Mouse Model/HIV-1 strain
RAG-hu mice; R5 tropic JR-CSF and dual-tropic R3A
CD4+FoxP3+ T regulatory cells are preferentially infected and depleted in spleen and lymph nodes; depletion occurs via apoptosis.
hNOG mice; R5 tropic JR-CSF or X4 tropic NL4-3
X4 tropic virus depletes both naïve and memory T cells, while R5 tropic virus selectively depletes effector memory T cells (CD45RO+CD45RA-).
BLT mice; R5 tropic JR-CSF
R5 tropic virus depletes CD4+ effector memory T cells (CD45RA-CD27-) in small intestines
RAG-hu mice; R5 tropic YU-2
R5 tropic virus leads to translocation of LPS to the plasma, resulting in CD8 T cell activation, lower CD4 T cell ratios, and higher viral loads.
hNOG mice; R5 tropic ADA
Human macrophages, microglia, and dendritic cells are engrafted in the meninges and perivascular spaces in the hNOG brain. p24+ cells can be detected in the brain following intraperitoneal infection. Human immune cells infiltrate regions of viral replication in the brain, and CD8 T cell depletion leads to meningitis and encephalitis.
hNOG mice;R5 tropic ADA
HIV-1 infection leads to structural changes in brain architecture, leading to loss of neuronal integrity.
RAG-hu mice; dual-tropic R3A
Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDC) are productively infected and activated during early HIV infection, leading to CD4 T cell activation and apoptosis. pDC levels were stable, but function was impaired in the spleen and bone marrow.
BLT mice; NL4-3 backbone with LAI env gene
Virus with a single amino acid substitution in env (V38E) has similar viral load to virus with wild-type env, but is attenuated for CD4 T cell depletion due to a defect in caspase-dependent bystander apoptosis.