithecia monachus Geoffrey’s Monk saki 1 1/1 (100) 1/1 (100) 0/1 0/1
Subtotals     13 3/7 (42.6) 3/3 (100) 1/12 (8.3) 1/12 (8.3)
Rescue centers Atelidae Alouatta seniculus Howler monkey 2 0/2 ND
  Ateles bezelbuth Long-haired spider monkey 1 0/1 NDb ND ND
  Ateles paniscus chamek Peruvian spider monkey 28 2/14 (14.3) 2/2 (100) 1/16 (6.3) 3/3 (100)
  Lagothrix lagotricha Common wooly monkey 39 8/36 (22.2) 8/8 (100) 1/5 (20) 2/2 (100)
Cebidae Cebus albifrons White-fronted capuchin 2 0/2 ND
  Cebus apella Tufted capuchin 4 1/2 (50) 0/1 0/3 0/1
  Saimiri boliviensis peruviensis Peruvian squirrel monkey 2 1/2 (50) 1/1 (100)
Subtotals     78 11/53 (20.7) 10/11 (90.9) 3/30 (10) 6/7 (85.7)
Zoos Atelidae Alouatta seniculus Howler monkey 3 3/3 (100) 3/3 (100) 1/3 (33.3) 1/3 (33.3)
  Ateles belzebuth Long-haired spider monkey 3 0/3 ND ND ND
  Ateles paniscus chamek Peruvian spider monkey 7 5/6 (83.3) 4/4 (100) 1/2 (50) 0/1
  Ateles paniscus Red-faced spider monkey 1 0/1 ND ND ND
  Ateles species Spider monkey 2 0/2 ND ND ND
  Lagothrix cana Peruvian wooly monkey 2 2/2 (100) 2/2 (100) 0/2 ND
  Lagothrix lagotricha Common wooly monkey 14 6/14 (42.8) 5/6 (83.3) 3/11 (27.3) 2/11 (18.2)
Cebidae Aotus nancymae Peruvian red-necked owl monkey 1 0/1 0/1 ND ND
  Aotus nigriceps Peruvian night owl monkey 2 0/2 0/2 ND ND
  Aotus species Owl monkey 3 0/3 ND ND ND
  Callithrix pygmea Pygmy marmoset 1 1/1 (100) 0/1
  Cebus albifrons White-fronted capuchin 7 3/7 (42.8) 2/4 (50) 0/3 ND
  Cebus apella Tufted capuchin 40 29/32 (90.6) 29/29 (100) 11/36 (30.6) 4/13 (30.8)
  Saguinus fusicollis Brown mantled tamarin 15 0/3 ND 0/12 ND
  Saguinus labiatus Red-bellied tamarin 1 1/1 (100) 1/1 (100)
  Saimiri boliviensis peruviensis Peruvian squirrel monkey 4 0/4 ND ND ND
  Saimiri sciureus Common squirrel monkey 6 0/6 0/6 ND ND
  Saimiri species Squirrel monkey 1 1/1 (100) 0/1
Pitheciidae Callicebus discolor Red titi monkey 1 0/1 0/1
  Callicebus oenanthe Rio Mayo titi monkey 1 0/1 ND
  Callicebus species Titi monkey 1 0/1 0/1
  Pithecia monachus Geoffrey’s Monk saki 3 0/3 ND ND ND
Subtotals     119 51/97 (52.5) 46/62 (74.2) 16/65 (24.6) 7/28 (25)
Totals     210 65/157 (41.4) 59/76 (77.6) 20/107 (18.7) 14/55 (25.5)
  1. All monkeys at the wet markets and rescue centers were wild caught
  2. WB western blot testing
  3. aDashes indicate either serum or FTA specimens were not available for testing
  4. bND, testing not done based on EIA results and/or availability of certain specimen types, i.e. WB testing not done on EIA-negative and/or if FTA cards were not collected for nucleic acid preparation