Theoretical possibilities for innate immune recognition during the life cycle of HIV. The HIV life cycle generates a number of potential PAMPs (e.g. dsRNA structures, DNA:RNA hybrids, and dsDNA) as well as aberrant localization of molecular structures shared between virus and host (RNA and DNA in endosomes). Some of these are recognized by PRRs and activate expression of antiviral and inflammatory gene products. Recognition of uridine-rich HIV LTR-derived ssRNA and gp120 by TLR7/8 and DC-SIGN, respectively, remain the only experimentally confirmed HIV PAMPs to date.