Longitudinal analysis of nTregs, DP, and mTh17 cell dynamics in HIV-infected subjects. Four HIV-infected subjects participating to the HIV Primary infection (HPI) cohort were analyzed longitudinally for the frequency and counts of nTregs, DP, and memory Th17 cells in the peripheral blood in relationship with plasma viral load and CD4 counts. Cell subsets were phenotypically identified as in Figure 2A-B and Figure 4E. The counts of nTregs, DP, and memory Th17 cells were calculated relative to their frequency and the CD4 counts. (A) Shown are the dynamics of CD4 counts (open circles) and plasma viral load (open squares) before and after ART initiation (grey quadrant). (B) Shown are the dynamics of nTreg (filled circles), DP cell (filled triangles) and memory Th17 counts (filled squares) before and after ART initiation (grey quadrant). The estimated time of infection (ETI) and the nadir CD4 count for each subject are indicated on the graphs. (C) Shown is statistical analyses of nTreg (left panel), DP (middle panel), and mTh17 cell counts (right panel) before and after ART. The “after ART” time points are indicated for each patient by a black arrow (A) and correspond to the second time point of the patient visit when plasma viral load was undetectable (<50 HIV-RNA copies/ml). Each symbol represents a different subject. Wilcoxon p-values are indicated on the graphs. Indicated in bold are median cell counts values before and after ART.