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Table 1 Summary of principal findings on the role of PD-1 pathway in HIV/SIV infection

From: Role of PD-1 co-inhibitory pathway in HIV infection and potential therapeutic options

PD-1 expression on SIV/HIV-specific T cells Cell types Reference
Highly regulated on SIV/HIV-specific CD8+ T cells CD8+ T cells [21,22,28,37,42,75]
PD-1 expression on SIV/HIV-specific CD4+ T cells CD4+ and CD8+ T cells [21,37,53,56]
PD-1 is co-expressed with other co-inhibitory receptors CD8+ and CD4+ T cells [29,47,57,76]
PD-1 expression correlates with disease progression CD8+ and CD4+ T cells [21,22,37,60]
PD-1 expression on TFH cells GC and CD4+ T cells [65-68,70,71,73]
PD-1/PD-L1 expression on B cells during chronic HIV/SIV infection
PD-1 is up-regulated on B cells during chronic SIV infection Activated B cells [10]
PD-1 is up-regulated on B cells during HIV infection B cells [77,78]
PD-L1 up-regulated in B cells B cells [79]
PD-L1 up-regulated in B regulatory cells Bregs [80]
High expression of PD-L1 on germinal center B cells GC B cells [73,81]
No change in PD-L2 expression on B cells B cells [73,81]
PD-1/PD-L expression on innate immune cells during chronic HIV/SIV infection
PD-L1 expression on DCs PDCs and MDCs [82-84]
PD-L1 expression on monocytes Monocytes [79,82,85,86]
PD-L1 and PD-L2 expression on macrophages Macrophages [87]
PD-L1 expression on neutrophils Neutrophils [88]
Effect PD-1 blockade during chronic HIV/SIV infection (both in vitro and in vivo indicated)
PD-1 blockade enhances proliferation of HIV-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cells CD4+ and CD8+ T cells [21,22,37,42]
PD-1 blockade enhances cytokines by HIV- or SIV-specific CD8+ and CD4+ T cells Cytokine+ CD4+ and CD8+ T cells [11,58]
PD-1 blockade enhances SIV-ENV-specific antibody response ENV-specific antibodies [10,11]
PD-1 blockade in humanized mice model CD4+ T cells [54,89]
PD-1 PD-L1/L2 blockade enhances IgG production GC B cells [73]