Efficacy of ABX464 to inhibit viral replication in humanized mice. a Reconstituted SCID mice were infected with JRCSF HIV-1 strain by intraperitoneal injection. The control group received labrafil and 5% DMSO by gavage (n = 15) and treated group 20 mg/kg b.i.d of ABX464 in labrafil and 5% DMSO (n = 14) for 15 days. Two independent experiments were performed with 5 and 10 reconstituted mice for each group. Viral load was assessed by measuring viral RNA using the Amplicor HIV-1 Monitor from Roche (limits of detection are delimited by interrupted lines). b FACS analysis was performed on cells recovered by peritoneal wash at day 15 post-treatment to assess the CD8/CD4 ratio. c Engrafted NSG humanized mice were treated by oral gavage with ABX464 at either 20 mg or 40 mg/kg once a day for 30 days and indicated lymphocyte populations were monitored by FACS analysis. d NSG humanized mice were infected with the YU2 HIV-1 virus and treated either by oral gavage with ABX464 at 40 mg/kg once a day for 30 days or by HAART (3TC-Tenofovir-Raltegravir) (grey boxes of left and middle panels). Right panel represents viral loads after treatment cessation. For HAART, food pellets were made by mixing 2.5 g of 3TC and TDF each, and 5 g of RTV with 5 kg of ground protein-rich, vitamin-fortified food (Nafag 3432, Provimi Kliba AG, Switzerland) which was subsequently formed to food pellets and sterilized by gamma-irradiation with 25 kGy. Viral load was assessed by measuring viral RNA using the Amplicor HIV-1 Monitor from Roche (limits of detection are delimited by interrupted lines).