Effect of CsA treatment of macaque T cells on SIV infection. (A) Efficiency of CypA incorporation into virions from producer macaque HSC-F cells. Culture supernatants were harvested from CsA-untreated mock, and CsA-untreated and CsA-treated HSC-F cells infected with SIVagm. The CypA incorporation efficiency (right panel) is shown as described in the legend for Figure 1B. The image of one representative blot is shown. (B) Effect of CsA treatment of producer or target macaque HSC-F cells on SIV replication. SIVagm and SIVmac produced from HSC-F cells in the absence (Producer cell CsA [-]) or presence of CsA (Producer cell CsA [+]) was used to infect CsA-untreated (Target cell CsA [-]) or CsA-treated target HSC-F cells (Target cell CsA [+]). Heat-inactivated virus was used as an infection control. Relative viral cDNA levels are shown as the ratio (%) of the viral cDNA levels to that of virus produced from CsA-untreated HSC-F in CsA-untreated HSC-F cells. The synthesized viral cDNA levels were measured by real-time PCR. Mean values and standard deviations in four independent experiments are shown.