Placental HCs may offset MTCT by inducing T
2 cytokine bias. HCs and MDMs were either infected with HIV-1BaL, or left uninfected for 48 h. Supernatants were collected and measured for production of IL-10, TGF-β, IL-6, and TNF-α. Cytokines were measured using a Quantikine ELISA assay. Data shown are expressed as the mean ± SE of triplicate samples and are representative of 3 independent experiments from different donors (* p < 0.05, **p < 0.01).